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[PMID]: 29517363
[Au] Autor:Pérez-Ramírez F; García-García I; Caparros-Gonzalez RA; Peralta-Ramírez MI
[Ad] Address:a Midwifery Department , Primary Health Center Alameda-Perchel , Malaga , Spain.
[Ti] Title:Psychological assessment among immigrant and Spanish women during the postpartum period in Spain.
[So] Source:J Reprod Infant Psychol;35(2):159-171, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:0264-6838
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE: to describe whether there were differences in sociodemographic, obstetric, perinatal and psychological variables between immigrant women and native-born women in Spain during the first 24 h after delivery. BACKGROUND: The immediate postpartum period is a critical time when physical and psychological disorders are likely to occur. Immigrant women have, in general, poor perinatal and psychological results during this time. METHODS: One hundred and three women at the Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital (Granada, Spain) were divided into two groups: 50 Spanish and 53 immigrants. The instruments used were the Life Orientation Test, the Stress Vulnerability Inventory, the Perceived Stress Scale and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). Sociodemographic and obstetric data were obtained from the healthcare providers reports. RESULTS: During the postpartum period, the immigrant women had higher mean scores on the following subscales: interpersonal sensitivity (F(1,102) = 4.06; p < 0.05); depression (F(1,102) = 7.24; p < 0.01); phobic anxiety (F(1,102) = 4.83; p < 0.05), paranoid ideation (F(1,102) = 7.20; p < 0.01); and psychoticism (F(1,102) = 4.04; p < 0.05). When considering age, education, profession, job situation, immigrant status of the partner and duration of time in Spain as covariates, differences between groups were significant on obsessive-compulsiveness (F(1,102) = 5.37; p < 0.05) and depression (F(1,102) = 6.89; p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Immigrant women are in need of more psychological and emotional support from their families, midwives and the rest of healthcare providers than are native Spaniards immediately after delivery.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1080/02646838.2016.1246709

  2 / 26634 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29514833
[Au] Autor:Black N; Hamada H
[Ad] Address:Department of General and Geriatric Medicine, Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK.
[Ti] Title:Possible anti-VGKC autoimmune limbic encephalitis associated with SIADH.
[So] Source:BMJ Case Rep;2018, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1757-790X
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:An 80-year-old woman presented with a 5-week history of increasing confusion. Examination was remarkable only for deficits in short-term memory and paranoid thoughts. Blood tests revealed hyponatraemia, and further biochemical testing was consistent with syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). After an exhaustive diagnostic workup for causes of SIADH, the only abnormal finding was a mildly raised antivoltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) titre of 185 pmol/L (0-69) consistent with possible anti-VGKC autoimmune limbic encephalitis. However, other diagnostic features were absent. She is currently undergoing outpatient investigation for other causes of memory loss.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:In-Process

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[PMID]: 29345864
[Au] Autor:Grant JE; Potenza MN; Kraus SW; Petrakis IL
[Ad] Address:Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
[Ti] Title:Naltrexone and Disulfiram Treatment Response in Veterans With Alcohol Dependence and Co-Occurring Problem-Gambling Features.
[So] Source:J Clin Psychiatry;78(9):e1299-e1306, 2017 Nov/Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1555-2101
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Disordered gambling behavior frequently co-occurs with alcohol dependence and other psychiatric conditions. Using data from a previously published trial, we conducted secondary analyses to examine the influence of problem-gambling features on treatment outcome for alcohol dependence or co-occurring psychopathology assessed via DSM-IV criteria. METHODS: Two hundred fifty-four patients with alcohol dependence and co-occurring psychiatric disorders were treated for 12 weeks in an outpatient medication study conducted at 3 Veterans Administration outpatient clinics from October 1998 to March 2002. Randomization included assignment to 1 of 4 groups: (1) naltrexone alone, (2) placebo alone, (3) (open-label) disulfiram and (blinded) naltrexone, or (4) (open-label) disulfiram and (blinded) placebo. One hundred seventy-four participants were evaluated for the diagnostic inclusionary criteria for pathological gambling using the Massachusetts Gambling Screen. Primary outcome and secondary outcome measures assessed alcohol use and psychiatric domains. RESULTS: Forty-five of 174 participants (25.9%) exhibited problem-gambling features (acknowledged 1 or more inclusionary criteria for pathological gambling). A gambling-group-by-disulfiram interaction was observed for abstinence, with problem-gambling features not associated with beneficial response to disulfiram (z = 6.58, P = .01). Participants with problem-gambling features reported significantly less improvement over time in general psychiatric functioning (z = 2.62, P = .01), specifically within somatization (z = 3.77, P < .01), phobic anxiety (z = 3.24, P < .01), interpersonal sensitivity (z = 2.61, P = .01), paranoid ideation (z = 2.32, P = .02), and anxiety (z = 2.10, P = .04) domains. CONCLUSIONS: The association between problem-gambling features and poorer outcomes in alcohol and multiple nonsubstance psychiatric domains suggests the need for improved screening for gambling problems in dually diagnosed populations and for the development of empirically validated treatments for individuals with these disorders.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

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[PMID]: 28748485
[Au] Autor:Petruzzelli MG; Margari L; Bosco A; Craig F; Palumbi R; Margari F
[Ad] Address:Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neuroscience and Sense Organ, Unit of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University of Bari "Aldo Moro", Piazza Giulio Cesare 11, 70124, Bari, Italy. maria.petruzzelli@uniba.it.
[Ti] Title:Early onset first episode psychosis: dimensional structure of symptoms, clinical subtypes and related neurodevelopmental markers.
[So] Source:Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry;27(2):171-179, 2018 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1435-165X
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Despite the growing interest in a dimensional approach to the assessment of symptoms and clinically relevant phenomena in schizophrenia spectrum disorders, very few studies, to date, have examined the dimensional structure of symptoms in early onset first episode psychosis. In the present study, we assessed a sample of 60 children and adolescents of both sexes with first episode schizophrenia spectrum psychosis. A principal component analysis (PCA) of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was performed and the factors obtained were used to carry out a cluster analysis. Sex, age of onset before or after 13, markers of early neurodevelopmental impairment and intellectual disabilities were considered as variables to characterized potential clinical subtypes, applying a one-way analysis of variance. Four factors were extracted ("negative symptoms", "delusions", "conceptual disorganization" and "paranoid/hostility"), each of them identifying a discrete clinical subtype of patients. No difference was found among the groups about sex and age of onset; delayed speech/language development was significantly associated with the "delusions" subtype and both "conceptual disorganization" and "delusions" subtypes showed a lower intelligence quotient (IQ). The four factors model we presented highlights "negative symptoms" as the most consistent factor; among positive symptoms, unusual thought content and conceptual disorganization resulted more distinctive of psychosis, at this age range, than perceptual abnormalities. Evolutionary trajectories of the four clinical subtypes we obtained seem to be influenced by cognitive and neurodevelopmental impairment rather than sex and age of onset.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1707
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00787-017-1026-7

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[PMID]: 28462758
[Au] Autor:Haynes BI; Bauermeister S; Bunce D
[Ad] Address:1School of Psychology,University of Leeds,Leeds,United Kingdom.
[Ti] Title:A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Associations Between Reaction Time Intraindividual Variability and Age-Related Cognitive Decline or Impairment, Dementia, and Mortality.
[So] Source:J Int Neuropsychol Soc;23(5):431-445, 2017 May.
[Is] ISSN:1469-7661
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVES: Intraindividual variability (IIV) in reaction time refers to the trial-to-trial fluctuations in responding across a given cognitive task. Cross-sectional research suggests that IIV increases with normal and neuropathological ageing and it may serve as a marker of neurobiological integrity. This raises the possibility that IIV may also predict future cognitive decline and, indeed, neuropathology. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review to address these issues. METHODS: A search of electronic databases Embase, Medline, PsycINFO, and Web of Science was completed on May 17, 2016 that identified longitudinal investigations of IIV in middle-aged or older adults. RESULTS: A total of 688 studies were initially identified of which 22 met the inclusion criteria. Nine included longitudinal IIV measures and 17 predicted subsequent outcome (cognitive decline or impairment, dementia, mortality) from baseline IIV. The results suggested IIV increased over time, particularly in participants aged over 75 years. Greater baseline IIV was consistently associated with increased risk of adverse outcomes including cognitive decline or impairment, and mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Increased IIV over time is associated with normal ageing. However, further increases in IIV over and above those found in normal ageing may be a risk factor for future cognitive impairment or mortality. Measures of IIV may, therefore, have considerable potential as a supplement to existing clinical assessment to aid identification of individuals at risk of adverse outcomes such as dementia or death. (JINS, 2017, 23, 431-445).
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Aging
Cognitive Dysfunction
Dementia
Individuality
Reaction Time/physiology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Cognitive Dysfunction/mortality
Cognitive Dysfunction/pathology
Cognitive Dysfunction/physiopathology
Databases, Bibliographic/statistics & numerical data
Dementia/mortality
Dementia/pathology
Dementia/physiopathology
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180306
[Lr] Last revision date:180306
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170503
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1017/S1355617717000236

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[PMID]: 29488894
[Au] Autor:Giotakos O
[Ad] Address:The Νon-Profit Organization "Obrela", Athens, Greece.
[Ti] Title:[Poor insight and psychosis].
[So] Source:Psychiatriki;28(4):332-341, 2017 Oct-Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1105-2333
[Cp] Country of publication:Greece
[La] Language:gre
[Ab] Abstract:A variety of phenomena might be considered as reflecting impaired insight in psychosis, like failure to recognize signs, symptoms or disease, failure to derive appropriate cognitive representations, despite recognition of the disease, and misattribution of the source or cause of the disease. The unawareness of tardive dyskinesia symptoms in schizophrenic patients points that self-awareness deficits in schizophrenia may be domain specific. Poor insight is an independent phenomenological and a prevalent feature in psychotic disorders in general, and in schizophrenia in particular, but we don't know yet if delusions in schizophrenia are the result of an entirely normal attempt to account for abnormal perceptual experiences or a product of abnormal experience but of normal reasoning. The theoretical approaches regarding impaired insight include the disturbed perceptual input, the impaired linkage between thought and emotion and the breakdown of the process of self-monitoring and error checking. The inability to distinguish between internally and externally generated mental events has been described by the metarepresentation theory. This theory includes the awareness of ones' goals, which leads to disorders of willed action, the awareness of intention, which leads to movement disorders, and the awareness of intentions of others, which leads to paranoid delusions. The theory of metarepresentation implies mainly output mechanisms, like the frontal cortex, while the input mechanism implies posterior brain systems, including the parietal lobe. There are many similarities between the disturbances of awareness seen in schizophrenia and those seen as a result of known neurological impairment. Neuropsychological models of impaired insight typically attribute the disturbance to any of a variety of core deficits in the processing of information. In this respect, lack of insight is on conceptual par with alogia, apraxia or aphasia in reflecting disturbed cognitive processing. In this direction, research have implicated the role of self-monitoring in disorders of awareness and many of the core symptoms of schizophrenia, and has been suggested that these symptoms are the result of a disturbance of a medial frontal system involving anterior hippocampus, cingulated gyrus, supplementary motor area, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Poor insight seems to be something more than a symptom or an epi-phenomenon and its mechanism may constitute a core factor into the psychosis process. Also, poor insight would be involves a common mechanism for many other mental disorders or even it would be an independent and trans-diagnostic factor into the human personality, probably like the dimension of psychotism.
[Pt] Publication type:ENGLISH ABSTRACT; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180228
[Lr] Last revision date:180228
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.22365/jpsych.2017.284.332

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[PMID]: 29436320
[Au] Autor:van den Berg D; de Bont PAJM; van der Vleugel BM; de Roos C; de Jongh A; van Minnen A; van der Gaag M
[Ad] Address:Parnassia Psychiatric Institute,Den Haag,The Netherlands.
[Ti] Title:Long-term outcomes of trauma-focused treatment in psychosis.
[So] Source:Br J Psychiatry;212(3):180-182, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1472-1465
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:We present 12-month follow-up results for a randomised controlled trial of prolonged exposure and eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy in 85 (78.8%) participants with psychotic disorder and comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Positive effects on clinician-rated PTSD, self-rated PTSD, depression, paranoid-referential thinking and remission from schizophrenia were maintained up to 12-month follow-up. Negative post-traumatic cognitions declined in prolonged exposure and were stable in EMDR. A significant decline in social functioning was found, whereas reductions in interference of PTSD symptoms with social functioning were maintained. These results support that current PTSD guidelines apply to individuals with psychosis. Declaration of interest M.v.d.G. and D.v.d.B. receive income for published books on psychotic disorders and for the training of postdoctoral professionals in the treatment of psychotic disorders. A.d.J. receives income for published books on EMDR therapy and for the training of postdoctoral professionals in this method. A.v.M. receives income for published book chapters on PTSD and for the training of postdoctoral professionals in prolonged exposure. C.d.R. receives income for the training of postdoctoral professionals in EMDR therapy.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180228
[Lr] Last revision date:180228
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1192/bjp.2017.30

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[PMID]: 29429948
[Au] Autor:Pot-Kolder RMCA; Geraets CNW; Veling W; van Beilen M; Staring ABP; Gijsman HJ; Delespaul PAEG; van der Gaag M
[Ad] Address:Department of Clinical Psychology, VU University and Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Amsterdam, Netherlands; Parnassia Psychiatric Institute, The Hague, Netherlands. Electronic address: roos.potkolder@gmail.com.
[Ti] Title:Virtual-reality-based cognitive behavioural therapy versus waiting list control for paranoid ideation and social avoidance in patients with psychotic disorders: a single-blind randomised controlled trial.
[So] Source:Lancet Psychiatry;5(3):217-226, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:2215-0374
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Many patients with psychotic disorders have persistent paranoid ideation and avoid social situations because of suspiciousness and anxiety. We investigated the effects of virtual-reality-based cognitive behavioural therapy (VR-CBT) on paranoid thoughts and social participation. METHODS: In this randomised controlled trial at seven Dutch mental health centres, outpatients aged 18-65 years with a DSM-IV-diagnosed psychotic disorder and paranoid ideation in the past month were randomly assigned (1:1) via block randomisation to VR-CBT (in addition to treatment as usual) or the waiting list control group (treatment as usual). VR-CBT consisted of 16 individual therapy sessions (each 1 h long). Assessments were done at baseline, after treatment (ie, 3 months from baseline), and at a 6 month follow-up visit. The primary outcome was social participation, which we operationalised as the amount of time spent with other people, momentary paranoia, perceived social threat, and momentary anxiety. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial was retrospectively registered with ISRCTN, number 12929657. FINDINGS: Between April 1, 2014, and Dec 31, 2015, 116 patients with a psychotic disorder were randomly assigned, 58 to the VR-CBT group and 58 to the waiting list control group. Compared with the control, VR-CBT did not significantly increase the amount of time spent with other people at the post-treatment assessment. Momentary paranoid ideation (b=-0·331 [95% CI -0·432 to -0·230], p<0·0001; effect size -1·49) and momentary anxiety (-0·288 [-0·438 to -0·1394]; p=0·0002; -0·75) were significantly reduced in the VR-CBT group compared with the control group at the post-treatment assessment, and these improvements were maintained at the follow-up assessment. Safety behaviour and social cognition problems were mediators of change in paranoid ideation. No adverse events were reported relating to the therapy or assessments. INTERPRETATION: Our results suggest that the addition of VR-CBT to standard treatment can reduce paranoid ideation and momentary anxiety in patients with a psychotic disorder. FUNDING: Fonds NutsOhra, Stichting tot Steun VCVGZ.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180227
[Lr] Last revision date:180227
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  9 / 26634 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29475056
[Au] Autor:Ghahramanlou-Holloway M; Lee-Tauler SY; LaCroix JM; Kauten R; Perera K; Chen R; Weaver J; Soumoff A
[Ad] Address:Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, United States. Electronic address: marjan.holloway@usuhs.edu.
[Ti] Title:Dysfunctional personality disorder beliefs and lifetime suicide attempts among psychiatrically hospitalized military personnel.
[So] Source:Compr Psychiatry;82:108-114, 2018 Jan 31.
[Is] ISSN:1532-8384
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Personality disorders (PDs) are associated with an increased risk for suicide. However, the association between PDs and suicide risk has not been examined among military personnel. This study evaluated whether endorsement of different PD dysfunctional beliefs was associated with lifetime suicide attempt status. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Cross-sectional data were collected during the baseline phase of a randomized controlled trial, evaluating the efficacy of an inpatient cognitive behavior therapy protocol for the prevention of suicide. Participants (N = 185) were military service members admitted for inpatient psychiatric care following a suicide-related event. MANOVA and Poisson regression evaluated the association between each type of PD dysfunctional belief and the number of suicide attempts. RESULTS: Service members' PBQ subscale scores for borderline (p = 0.049) and histrionic PD dysfunctional beliefs (p = 0.034) significantly differed across those with suicide ideation only, single attempt, and multiple attempts. Upon further analysis, histrionic PD dysfunctional beliefs scores were significantly higher among those with multiple suicide attempts than those with single attempts. One point increase of dependent (Incidence Risk Ratio = 1.04, p = 0.009), narcissistic (IRR = 1.07, p < 0.001), and paranoid PD dysfunctional beliefs (IRR = 1.04, p = 0.002) was associated with a greater number of lifetime suicide attempts. CONCLUSIONS: Assessment and targeting dependent, narcissistic, paranoid, borderline, and histrionic beliefs as part of a psychosocial intervention will be useful.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180223
[Lr] Last revision date:180223
[St] Status:Publisher

  10 / 26634 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29464816
[Au] Autor:Isaeva ER; Lebedeva GG; Simon YA
[Ad] Address:Department of General and Clinical Psychology, Saint-Petersburg State I. P. Pavlov Medical University, Saint Petersburg, Russia.
[Ti] Title:On the issue of choosing psychodiagnostic methods of measuring and scoring of cognitive deficit in case of schizophrenia.
[So] Source:J Eval Clin Pract;, 2018 Feb 21.
[Is] ISSN:1365-2753
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: The article is dedicated to the search of more accurate psychodiagnostic methods and methods of evaluation that can help to define the degree of manifestation of cognitive deficiency among patients suffering from various schizophrenic disorders. The notions of cognitive deficiency and cognitive profile are analysed; we understand them as the correlation between intact and damaged components of cognitive processes and their diagrammatic representation. The authors prove that it is essential to provide a detailed scale of cognitive deficiencies detectable in case of schizophrenic disorders and to design universal algorithms that could translate the results of traditional content analysis of cognitive disorders into quantitative indicators. The article is based on the authors' experiments. We examined 128 patients, among whom 76 were suffering from paranoid schizophrenia (F20 according to ICD) and 52 were suffering from schizotypal disorder (F21 according to ICD). METHOD: In evaluation of cognitive deficiency, we used both traditional methods devised in Russia and foreign tests that are seldom used by medical psychologists in their daily practice. We have analysed the difference in doing the cognitive tests between the groups of patients with different forms of schizophrenia and also suffering from it for different periods (up to 5 y and more than 5 y). RESULTS: On the basis of the quantitative indicators, a cognitive profile of each particular illness was compiled. As a result, we have defined different varieties of cognitive deficiency depending on the symptoms and dynamics of the disease. CONCLUSION: The authors have provided a detailed description of the structure and dynamics of the cognitive deficiency in case of different forms of schizophrenia and compiled cognitive profiles based on those data.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180221
[Lr] Last revision date:180221
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1111/jep.12886


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