Database : MEDLINE
Search on : Parasitemia [Words]
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[PMID]: 29452213
[Au] Autor:Azami SJ; Amani A; Keshavarz H; Najafi-Taher R; Mohebali M; Faramarzi MA; Mahmoudi M; Shojaee S
[Ad] Address:Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
[Ti] Title:Nanoemulsion of atovaquone as a promising approach for treatment of acute and chronic toxoplasmosis.
[So] Source:Eur J Pharm Sci;117:138-146, 2018 Feb 13.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0720
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Treatment of toxoplasmosis is necessary in congenital form and immunocompromised patients. Atovaquone is a powerful suppressor of protozoan parasites with a broad-spectrum activity, but an extremely low water solubility and bioavailability. In this study, nanoemulsion of this drug was prepared with grape seed oil using spontaneous emulsification method to increase bioavailability and efficacy of atovaquone for treatment of toxoplasmosis. In vitro activity of atovaquone nanoemulsion against T. gondii, RH and Tehran strains, was assessed in HeLa cell culture. For in vivo assessment, BALB/c mice were infected with RH and Tehran strains and then treated with nanoemulsion of atovaquone, compared to that treated with free atovaquone. Concentration of atovaquone nanoemulsion showed in vitro anti-parasitic effects in both strains of T. gondii. Furthermore, oral administration of atovaquone nanoemulsion increased oral bioavailability, tissue distribution and mice survival time and reduced parasitemia and number and size of the brain cysts. Decrease of cyst numbers was verified by down regulation of BAG1 using real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) assay. Effective therapeutic activity of atovaquone at a reduced dose is the major achievement of this study.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  2 / 8410 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29366738
[Au] Autor:Felizardo AA; Marques DVB; Caldas IS; Gonçalves RV; Novaes RD
[Ad] Address:Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Federal University of Alfenas, Alfenas, 37130-001, Minas Gerais, Brazil; Department of Structural Biology, Federal University of Alfenas, Alfenas, 37130-001, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
[Ti] Title:Could age and aging change the host response to systemic parasitic infections? A systematic review of preclinical evidence.
[So] Source:Exp Gerontol;104:17-27, 2018 Jan 25.
[Is] ISSN:1873-6815
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The impact of age and aging in the evolution of systemic parasitic infections remains poorly understood. We conducted a systematic review from preclinical models of Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, malaria, sleeping sickness and toxoplasmosis. From a structured and comprehensive search in electronic databases, 29 studies were recovered and included in the review. Beyond the characteristics of the experimental models, parasitological and immunological outcomes, we also discussed the quality of current evidence. Our findings indicated that throughout aging, parasitemia and mortality were consistently reduced in Chagas disease and malaria, but were similar or increased in leishmaniasis and highly variable in toxoplasmosis. While a marked humoral response in older animals was related to the anti-T. cruzi protective phenotype, cellular responses mediated by a polarized Th1 phenotype were associated with a more effective defense against Plasmodium infection. Conversely, in leishmaniasis, severe infections and high mortality rates were potentially related to attenuation of humoral response and an imbalance between Th1 and Th2 phenotypes. Due to the heterogeneous parasitological outcomes and limited immunological data, the role of aging on toxoplasmosis evolution remains unclear. From a detailed description of the methodological bias, more controlled researches could avoid the systematic reproduction of inconsistent and poorly reproducible experimental designs.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  3 / 8410 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29360430
[Au] Autor:Poostchi M; Silamut K; Maude RJ; Jaeger S; Thoma G
[Ad] Address:U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.
[Ti] Title:Image analysis and machine learning for detecting malaria.
[So] Source:Transl Res;194:36-55, 2018 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1878-1810
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Malaria remains a major burden on global health, with roughly 200 million cases worldwide and more than 400,000 deaths per year. Besides biomedical research and political efforts, modern information technology is playing a key role in many attempts at fighting the disease. One of the barriers toward a successful mortality reduction has been inadequate malaria diagnosis in particular. To improve diagnosis, image analysis software and machine learning methods have been used to quantify parasitemia in microscopic blood slides. This article gives an overview of these techniques and discusses the current developments in image analysis and machine learning for microscopic malaria diagnosis. We organize the different approaches published in the literature according to the techniques used for imaging, image preprocessing, parasite detection and cell segmentation, feature computation, and automatic cell classification. Readers will find the different techniques listed in tables, with the relevant articles cited next to them, for both thin and thick blood smear images. We also discussed the latest developments in sections devoted to deep learning and smartphone technology for future malaria diagnosis.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  4 / 8410 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29408951
[Au] Autor:Hogan B; Eibach D; Krumkamp R; Sarpong N; Dekker D; Kreuels B; Maiga-Ascofaré O; Gyau Boahen K; Wiafe Akenten C; Adu-Sarkodie Y; Owusu-Dabo E; May J; Fever Without Source (FWS) Study Group
[Ad] Address:Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine Hamburg, Germany.
[Ti] Title:Malaria Coinfections in Febrile Pediatric Inpatients: A Hospital-Based Study From Ghana.
[So] Source:Clin Infect Dis;, 2018 Feb 02.
[Is] ISSN:1537-6591
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Background: The epidemiology of pediatric febrile illness is shifting in sub-Saharan Africa, but malaria remains a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. The present study describes causes of febrile illness in hospitalized children in Ghana and aims to determine the burden of malaria coinfections and their association with parasite densities. Methods: In a prospective study, children (aged ≥30 days and ≤15 years) with fever ≥38.0°C were recruited after admission to the pediatric ward of a primary hospital in Ghana. Malaria parasitemia was determined and blood, stool, urine, respiratory, and cerebrospinal fluid specimens were screened for parasitic, bacterial, and viral pathogens. Associations of Plasmodium densities with other pathogens were calculated. Results: From November 2013 to April 2015, 1238 children were enrolled from 4169 admissions. A clinical/microbiological diagnosis could be made in 1109/1238 (90%) patients, with Plasmodium parasitemia (n = 728/1238 [59%]) being predominant. This was followed by lower respiratory tract infections/pneumonia (n = 411/1238 [34%]; among detected pathogens most frequently Streptococcus pneumoniae, n = 192/299 [64%]), urinary tract infections (n = 218/1238 [18%]; Escherichia coli, n = 21/32 [66%]), gastrointestinal infections (n = 210 [17%]; rotavirus, n = 32/97 [33%]), and invasive bloodstream infections (n = 62 [5%]; Salmonella species, n = 47 [76%]). In Plasmodium-infected children the frequency of lower respiratory tract, gastrointestinal, and bloodstream infections increased with decreasing parasite densities. Conclusions: In a hospital setting, the likelihood of comorbidity with a nonmalarial disease is inversely correlated with increasing blood levels of malaria parasites. Hence, parasite densities provide important information as an indicator for the probability of coinfection, in particular to guide antimicrobial medication.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1093/cid/cix1120

  5 / 8410 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29405102
[Au] Autor:Salvador F; Sánchez-Montalvá A; Sulleiro E; Moreso F; Berastegui C; Caralt M; Pinazo MJ; Moure Z; Los-Arcos I; Len O; Gavaldà J; Molina I
[Ad] Address:Department of Infectious Diseases, Vall d'Hebron University Hospital, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, PROSICS Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
[Ti] Title:Prevalence of Chagas Disease among Solid Organ-Transplanted Patients in a Nonendemic Country.
[So] Source:Am J Trop Med Hyg;98(3):742-746, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1476-1645
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Reactivation of Chagas disease in the chronic phase may occur after solid organ transplantation, which may result in high parasitemia and severe clinical manifestations such as myocarditis and meningoencephalitis. The aim of the present study is to describe the prevalence of Chagas disease among solid organ-transplanted patients in a tertiary hospital from a nonendemic country. A cross-sectional study was performed at Vall d'Hebron University Hospital (Barcelona, Spain) from April to September 2016. Chagas disease screening was performed through serological tests in adult patients coming from endemic areas that had received solid organ transplantation and were being controlled in our hospital during the study period. Overall, 42 patients were included, 20 (47.6%) were male and median age was 50.5 (23-73) years. Transplanted organs were as follows: 18 kidneys, 17 lungs, and 7 livers. Three patients had Chagas disease, corresponding to a prevalence among this group of solid organ-transplanted patients of 7.1%. All three patients were born in Bolivia, had been diagnosed with Chagas disease and received specific treatment before the organ transplantation. We highly recommend providing screening tests for Chagas disease in patients with or candidates for solid organ transplantation coming from endemic areas, early treatment with benznidazole, and close follow-up to prevent clinical reactivations.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.17-0735

  6 / 8410 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29363457
[Au] Autor:Stebbins RC; Emch M; Meshnick SR
[Ad] Address:Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
[Ti] Title:The Effectiveness of Community Bed Net Use on Malaria Parasitemia among Children Less Than 5 Years Old in Liberia.
[So] Source:Am J Trop Med Hyg;98(3):660-666, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1476-1645
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:In 2013, the under-5 mortality rate in Liberia was 71 deaths per 1,000 live births, with malaria responsible for 22% of those deaths. One of the primary existing control tools, long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLINs), is thought to be dually effective, acting as a physical barrier but also decreasing the mosquito population in communities. However, there has been little investigation into the protective effects of community-wide bed net use above and beyond the individual level. Using data from the population-representative 2011 Liberia Malaria Indicator Survey, we estimated the association between proportion of a community using LLINs and malaria in children using multi-level logistic regression. To investigate the potential effect measure modification of the relationship by urbanicity, we included an interaction term and calculated stratum-specific prevalence odds ratios (PORs) for rural and urban communities. We calculated a POR of malaria for an absolute 10% increase in community bed net use of 1.13 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.91, 1.41) and 0.35 (95% CI: 0.13, 0.92) for rural and urban communities, respectively, indicating a strong, though imprecise, protective effect within urban communities only. Our results indicate that bed net use has an indirect protective effect in urban areas, above and beyond individual use. Little or no such effect of community-wide use is seen in rural areas, likely because of population density factors. Therefore, although all control efforts should be multifaceted, promotion of bed net use in urban areas in particular will likely be a highly effective tool for control.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.17-0619

  7 / 8410 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29345221
[Au] Autor:Poespoprodjo JR; Kenangalem E; Wafom J; Chandrawati F; Puspitasari AM; Ley B; Trianty L; Korten Z; Surya A; Syafruddin D; Anstey NM; Marfurt J; Noviyanti R; Price RN
[Ad] Address:Mimika District Hospital, Timika, Indonesia.
[Ti] Title:Therapeutic Response to Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine for and Nine Years after Its Introduction in Southern Papua, Indonesia.
[So] Source:Am J Trop Med Hyg;98(3):677-682, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1476-1645
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHP) has been the first-line treatment of uncomplicated malaria due to both and infections in Papua, Indonesia, since March 2006. The efficacy of DHP was reassessed to determine whether there had been any decline following almost a decade of its extensive use. An open-label drug efficacy study of DHP for uncomplicated and malaria was carried out between March 2015 and April 2016 in Timika, Papua, Indonesia. Patients with uncomplicated malaria were administered supervised DHP tablets once daily for 3 days. Clinical and laboratory data were collected daily until parasite clearance and then weekly for 6 weeks. Molecular analysis was undertaken for all patients with recurrent parasitemia. A total of 129 study patients were enrolled in the study. At day 42, the polymerase chain reaction-adjusted efficacy was 97.7% (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 87.4-99.9) in the 61 patients with malaria, and 98.2% [95% CI: 90.3-100] in the 56 patients with malaria. By day 2, 98% (56/57) of patients with and 96.9% (63/65) of those with had cleared their peripheral parasitemia; none of the patients were still parasitaemic on day 3. Molecular analysis of parasites showed that none (0/61) had K13 mutations associated previously with artemisinin resistance or increased copy number of 2-3 (0/61). In the absence of artemisinin resistance, DHP has retained high efficacy for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria despite extensive drug pressure over a 9-year period.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.17-0662

  8 / 8410 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29280423
[Au] Autor:Boyce R; Reyes R; Keeler C; Matte M; Ntaro M; Mulogo E; Siedner MJ
[Ad] Address:Division of Infectious Diseases, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
[Ti] Title:Anemia was an Uncommon Complication of Severe Malaria in a High-Transmission Rural Area of Western Uganda.
[So] Source:Am J Trop Med Hyg;98(3):683-691, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1476-1645
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The clinical epidemiology of severe malaria among patients presenting to peripheral health centers has not been well described. We conducted a prospective, observational cohort study to describe the epidemiology and clinical manifestations of severe malaria in a highland area of declining transmission intensity in Western Uganda. Individuals presenting with a history of fever were screened with a malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT). We prepared blood smears and conducted clinical and laboratory testing for those with a positive RDT. We defined severe malaria in accordance with World Health Organization guidelines for research and epidemiological studies. A total of 6,641 individuals underwent testing for malaria. Ninety-six of 1,462 (6.6%) participants with confirmed parasitemia satisfied the criteria for severe malaria. The incidence of severe malaria peaked between 2 and 3 years of age (incidence rate ratio = 17.1, 95% confidence interval = 8.4-34.9, < 0.001) and then declined steadily until age 10. However, we also found a second peak among those ≥ 50 years of age. Severe anemia was uncommon, detected in only 5.3% of cases. Instead, shock (22.2%) and lactic acidosis (19.4%) were most frequently encountered. Our results suggest that the clinical characteristics of severe malaria presenting to rural, peripheral health centers may be different than previously observed in referral centers. These findings merit further investigation into the optimal methods for identification and management of severe malaria in rural health centers in the region.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.17-0681

  9 / 8410 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29272443
[Au] Autor:Wallender E; Vucicevic K; Jagannathan P; Huang L; Natureeba P; Kakuru A; Muhindo M; Nakalembe M; Havlir D; Kamya M; Aweeka F; Dorsey G; Rosenthal PJ; Savic RM
[Ad] Address:Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco.
[Ti] Title:Predicting Optimal Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine Regimens to Prevent Malaria During Pregnancy for Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Women Receiving Efavirenz.
[So] Source:J Infect Dis;217(6):964-972, 2018 Mar 05.
[Is] ISSN:1537-6613
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Background: A monthly treatment course of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PQ) effectively prevents malaria during pregnancy. However, a drug-drug interaction pharmacokinetic (PK) study found that pregnant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women receiving efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) had markedly reduced piperaquine (PQ) exposure. This suggests the need for alternative DHA-PQ chemoprevention regimens in this population. Methods: Eighty-three HIV-infected pregnant women who received monthly DHA-PQ and efavirenz contributed longitudinal PK and corrected QT interval (QTc) (n = 25) data. Population PK and PK-QTc models for PQ were developed to consider the benefits (protective PQ coverage) and risks (QTc prolongation) of alternative DHA-PQ chemoprevention regimens. Protective PQ coverage was defined as maintaining a concentration >10 ng/mL for >95% of the chemoprevention period. Results: PQ clearance was 4540 L/day. With monthly DHA-PQ (2880 mg PQ), <1% of women achieved defined protective PQ coverage. Weekly (960 mg PQ) or low-dose daily (320 or 160 mg PQ) regimens achieved protective PQ coverage for 34% and >96% of women, respectively. All regimens were safe, with ≤2% of women predicted to have ≥30 msec QTc increase. Conclusions: For HIV-infected pregnant women receiving efavirenz, low daily DHA-PQ dosing was predicted to improve protection against parasitemia and reduce risk of toxicity compared to monthly dosing. Clinical Trials Registration: NCT02282293.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[Cl] Clinical Trial:ClinicalTrial
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1093/infdis/jix660

  10 / 8410 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29216395
[Au] Autor:Murphy SC; Duke ER; Shipman KJ; Jensen RL; Fong Y; Ferguson S; Janes HE; Gillespie K; Seilie AM; Hanron AE; Rinn L; Fishbaugher M; VonGoedert T; Fritzen E; Kappe SH; Chang M; Sousa JC; Marcsisin SR; Chalon S; Duparc S; Kerr N; Möhrle JJ; Andenmatten N; Rueckle T; Kublin JG
[Ad] Address:Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.
[Ti] Title:A Randomized Trial Evaluating the Prophylactic Activity of DSM265 Against Preerythrocytic Plasmodium falciparum Infection During Controlled Human Malarial Infection by Mosquito Bites and Direct Venous Inoculation.
[So] Source:J Infect Dis;217(5):693-702, 2018 Feb 14.
[Is] ISSN:1537-6613
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Background: DSM265 is a selective inhibitor of Plasmodium dihydroorotate dehydrogenase that fully protected against controlled human malarial infection (CHMI) by direct venous inoculation of Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites when administered 1 day before challenge and provided partial protection when administered 7 days before challenge. Methods: A double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was performed to assess safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of 1 oral dose of 400 mg of DSM265 before CHMI. Three cohorts were studied, with DSM265 administered 3 or 7 days before direct venous inoculation of sporozoites or 7 days before 5 bites from infected mosquitoes. Results: DSM265-related adverse events consisted of mild-to-moderate headache and gastrointestinal symptoms. DSM265 concentrations were consistent with pharmacokinetic models (mean area under the curve extrapolated to infinity, 1707 µg*h/mL). Placebo-treated participants became positive by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and were treated 7-10 days after CHMI. Among DSM265-treated subjects, 2 of 6 in each cohort were sterilely protected. DSM265-treated recipients had longer times to development of parasitemia than placebo-treated participants (P < .004). Conclusions: This was the first CHMI study of a novel antimalarial compound to compare direct venous inoculation of sporozoites and mosquito bites. Times to qRT-PCR positivity and treatment were comparable for both routes. DSM265 given 3 or 7 days before CHMI was safe and well tolerated but sterilely protected only one third of participants.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1093/infdis/jix613


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