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[PMID]: 29524527
[Au] Autor:Moine E; Moiré N; Dimier-Poisson I; Brunet K; Couet W; Colas C; Van Langendonck N; Enguehard-Gueiffier C; Gueiffier A; Héraut B; Denevault-Sabourin C; Debierre-Grockiego F
[Ad] Address:ISP, INRA, Université Tours, 37380, Nouzilly, France.
[Ti] Title:Imidazo[1,2-b]pyridazines targeting Toxoplasma gondii calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 decrease the parasite burden in mice with acute toxoplasmosis.
[So] Source:Int J Parasitol;, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0135
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The current therapeutic arsenal for toxoplasmosis is restricted to drugs non-specific to the parasite which cause important side effects. Development of more efficient and specific anti-Toxoplasma compounds is urgently needed. Imidazo[1,2-b]pyridazines (IPs) designed to inhibit the calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 of Toxoplasma gondii (TgCDPK1) and effective against tachyzoite growth in vitro at submicromolar ranges were modified into hydrochloride salts to be administered in vivo in a mouse model of acute toxoplasmosis. All protonated IP salts (SP230, SP231 and SP232) maintained their activity on TgCDPK1 and T. gondii tachyzoites. Rat and mouse liver microsomes were used to predict half-life and intrinsic clearance, and the pharmacokinetic profile of the most rapidly degraded IP salt (SP230) was determined in serum, brain and lungs of mice after a single administration of 50 mg/kg. Compounds were then tested in vivo in a murine model of acute toxoplasmosis. Mice infected with tachyzoites of the ME49 strain of T. gondii were treated for 4, 7 or 8 days with 25 or 50 mg/kg/day of SP230, SP231 or SP232. The parasite burdens were strongly diminished (>90% reduction under some conditions) in the spleen and the lungs of mice treated with IP salts compared with untreated mice, without the need for pre-treatment. Moreover, no increases in the levels of hepatic and renal toxicity markers were observed, demonstrating no significant signs of short-term toxicity. To conclude, IP salts have strong efficacy in vivo on acute toxoplasmosis and should be further tested in a model of mouse congenital toxoplasmosis.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  2 / 85025 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29524526
[Au] Autor:Pastor-Fernández I; Kim S; Billington K; Bumstead J; Marugán-Hernández V; Küster T; Ferguson DJP; Vervelde L; Blake DP; Tomley FM
[Ad] Address:Department of Pathobiology and Population Sciences, Royal Veterinary College, University of London, Hertfordshire, United Kingdom. Electronic address: ipastorfernandez@rvc.ac.uk.
[Ti] Title:Development of cross-protective Eimeria-vectored vaccines based on apical membrane antigens.
[So] Source:Int J Parasitol;, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0135
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Recently, the availability of protocols supporting genetic complementation of Eimeria has raised the prospect of generating transgenic parasite lines which can function as vaccine vectors, expressing and delivering heterologous proteins. Complementation with sequences encoding immunoprotective antigens from other Eimeria spp. offers an opportunity to reduce the complexity of species/strains in anticoccidial vaccines. Herein, we characterise and evaluate EtAMA1 and EtAMA2, two members of the apical membrane antigen (AMA) family of parasite surface proteins from Eimeria tenella. Both proteins are stage-regulated, and the sporozoite-specific EtAMA1 is effective at inducing partial protection against homologous challenge with E. tenella when used as a recombinant protein vaccine, whereas the merozoite-specific EtAMA2 is not. In order to test the ability of transgenic parasites to confer heterologous protection, E. tenella parasites were complemented with EmAMA1, the sporozoite-specific orthologue of EtAMA1 from E. maxima, coupled with different delivery signals to modify its trafficking and improve antigen exposure to the host immune system. Vaccination of chickens using these transgenic parasites conferred partial protection against E. maxima challenge, with levels of efficacy comparable to those obtained using recombinant protein or DNA vaccines. In the present work we provide evidence for the first known time of the ability of transgenic Eimeria to induce cross protection against different Eimeria spp. Genetically complemented Eimeria provide a powerful tool to streamline the complex multi-valent anticoccidial vaccine formulations that are currently available in the market by generating parasite lines expressing vaccine targets from multiple eimerian species.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  3 / 85025 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29510669
[Au] Autor:Iddawela D; Vithana SMP; Atapattu D; Wijekoon L
[Ad] Address:Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.
[Ti] Title:Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka.
[So] Source:BMC Infect Dis;18(1):108, 2018 Mar 06.
[Is] ISSN:1471-2334
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis, a vector borne tropical/subtropical disease caused by the protozoan Leishmania is transmitted to humans by sandfly vectors Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia. The principal form found in Sri Lanka is cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and is caused by Leishmania donovani. A rising trend in disease prevalence has been observed recently in Sri Lanka and the island is in fact the newest endemic focus in South Asia. Determining the prevalence of smear positivity among clinically suspected CL patients, identifying risk factors and specific clinical presentations of CL in order to implement preventive and early treatment strategies were the objectives of this study. METHODS: A sample of 509 clinically suspected cases of CL referred to the Department of Parasitology from all across Sri Lanka between 2005 and 2015 was selected consecutively. Diagnosis was confirmed by microscopic visualization of the Leishmania amastigote from the slit skin smear. A structured questionnaire was used to identify exposure related risk factors and a clinical examination was performed to identify lesion characteristics. RESULTS: Out of 509 clinical cases, 41.5% (n = 211) were smear positive. The study population ranged from ages 1 to 80 years (mean age = 34.76) and the most affected age group was 40-49. Of the smear positives, 58.85% were males. Majority (47.86%) were from the North Western region (Kurunegala) of the country and were exposed to scrub jungles. Sand fly exposure (p = 0.04) and positive contact history (p = 0.005) were significant risk factors for smear positivity. Erythema (p = 0.02), lack of pruritus (p = 0.02) and scaly appearance (p = 0.003) were significant lesion characteristics in smear positivity. Lesions were commonly found in the exposed areas and the commonest morphological type was papulo-nodular. CONCLUSIONS: An increasing trend in the spread of cutaneous leishmaniasis from endemic to non-endemic areas has become evident. Positive contact history and sandfly exposure were significant risk factors for smear positivity which may indicate the possibility of human reservoir hosts in infection transmission. Lack of pruritus, scaly appearance and erythema were highly significant lesion characteristics associated with Leishmania positive smears which can be used for the clinical diagnosis of CL.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12879-018-2999-7

  4 / 85025 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29505764
[Au] Autor:Asojo OA; Darwiche R; Gebremedhin S; Smant G; Lozano-Torres JL; Drurey C; Pollet J; Maizels RM; Schneiter R; Wilbers RHP
[Ad] Address:National School of Tropical Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA. Electronic address: asojo@bcm.edu.
[Ti] Title:Heligmosomoides polygyrus Venom Allergen-like Protein-4 (HpVAL-4) is a sterol binding protein.
[So] Source:Int J Parasitol;, 2018 Mar 02.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0135
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri is a model parasitic hookworm used to study animal and human helminth diseases. During infection, the parasite releases excretory/secretory products that modulate the immune system of the host. The most abundant protein family in excretory/secretory products comprises the venom allergen-like proteins (VALs), which are members of the SCP/TAPS (sperm-coating protein/Tpx/antigen 5/pathogenesis related-1/Sc7) superfamily. There are >30 secreted Heligmosomoides polygyrus VAL proteins (HpVALs) and these proteins are characterised by having either one or two 15 kDa CAP (cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP)/antigen 5/pathogenesis related-1) domains. The first known HpVAL structure, HpVAL-4, refined to 1.9 Šis reported. HpVAL-4 was produced as a homogeneously glycosylated protein in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana infiltrated with recombinant plasmids, making this plant expression platform amenable for the production of biological products. The overall topology of HpVAL-4 is a three layered αßα sandwich between a short N-terminal loop and a C-terminal cysteine rich extension. The C-terminal cysteine rich extension has two strands stabilized by two disulfide bonds and superposes well with the previously reported extension from the human hookworm Necator americanus Ancylostoma secreted protein-2 (Na-ASP-2). The N-terminal loop is connected to alpha helix 2 via a disulfide bond previously observed in Na-ASP-2. HpVAL-4 has a central cavity that is more similar to the N-terminal CAP domain of the two CAP Na-ASP-1 from Necator americanus. Unlike Na-ASP-2, mammalian CRISP, and the C-terminal CAP domain of Na-ASP-1, the large central cavity of HpVAL-4 lacks the two histidines required to coordinate divalent cations. HpVAL-4 has both palmitate-binding and sterol-binding cavities and is able to complement the in vivo sterol export phenotype of yeast mutants lacking their endogenous CAP proteins. More studies are required to determine endogenous binding partners of HpVAL-4 and unravel the possible impact of sterol binding on immune-modulatory functions.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  5 / 85025 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29501696
[Au] Autor:Bellini NK; Santos TM; da Silva MTA; Thiemann OH
[Ad] Address:Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, Caixa Postal 369, 13560-590, São Carlos, SP, Brazil.
[Ti] Title:The therapeutic strategies against Naegleria fowleri.
[So] Source:Exp Parasitol;187:1-11, 2018 Mar 01.
[Is] ISSN:1090-2449
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Naegleria fowleri is a pathogenic amoeboflagellate most prominently known for its role as the etiological agent of the Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis (PAM), a disease that afflicts the central nervous system and is fatal in more than 95% of the reported cases. Although being fatal and with potential risks for an increase in the occurrence of the pathogen in populated areas, the organism receives little public health attention. A great underestimation in the number of PAM cases reported is assumed, taking into account the difficulty in obtaining an accurate diagnosis. In this review, we summarize different techniques and methods used in the identification of the protozoan in clinical and environmental samples. Since it remains unclear whether the protozoan infection can be successfully treated with the currently available drugs, we proceed to discuss the current PAM therapeutic strategies and its effectiveness. Finally, novel compounds for potential treatments are discussed as well as research on vaccine development against PAM.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  6 / 85025 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29258831
[Au] Autor:Hollmann T; Kim TK; Tirloni L; Radulovic ZM; Pinto AFM; Diedrich JK; Yates JR; da Silva Vaz I; Mulenga A
[Ad] Address:Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA.
[Ti] Title:Identification and characterization of proteins in the Amblyomma americanum tick cement cone.
[So] Source:Int J Parasitol;48(3-4):211-224, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0135
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The adaptation of hard ticks to feed for long periods is facilitated by the cement cone, which securely anchors the tick mouthparts onto host skin and protects the tick from being groomed off by the host. Thus, preventing tick cement deposition is an attractive target for the development of innovative tick control. We used LC-MS/MS sequencing to identify 160 Amblyomma americanum tick cement proteins that include glycine-rich proteins (GRP, 19%), protease inhibitors (12%), proteins of unknown function (11%), mucin (4%), detoxification, storage, and lipocalin at 1% each, and housekeeping proteins (50%). Spatiotemporal transcription analysis showing mRNA expression in multiple tick organs and transcript abundance increasing with feeding suggest that selected GRPs (n = 13) regulate multiple tick feeding functions, being classified as constitutively expressed (CE), feeding induced (FI), and up-regulated with feeding (UR). We show that transcription of CE GRPs is likely under the control of tick appetence associated factors in that mRNA abundance increased several thousand fold in 1 week old adult ticks, the time period that coincides with tick attainment of appetence. Given the high number of targets, we synthesized and injected unfed ticks with combinatorial (co) double stranded (ds)RNA and disrupted GRP mRNA in clusters according to similar transcription patterns: CE (n = 3), FI, (n = 4), and UR (n = 6) to streamline the work. Our data suggest that CE and FI GRPs are important for maintenance of the tick feeding site in that reddening and subsequent bleeding were observed around the mouthparts of CE and FI GRP co-dsRNA injected ticks during feeding. Furthermore, although not significantly different, indices for blood meal size and fecundity were apparently reduced in FI and UR ticks. We discuss our data with reference to A. americanum tick feeding physiology.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  7 / 85025 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29180119
[Au] Autor:Xu W; Mukherjee S; Ning Y; Hsu FF; Zhang K
[Ad] Address:Department of Biological Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409, USA.
[Ti] Title:Cyclopropane fatty acid synthesis affects cell shape and acid resistance in Leishmania mexicana.
[So] Source:Int J Parasitol;48(3-4):245-256, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0135
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Cyclopropane fatty acid synthase (CFAS) catalyzes the transfer of a methylene group from S-adenosyl methionine to an unsaturated fatty acid, generating a cyclopropane fatty acid (CFA). The gene encoding CFAS is present in many bacteria and several Leishmania spp. including Leishmania mexicana, Leishmania infantum and Leishmania braziliensis. In this study, we characterised the CFAS-null and -overexpression mutants in L. mexicana, the causative agent for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Mexico and central America. Our data indicate that L. mexicana CFAS modifies the fatty acid chain of plasmenylethanolamine (PME), the dominant class of ethanolamine glycerophospholipids in Leishmania, generating CFA-PME. While the endogenous level of CFA-PME is extremely low in wild type L. mexicana, overexpression of CFAS results in a significant increase. CFAS-null mutants (cfas ) exhibit altered cell shape, increased sensitivity to acidic pH, and aberrant growth in serum-free media. In addition, the CFAS protein is preferentially expressed during the proliferative stage of L. mexicana and is required for the cell membrane targeting of lipophosphoglycan. Finally, the maturation and localization of CFAS protein are dependent upon the downstream sequence of the CFAS coding region. Without the downstream sequence, the mis-localised CFAS protein cannot fully rescue the defects of cfas . Our data suggest that CFA modification of phospholipids can significantly affect the parasite's response to certain adverse conditions. These findings are distinct from the roles of CFAS in L. infantum, highlighting the functional divergence in lipid modification among Leishmania spp.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1711
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  8 / 85025 MEDLINE  
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Matushima, Eliana R
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[PMID]: 29522766
[Au] Autor:Cesar MO; Matushima ER; Zwarg T; de Oliveira AS; Sanches TC; Joppert AM; Keid LB; Oliveira TMFS; Ferreira HL; Llano HAB; Konradt G; Bianchi MV; Gregori F; Gondim LFP; Soares RM
[Ad] Address:Department of Pathology, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
[Ti] Title:Multilocus characterization of Sarcocystis falcatula-related organisms isolated in Brazil supports genetic admixture of high diverse SAG alleles among the isolates.
[So] Source:Exp Parasitol;, 2018 Mar 06.
[Is] ISSN:1090-2449
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:In a previous study in Brazil, six isolates of Sarcocystis spp. recovered from budgerigars fed sporocysts excreted by opossums of the genus Didelphis were characterized by means of sequencing fragments of gene coding cytochrome B (CYTB), internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1), and surface antigen genes (SAG2, SAG3 and SAG4). The isolates shared identical ITS1 and CYTB sequences, but differed at SAG2, SAG3 and SAG4: three allele variants of SAG2, 3 allele variants of SAG3 and 2 allele variants of SAG4 were encountered in three multilocus genotypes (MLGs) (MLG1, MLG2, and MLG3). At ITS1 and CYTB, all the isolates from budgerigars were identical to the Sarcocystis falcatula-like isolate 59-2016-RS-BR that was detected in a barefaced ibis (Phimosus infuscatus) causing necrotizing meningoencephalitis in Brazil. At ITS1 locus, all the above isolates were clearly distinct from Sarcocystis neurona, Sarcocystis falcatula, Sarcocystis lindsayi, and Sarcocystis speeri, the four known species of Sarcocystis that use opossums of the genus Didelphis as definitive hosts. Here, we replicated the experiment above to identify additional MLGs or other species of Sarcocystis. Fifteen budgerigars were experimentally infected with sporocysts of Sarcocystis spp. from 12 opossums of the genus Didelphis. All the birds died 9-19 days after infection and tissue samples containing merozoites and schizonts of Sarcocystis spp. were recovered. Fractions of sequences coding for 18S ribosomal RNA gene (18S), CYTB, ITS1, SAG2, SAG3 and SAG4 were PCR amplified and sequenced from the infected lungs. In addition, fractions of 18S, SAG2, SAG3 and SAG4 were sequenced from the isolate 59-2016-RS-BR and fractions of 18S were sequenced from the six isolates from budgerigars described above. From the results, all the isolates shared identical 18S, ITS1 and CYTB sequences. Among the 15 new isolates from budgerigars, three allele variants of SAG2, 3 allele variants of SAG3 and 2 allele variants of SAG4 were encountered in five MLGs, of which four were novel (MLG1, MLG4, MLG5, MLG6 and MLG7). Isolate 59-2016-RS-BR was assigned to an eighth MLG (MLG8). Molecular data pointed that Sarcocystis assigned to MLGs 1 to 8 are variants of the same species, but the SAG-based trees of the isolates conflicted, which supports genetic admixture among them. The sarcocystinae studied have high diversity of SAG alleles per locus and the correlation of such an abundant variety of SAG alleles to host specificity and pathogenicity needs to be assessed. Remains to be elucidated if the parasites studied here and S. falcatula are variants of the same species that have diverged to the point of possessing differences at ITS1 level, but that are still capable of exchanging genes.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:Publisher

  9 / 85025 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29522765
[Au] Autor:Yang D; Pan L; Chen Z; Du H; Luo B; Luo J; Pan G
[Ad] Address:International Academy of Targeted Therapeutics and Innovation, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Kinase Modulators as Innovative Medicine, Chongqing Engineering Laboratory of Targeted and Innovative Therapeutics, Chongqing University of Arts and Sciences, Chongqing, China. Electronic address: dlyang09@126
[Ti] Title:The roles of microsporidia spore wall proteins in the spore wall formation and polar tube anchorage to spore wall during development and infection processes.
[So] Source:Exp Parasitol;, 2018 Mar 06.
[Is] ISSN:1090-2449
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Microsporidia are highly specialized obligate intracellular, spore forming divergent fungi with a wide variety host range that includes most vertebrates and invertebrates. The resistant spores are surrounded by a rigid cell wall which consists of three layers: the electron-lucent chitin and protein inner endospore, the outer-electron-dense and mainly proteinaceous exospore and plasma membrane. Interestingly, microsporidia owns a special invasion organelle, called polar tube, coiled within the interior of the spore wall and attached to anchoring disk at the anterior end of spore. Spore wall and polar tube are the major apparatuses for mature spores adhering and infecting to the host cells. In this review, we summarize the research advances in spore wall proteins (SWPs) related to spore adherence and infection, and SWPs and deproteinated chitin spore coats (DCSCs) interaction associated with SWPs deposit processes and spore wall assembly. Furthermore, we highlight the SWPs-polar tube proteins (PTPs) interaction correlated to polar tube orderly orientation, arrangement and anchorage to anchoring disk. Based on results obtained, it is helpful to improve understanding of the spore wall assembly and polar tube orderly arrangement mechanisms and molecular pathogenesis of microsporidia infection. Also, such information will provide a basis for developing effective control strategies against microporidia.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:Publisher

  10 / 85025 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29501266
[Au] Autor:Darwiche R; Lugo F; Drurey C; Varossieau K; Smant G; Wilbers RHP; Maizels RM; Schneiter R; Asojo OA
[Ad] Address:Division of Biochemistry, Department of Biology, University of Fribourg, Chemin du Musée 10, CH 1700 Fribourg, Switzerland.
[Ti] Title:Crystal structure of Brugia malayi venom allergen-like protein-1 (BmVAL-1), a vaccine candidate for lymphatic filariasis.
[So] Source:Int J Parasitol;, 2018 Mar 06.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0135
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Brugia malayi is a causative agent of lymphatic filariasis, a major tropical disease. The infective L3 parasite stage releases immunomodulatory proteins including the venom allergen-like proteins (VALs), which are members of the SCP/TAPS (Sperm-coating protein/Tpx/antigen 5/pathogenesis related-1/Sc7) superfamily. BmVAL-1 is a major target of host immunity with >90% of infected B. malayi microfilaraemic cases being seropositive for antibodies to BmVAL-1. This study is part of ongoing efforts to characterize the structures and functions of important B. malayi proteins. Recombinant BmVAL-1 was produced using a plant expression system, crystallized and the structure was solved by molecular replacement and refined to 2.1 Å, revealing the characteristic alpha/beta/alpha sandwich topology of eukaryotic SCP/TAPS proteins. The protein has more than 45% loop regions and these flexible loops connect the helices and strands, which are longer than predicted based on other parasite SCP/TAPS protein structures. The large central cavity of BmVAL-1 is a prototypical CRISP cavity with two histidines required to bind divalent cations. The caveolin-binding motif (CBM) that mediates sterol binding in SCP/TAPS proteins is large and open in BmVAL-1 and is N-glycosylated. N-glycosylation of the CBM does not affect the ability of BmVAL-1 to bind sterol in vitro. BmVAL-1 complements the in vivo sterol export phenotype of yeast mutants lacking their endogenous SCP/TAPS proteins. The in vitro sterol-binding affinity of BmVAL-1 is comparable with Pry1, a yeast sterol transporting SCP/TAPS protein. Sterol binding of BmVAL-1 is dependent on divalent cations. BmVAL-1 also has a large open palmitate-binding cavity, which binds palmitate comparably to tablysin-15, a lipid-binding SCP/TAPS protein. The central cavity, CBM and palmitate-binding cavity of BmVAL-1 are interconnected within the monomer with channels that can serve as pathways for water molecules, cations and small molecules.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:Publisher


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