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[PMID]: 28880045
[Au] Autor:Karl M; Staufenbiel R
[Ad] Address:Dr. Maria Karl, Höhenweg 21 a, 15366 Hoppegarten, E-Mail: maria.klingbeil@web.de.
[Ti] Title:Einflussfaktoren auf die Kalziumkonzentration im Erstkolostrum bei Holstein-Friesian-Kühen und deren Beziehung zur postpartalen Kalziumkonzentration im Blut. [Factors influencing first-colostrum calcium concentration in Holstein-Friesian cows and the relationship to postpartum calcium concentration].
[So] Source:Tierarztl Prax Ausg G Grosstiere Nutztiere;45(5):269-277, 2017 Oct 17.
[Is] ISSN:1434-1220
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:ger
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE: To investigate the factors that affect the calcium content of the first colostrum (milk exclusively of the first withdrawal) and the relationship to the blood calcium concentration. We tested the hypotheses that the lactation number is the main influence factor and that there is a relationship to the postpartum serum calcium concentration. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An observational study was conducted from April 2012 to March 2013 at a commercial dairy farm (2278 Holstein-Friesian cows). The analysis comprised the following variables: blood serum concentrations of calcium, phosphate, non-esterified fatty acids, and ß-hydroxybutyrate; back-fat thickness; daily milk production; calving data; lactation number; male parent of the cow; length of gestation; age at first calving; dry-period duration; fertility parameters of prelactation; diseases during the dry period and up to 3 days postpartum. A stepwise analysis of the data for correlations and influencing factors was conducted by means of variance, correlation, and multiple linear regression analyses. RESULTS: The mean calcium concentration of the colostrum was 2386 mg/l (standard deviation 550 mg/l), with heifers having a higher value by 148.5 mg/l than pluriparous cows. Factors influencing the colostrum calcium content were the mean milk production during the first week of lactation and the back-fat thickness at drying off. The correlation to the milk production was negative, which may be a dilution effect. An increase in back-fat thickness caused an increase in the colostrum calcium concentration. Together, these two factors explained 25% of the colostrum calcium variation. The lactation number and the blood calcium concentration were not significant influence factors on the colostrum calcium content. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The hypotheses could not be confirmed in that there was neither a relationship of to the blood calcium concentration nor of the lactation number with the colostrum calcium content. The colostrum calcium content displayed a wide individual variation. However, there was a possible influence through milk production and back-fat thickness, but this would not be beneficial with regard to prophylaxis of parturient paresis.
[Pt] Publication type:ENGLISH ABSTRACT; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1709
[Cu] Class update date: 171018
[Lr] Last revision date:171018
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.15653/TPG-160684

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[PMID]: 28593867
[Au] Autor:Perruchoud T; Maeschli A; Bachmann H; Walkenhorst M; Schüpbach G; Mevissen M; Zanolari P
[Ad] Address:Wiederkäuerklinik, Vetsuisse-Fakultät, Universität Bern.
[Ti] Title:Diagnose, Therapie und prophylaktische Massnahmen der Gebärparese beim Rind: Ergebnisse der Online-Umfrage bei Schweizer Tierärzten. [Diagnosis, therapy and prophylactic measures of parturient paresis in dairy cattle: results of an online survey for Swiss veterinarians].
[So] Source:Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd;159(6):335-343, 2017 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:0036-7281
[Cp] Country of publication:Switzerland
[La] Language:ger
[Ab] Abstract:INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to obtain the diagnostic, therapeutic and prophylactic approach among Swiss veterinary practitioners in cows with parturient hypocalcemia. All members of the Association for Ruminant Health were contacted per e-mail. The survey was completed by 108 (28%) of 393 that were contacted. According to the questionnaire responses, the typical presentation of a parturient paresis cow is a pluriparous middle-yielding dairy cow one day post-partum in sternal recumbency with normal consciousness. The diagnosis is usually based upon the medical history. Therapy of parturient paresis consists of mixed infusions (with calcium, phosphorus, magnesium or glucose) as well as oral preparations with calcium. The veterinarians estimate that 25-50% of the cows treated for parturient paresis need more than one treatment and that one case of parturient paresis costs CHF 200-300. Prophylactic treatments are usually used for cows, which have suffered from parturient paresis in the previous lactation, elder cows (≥ 3 lactations) as well as cows with a high body condition score (> 3.25). Prophylactic measures used by the veterinarians are vitamin D3 injections and oral preparations with calcium. They recommended a special diet, for example a low calcium diet ante-partum.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Cattle Diseases/diagnosis
Cattle Diseases/therapy
Dairying/methods
Parturient Paresis/diagnosis
Parturient Paresis/therapy
Veterinarians/statistics & numerical data
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Calcium/therapeutic use
Cattle
Cattle Diseases/drug therapy
Cattle Diseases/prevention & control
Cholecalciferol/therapeutic use
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Humans
Parturient Paresis/drug therapy
Parturient Paresis/prevention & control
Pregnancy
Surveys and Questionnaires
Switzerland
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:1C6V77QF41 (Cholecalciferol); SY7Q814VUP (Calcium)
[Em] Entry month:1709
[Cu] Class update date: 170914
[Lr] Last revision date:170914
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170609
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.17236/sat00119

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[PMID]: 28515515
[Au] Autor:Dhansura T; Shaikh N
[Ad] Address:Department of Anaesthesiology, Saifee Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.
[Ti] Title:The parturient in the interventional radiology suite: New frontier in obstetric anaesthesia.
[So] Source:Indian J Anaesth;61(4):289-294, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:0019-5049
[Cp] Country of publication:India
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The anaesthesiologist's presence during interventional radiology (IR) is increasing due to increasingly ill patients and intricate procedures. The management of a parturient in IR suite is complex in terms of logistics of an unfamiliar procedure in an unfamiliar area. The literature available is largely written by radiologists with little attention paid to anaesthetic details and considerations. In the Indian scenario, in the absence of hybrid operating rooms (ORs), logistics involve transport of a parturient back and forth between the IR suite and the OR. As members of a multidisciplinary team, anaesthesiologists should utilise their expertise in fluid management, transfusion therapy and critical care to prevent and treat catastrophic events that may accompany severe peri-partum bleeding. Ensuring familiarity with the variety of IR procedures and the peri-procedure requirements can help the anaesthesiologist provide optimum care in the IR suite.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1705
[Cu] Class update date: 170816
[Lr] Last revision date:170816
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.4103/ija.IJA_438_16

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[PMID]: 28342973
[Au] Autor:Bachmann H; Lanz M; Kehrle S; Bittner W; Toggenburger A; Mathis GA; Rambeck W
[Ad] Address:Herbonis AG, Malzgasse 9, CH-4052, Augst, Basel, Switzerland. Electronic address: h.bachmann@herbonis.com.
[Ti] Title:Effects of a sustained release formulation of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-glycosides for milk fever prevention on serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, calcium and phosphorus in dairy cows.
[So] Source:J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol;173:301-307, 2017 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1879-1220
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Milk fever (MF) is a metabolic disease in dairy cows around parturition. The clinical lead sign is muscular paresis leading in severe cases to paralysis of the affected animal. Multiparturient animals of high performing dairy breeds are most likely to be affected and have a high probability of recurrence. An acute drop in blood calcium levels causes the disease when the demand for calcium at the onset of lactation exceeds the ability to replete blood calcium levels through mobilization from bone and intestinal uptake. With the understanding of the underlying mechanism, calcium supply management and vitamin D supplementation became prime candidates for MF prevention and therapy. Several strategies have been developed for MF prevention. Application of the active form of Vitamin D, 1,25(OH) D , was found to prevent MF effectively. In order to prevent a delayed hypocalcemia, which was occasionally seen after stopping the treatment with 1,25(OH) D a new approach was chosen by applying Solanum glaucophyllum extract (SGE), which contains 1,25(OH) D -glycosides, as instant-release (irSGE) in combination with slow-release (srSGE) tablets. In a first study, non-lactating cows were treated with a single bolus of either synthetic 1,25(OH) D , irSGE, or srSGE and the results were compared to a control group without treatment. Blood serum levels of 1,25(OH) D (1,25D), calcium (Ca), phosphate (P) and magnesium (Mg) were followed for 11days and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. Calcium and phosphate excretion in urine were determined during 15days. While serum concentration of 1,25(OH) D was back to pre-treatment level in the irSGE, srSGE and 1,25(OH) D treated group within 3days, calcium and phosphate levels remained elevated for up to 9days. AUC of serum 1,25(OH) D was 2.89 (1,25D), 3.13 (irSGE) and 4.21 (srSGE) times higher than control. Serum calcium levels were 1.07 (for 1.25D); 1.08 (for irSGE) and 1.12 (for srSGE) times higher than control. Serum phosphate levels were 1.20 (for 1,25D); 1.30 (for irSGE) and 1.41 (for srSGE) times higher than control, with p<0.05. In a second field study calving cows treated with one bolus containing ir- and sr- tablets of SGE were compared to an untreated control group and to a group treated with 4 boli of commercial calcium salts. As a result, calcium serum levels increased (+19% compared to baseline) around calving after treatment with the single bolus of SGE. The single bolus of SGE lead also to an increase of serum phosphate (+31% compared to baseline). These calcium and phosphate increases were statistically significant (p<0.001) 0-24h after calving compared to the control group and to the group treated with calcium salts. The sample size of the study was too small to draw a conclusion on the effect on MF prevention. In conclusion, application of a single bolus of a SGE extract lead to an increase of serum calcium and phosphate for up to 9days and may thus have the potential to prevent a hypocalcemia and -phosphatemia, an important cause for clinical milk fever.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Calcitriol/administration & dosage
Cattle Diseases/prevention & control
Hypocalcemia/veterinary
Parturient Paresis/prevention & control
Vitamins/administration & dosage
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Calcitriol/blood
Calcitriol/chemistry
Calcitriol/therapeutic use
Calcium/blood
Cattle
Cattle Diseases/blood
Delayed-Action Preparations/chemistry
Female
Glycosides/administration & dosage
Glycosides/blood
Glycosides/chemistry
Glycosides/therapeutic use
Hypocalcemia/blood
Hypocalcemia/prevention & control
Parturient Paresis/blood
Pregnancy
Vitamins/blood
Vitamins/chemistry
Vitamins/therapeutic use
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Delayed-Action Preparations); 0 (Glycosides); 0 (Vitamins); FXC9231JVH (Calcitriol); SY7Q814VUP (Calcium)
[Em] Entry month:1711
[Cu] Class update date: 171107
[Lr] Last revision date:171107
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170327
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 27805247
[Au] Autor:Karl M; Staufenbiel R
[Ad] Address:Dr. Maria Karl, Höhenweg 21 a, 15366 Hoppegarten, E-Mail: maria.klingbeil@web.de.
[Ti] Title:Einflussfaktoren auf die Erstkolostrummenge bei Holstein-Friesian-Kühen und deren Beziehungen zur postpartalen Kalziumkonzentration. [Investigation of influence factors on quantity of first colostrum in Holstein Friesian cows and their relation to postpartum calcium concentration].
[So] Source:Tierarztl Prax Ausg G Grosstiere Nutztiere;44(6):345-354, 2016 Dec 05.
[Is] ISSN:1434-1220
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:ger
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the factors that affect the quantity of the first colostrum in Holstein Friesian cows and the relationship to the blood serum calcium concentration postpartum. It should be verified whether: 1. the lactation number is the main influencing factor; 2. the quantity of the first colostrum is etiologic for developing parturient paresis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An observational study was conducted from April 2012 to March 2013 at a commercial dairy farm (2278 Holstein Friesian cows). The analysis comprised the following variables: blood serum concentrations of calcium, phosphorus, non-esterified fatty acids, and ß-hydroxybutyrate; back-fat thickness; daily milk production; calving data; lactation number; male parent of the cow; length of gestation; age at first calving; duration of the dry period; fertility parameters of prelactation; diseases during the dry period and up to 3 days postpartum. A stepwise analysis of the data for correlations and influencing factors was conducted by means of variance, correlation, and multiple linear regression analyses. RESULTS: The mean colostrum quantity was 5.6 kg with a standard deviation of 3.41 kg. A number of influencing factors affected the colostrum quantity. One quarter of the variability of the colostrum quantity could be explained by the influencing factors examined. A dominant effect of the lactation number was not confirmed. Instead, the effect of the lactation number was attenuated by the more potent factors milk production in the following lactation period, diseases after calving, duration of the dry period, the male parent of the cow (genetics), and the weight of the calf. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Selective breeding for high milk production and using bulls whose female offspring have high milk production can at the same time lead to breeding for high colostrum quantities. A dry period duration of 50 days is recommendable with respect to colostrum quantity. The two hypotheses could not be confirmed.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Calcium/blood
Cattle/physiology
Colostrum/physiology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Breeding
Female
Lactation/physiology
Male
Milk/chemistry
Postpartum Period
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; OBSERVATIONAL STUDY
[Nm] Name of substance:SY7Q814VUP (Calcium)
[Em] Entry month:1706
[Cu] Class update date: 170601
[Lr] Last revision date:170601
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:161103
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 27655160
[Au] Autor:Braun U; Grob D; Hässig M
[Ad] Address:Department for Farm Animals, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich.
[Ti] Title:Behandlung der Gebärparese von Kühen mit Kalzium intravenös und Natriumphosphat per os. Treatment of cows with parturient paresis using intravenous calcium and oral sodium phosphate.
[So] Source:Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd;158(9):615-622, 2016 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:0036-7281
[Cp] Country of publication:Switzerland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:INTRODUCTION: The goal of this study was to investigate whether intravenous infusion of 1000 ml 40% calcium borogluconate combined with the oral adminstration of 500 g sodium phosphate leads to a better cure rate and longer-lasting normocalcaemia and normophosphataemia than standard intravenous treatment with 500 ml calcium borogluconate in cows with parturient paresis. Forty recumbent cows with hypocalcaemia and hypophosphataemia were alternately allocated to group A or B. Cows of both groups were treated intravenously with 500 ml 40% calcium borogluconate, and cows of group B additionally received another 500 ml calcium borogluconate via slow intravenous infusion and 500 g sodium phosphate administered via an orogastric tube. Thirty-two cows stood within 8 hours after the start of treatment and 8 did not; of the 32 cows that stood, 18 belonged to group A and 14 to group B (90% of group A vs. 70% of group B; P = 0.23). Seven cows relapsed; of these and the 8 that did not respond to initial treatment, 10 stood after two standard intravenous treatments. Downer cow syndrome occurred in 5 cows, 3 of which recovered after aggressive therapy. The overall cure rate did not differ significantly between groups A and B. Twelve (60%) cows of group A and 14 (70%) cows of group B were cured after a single treatment and of the remaining 14, 11 were cured after two or more treatments. Two downer cows were euthanized and one other died of heart failure during treatment. Serum calcium concentrations during the first eight hours after the start of treatment were significantly higher in group B than in group A, and oral sodium phosphate caused a significant and lasting increase in inorganic phosphate. More cows of group B than group A were cured after a single treatment (P > 0.05). These findings, although not statistically significant, are promising and should be verified using a larger number of cows.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Boric Acids/administration & dosage
Cattle Diseases/drug therapy
Drug Therapy, Combination/veterinary
Parturient Paresis/drug therapy
Phosphates/administration & dosage
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Administration, Oral
Animals
Calcium/blood
Cattle
Drug Therapy, Combination/standards
Female
Infusions, Intravenous/veterinary
Pregnancy
Treatment Outcome
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Boric Acids); 0 (Phosphates); 87-46-7 (borogluconate); SE337SVY37 (sodium phosphate); SY7Q814VUP (Calcium)
[Em] Entry month:1612
[Cu] Class update date: 161230
[Lr] Last revision date:161230
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:160923
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.17236/sat00081

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[PMID]: 27614830
[Au] Autor:Tsiamadis V; Banos G; Panousis N; Kritsepi-Konstantinou M; Arsenos G; Valergakis GE
[Ad] Address:Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Box 393, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki, Greece.
[Ti] Title:Genetic parameters of subclinical macromineral disorders and major clinical diseases in postparturient Holstein cows.
[So] Source:J Dairy Sci;99(11):8901-8914, 2016 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1525-3198
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The main objective of this study was to assess the genetic parameters of subclinical disorders associated with subclinical hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia, subclinical hypomagnesemia, hypokalemia, and hyperphosphatemia, as well as major clinical diseases after calving in Holstein cows. The secondary objective was to estimate the associated genetic and phenotypic correlations among these subclinical and clinical conditions after calving in Holstein cows. The study was conducted in 9dairy herds located in Northern Greece. None of the herds used any kind of preventive measures for milk fever (MF). A total of 1,021 Holstein cows with pedigree information were examined from November 2010 until November 2012. The distribution across parities was 466 (parity 1), 242 (parity 2), 165 (parity 3), and 148 (parity 4 and above) cows. All cows were subjected to a detailed clinical examination and blood was sampled on d 1, 2, 4, and 8 after calving. Serum concentrations of Ca, P, Mg, and K were measured in all samples, whereas ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) was measured only for d 8. The final data set included 4,064 clinical and 16,848 biochemical records (4,020 Ca, 4,019 P, 4,020Mg, 3,792K, and 997 BHB). Data of 1,988 observations of body condition score at d 1 and 8 were also available. All health traits were analyzed with a univariate random regression model. The genetic analysis for macromineral-related disorders included 986 cows with no obvious signs of MF (35 cows with MF were excluded). Analysis for other health traits included all 1,021 cows. A similar single record model was used for the analysis of BHB. Genetic correlations among traits were estimated with a series of bivariate analyses. Statistically significant daily heritabilities of subclinical hypocalcemia (0.13-0.25), hypophosphatemia (0.18-0.33), subclinical hypomagnesemia (0.11-0.38), and hyperphosphatemia (0.14-0.22) were low to moderate, whereas that of hypokalemia was low (0.08-0.10). The heritability of body condition score was 0.20±0.10. Statistically significant daily heritabilities of clinical diseases were those of MF (0.07-0.11), left displaced abomasum (0.19-0.31), and mastitis (0.15-0.41). Results suggest that these health disorders are heritable traits and could be minimized with proper genetic selection. Statistically significant phenotypic correlations were estimated for the first time between macromineral concentrations and almost all transition cow metabolic and infectious health disorders.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Lactation/genetics
Parity
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: 3-Hydroxybutyric Acid
Animals
Cattle
Female
Hypocalcemia/veterinary
Minerals
Parturient Paresis
Pregnancy
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Minerals); TZP1275679 (3-Hydroxybutyric Acid)
[Em] Entry month:1705
[Cu] Class update date: 171105
[Lr] Last revision date:171105
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:160912
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 27372587
[Au] Autor:Pryce JE; Parker Gaddis KL; Koeck A; Bastin C; Abdelsayed M; Gengler N; Miglior F; Heringstad B; Egger-Danner C; Stock KF; Bradley AJ; Cole JB
[Ad] Address:Department of Economic Developments, Jobs, Transport and Resources and La Trobe University, Agribio, 5 Ring Road, Bundoora, VIC 3083, Australia. Electronic address: jennie.pryce@ecodev.vic.gov.au.
[Ti] Title:Invited review: Opportunities for genetic improvement of metabolic diseases.
[So] Source:J Dairy Sci;99(9):6855-6873, 2016 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1525-3198
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Metabolic disorders are disturbances to one or more of the metabolic processes in dairy cattle. Dysfunction of any of these processes is associated with the manifestation of metabolic diseases or disorders. In this review, data recording, incidences, genetic parameters, predictors, and status of genetic evaluations were examined for (1) ketosis, (2) displaced abomasum, (3) milk fever, and (4) tetany, as these are the most prevalent metabolic diseases where published genetic parameters are available. The reported incidences of clinical cases of metabolic disorders are generally low (less than 10% of cows are recorded as having a metabolic disease per herd per year or parity/lactation). Heritability estimates are also low and are typically less than 5%. Genetic correlations between metabolic traits are mainly positive, indicating that selection to improve one of these diseases is likely to have a positive effect on the others. Furthermore, there may also be opportunities to select for general disease resistance in terms of metabolic stability. Although there is inconsistency in published genetic correlation estimates between milk yield and metabolic traits, selection for milk yield may be expected to lead to a deterioration in metabolic disorders. Under-recording and difficulty in diagnosing subclinical cases are among the reasons why interest is growing in using easily measurable predictors of metabolic diseases, either recorded on-farm by using sensors and milk tests or off-farm using data collected from routine milk recording. Some countries have already initiated genetic evaluations of metabolic disease traits and currently most of these use clinical observations of disease. However, there are opportunities to use clinical diseases in addition to predictor traits and genomic information to strengthen genetic evaluations for metabolic health in the future.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Breeding
Cattle Diseases/epidemiology
Cattle Diseases/genetics
Metabolic Diseases/veterinary
Parturient Paresis/epidemiology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Cattle
Female
Incidence
Ketosis/epidemiology
Ketosis/genetics
Ketosis/veterinary
Lactation
Metabolic Diseases/epidemiology
Metabolic Diseases/genetics
Milk/secretion
Parity
Parturient Paresis/genetics
Pregnancy
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1703
[Cu] Class update date: 170911
[Lr] Last revision date:170911
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:160704
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 27179871
[Au] Autor:Venjakob PL; Borchardt S; Thiele G; Heuwieser W
[Ad] Address:Clinic for Animal Reproduction, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Freie Universität Berlin, Koenigsweg 65, 14163 Berlin, Germany; Veterinary practice G. Thiele, Baruth, Germany.
[Ti] Title:Evaluation of ear skin temperature as a cow-side test to predict postpartum calcium status in dairy cows.
[So] Source:J Dairy Sci;99(8):6542-6549, 2016 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1525-3198
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Subclinical hypocalcemia is considered a gateway disease that increases susceptibility to other metabolic and infectious diseases in transition dairy cows. In the absence of a cow-side test, however, it is difficult to identify hypocalcemic cows. The objective of this study was to evaluate ear skin temperature as a diagnostic predictor of serum calcium concentration. We conducted a cross-sectional study on 7 commercial dairy farms, involving 251 cows 0 to 48h after calving. Skin temperature of the ears (STEar) was scored manually by palpating both ears. An infrared thermometer was used to measure ear temperature, skin temperature on the coxal tuber (STCox), and ambient temperature. Rectal temperature was measured using a digital thermometer. A blood sample was drawn to determine serum calcium concentration. Hypocalcemia was defined as serum calcium below 2.0mmol/L, irrespective of clinical symptoms. Serum calcium concentration <2.0mmol/L in connection with clinical symptoms was defined as clinical milk fever; serum calcium concentration <2.0mmol/L without clinical symptoms was defined as subclinical hypocalcemia. Multivariate analysis using the GENLINMIXED procedure and receiver operating characteristic analysis were performed to evaluate whether serum calcium concentration could be predicted using ear temperature and other temperature estimates. The prevalence of hypocalcemia was 3.3, 27.3, 32.8, and 69.6% for cows in first, second, third, and fourth or greater lactation, respectively. None of the cows in first and second lactation had clinical milk fever. The prevalence of clinical milk fever was 6.0 and 20.3% for cows in their third and fourth or greater lactation, respectively. A decrease in ear temperature of 0.39°C [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.25-0.54] was associated with a decrease of 0.1mmol/L in serum calcium concentration. Ambient temperature, however, was a major confounder for ear temperature. With an increase in ambient temperature of 1°C, STEar rose by 0.78°C (95% CI: 0.67-0.90). Hypothermia was more pronounced in clinical milk fever (median 21.8°C; interquartile range 14.7-27.0°C) compared with subclinical hypocalcemia (median 27.6°C, interquartile range 22.1-30.8°C). All temperature estimates had only accurate test characteristics based on their area under the curve for prediction of subclinical hypocalcemia (area under the curve for STEar, STCox, and rectal temperature were 0.641, 0.668, and 0.606, respectively) when cows with clinical milk fever were excluded. Although ear temperature has been associated with serum calcium concentration, ear temperature cannot be recommended for diagnosis of subclinical hypocalcemia.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Calcium/blood
Skin Temperature
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Cattle
Cattle Diseases/blood
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Lactation
Parturient Paresis/blood
Postpartum Period
Pregnancy
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:SY7Q814VUP (Calcium)
[Em] Entry month:1705
[Cu] Class update date: 171021
[Lr] Last revision date:171021
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:160516
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 26932447
[Au] Autor:Pieper L; Wall K; Müller AE; Roder A; Staufenbiel R
[Ad] Address:Dr. Laura Pieper, Klinik für Klauentiere, Freie Universität Berlin, Königsweg 65, 14163 Berlin, E-Mail: laura.pieper@fu-berlin.de.
[Ti] Title:Untersuchungen zur Schwefelversorgung von Milchkühen in Deutschland. [Evaluation of sulfur status in dairy cows in Germany].
[So] Source:Tierarztl Prax Ausg G Grosstiere Nutztiere;44(2):92-8, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:1434-1220
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:ger
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE: Sulfur deficiency and toxicity in livestock is associated with decreased performance and diseases. However, little is known about the diagnostics of sulfur status in dairy herds. The objectives of this study were to describe sulfur concentrations in feed rations in German dairy herds, to assess associations between feed sulfur concentrations and health and milk yield, to determine suitable laboratory diagnostic methods of sulfur status, and to propose reference values for the assessment of sulfur status in different sample media. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 2006 and 2014, a total of 569 dairy herds were visited. Blood, urine, and hair samples were obtained from 10 animals per group in the groups -3 to 0, 0 to 1, 3 to 5, and 15 to 18 weeks post partum (p. p.) (farms > 200 animals) or -3 to 0, 0 to 5, and 6 to 20 weeks p. p. (farms ≤ 200 animals). Pooled whole blood, serum, plasma, urine, and hair samples (n = 5663) were analyzed by ICP-OES. The sulfur content of the total mixed ration (TMR) of the group -3 to 0 weeks p. p. was determined in a certified feed laboratory (n = 625). Data analyses were performed using ANOVA, Chi-squared test and Spearman-correlation. Reference values were determined using the 2.5% and 97.5% percentiles. RESULTS: Median sulfur concentration in the feed rations was 2.3 g/kg dry matter (DM). Deficiency (< 1.6 g/kg DM; 31% of farms) and oversupply (> 4.0 g/kg DM; 11% of farms) of sulfur in feed rations were regularly diagnosed. Sulfur deficiency was associated with reduced milk yield (p  <   0.001), retained placenta (OR  =   1.74; p  =  0.037), milk fever (OR  =  2.68; p  <  0.001) and silent heat (OR  = 2.56; p   =  0.014). Positive correlations were found between sulfur concentration in feed rations and sulfur content in urine (r  =  0.50), serum (r  =  0.17), plasma (r  =  0.18) and whole blood (r = 0.16). Reference values for sulfur diagnostics in dairy herds were proposed. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Diagnostics of sulfur status in dairy herds is relevant for veterinary practitioners and can be performed using TMR analysis and clinical laboratory parameters. Urine can be considered a short-term parameter, serum, plasma, and whole blood as intermediate parameters, and hair as a long-term parameter for the evaluation of the sulfur status.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Animal Feed/analysis
Cattle/physiology
Health Status
Lactation/physiology
Sulfur/analysis
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Cattle/blood
Cattle/urine
Cattle Diseases/metabolism
Female
Hair/chemistry
Parturient Paresis/metabolism
Placenta, Retained/metabolism
Placenta, Retained/veterinary
Pregnancy
Reference Values
Sulfur/deficiency
Sulfur/toxicity
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:70FD1KFU70 (Sulfur)
[Em] Entry month:1611
[Cu] Class update date: 161230
[Lr] Last revision date:161230
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:160303
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.15653/TPG-150901


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