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[PMID]: 25283381
[Au] Autor:Paniello RC; Rich JT; Debnath NL
[Ad] Address:Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri, U.S.A; the St. Louis Veterans Affairs Medical Center, St. Louis, Missouri, U.S.A.
[Ti] Title:Laryngeal adductor function in experimental models of recurrent laryngeal nerve injury.
[So] Source:Laryngoscope;125(2):E67-72, 2015 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1531-4995
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Most patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis experience some degree of spontaneous reinnervation, which depends upon the type and severity of recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury. After partial recovery, the paretic vocal fold may or may not adduct adequately to allow glottic closure, which in turn affects phonatory and swallowing outcomes. This process was studied in a series of canine laryngeal nerve injury models. STUDY DESIGN: Animal (canine) experiments. METHODS: Maximum stimulable laryngeal adductor pressure (LAP) was measured pretreatment (baseline) and at 6 months following experimental RLN injuries (total n = 59). The nine study groups were designed to simulate a range of severities of RLN injury. RESULTS: The greatest LAP recovery, at 108% of original baseline, was seen in a 50% transection model; the least recovery was seen when the RLN underwent complete transection with repair, at 56% with precise alignment and 50% with alignment reversed. Intermediate models (partial RLN injuries) gave intermediate results. Crush models recovered 105% of LAP, whereas a half-transection, half-crush injury recovered 72%, and cautery injuries recovered 61%. Controls (complete transection without repair) had no measurable recovery. CONCLUSIONS: The injured RLN has a strong tendency to recover. Restoration of adductor strength, as determined by the LAP, was predictably related to the severity of RLN injury. The model RLN injuries studied provide a range of expected outcomes that can be used for future experiments exploring interventions that may improve postinjury adductor function. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: NA Laryngoscope, 125:E67-E72, 2015.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1501
[Cu] Class update date: 150124
[Lr] Last revision date:150124
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1002/lary.24947

  2 / 4066470 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25263939
[Au] Autor:Krings JG; Kallogjeri D; Wineland A; Nepple KG; Piccirillo JF; Getz AE
[Ad] Address:Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri; Stanford Medical Scholars Fellowship, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California.
[Ti] Title:Complications following primary and revision transsphenoidal surgeries for pituitary tumors.
[So] Source:Laryngoscope;125(2):311-7, 2015 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1531-4995
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: This study aimed to determine the incidence of major complications following both primary and revision transsphenoidal pituitary surgery. Major complications included endocrinopathic, skull base, orbital, hemorrhagic and thromboembolic complications, respiratory failure, and death. Secondarily, this study aimed to examine factors associated with the occurrence of complications. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort analysis of California and Florida all-payer databases from 2005 to 2008. METHODS: The major complication rate following both primary and revision transsphenoidal pituitary surgery was calculated. Bivariate analyses were performed to investigate the relationship of patient characteristics with complication occurrence, and a multivariate model was constructed to determine risk factors associated with these complications. RESULTS: There were 5,277 primary cases and 192 revision cases that met inclusion criteria. There was a nonsignificant absolute difference of 3.09% (95% confidence interval [CI]: -11.00 to 16.14) between the rate of complications following primary (n = 443, 8.39%) and revision (n = 22, 11.46%) surgeries. Multivariate analyses showed that patients with Medicare (odds ratio [OR]:1.74, 95% CI: 1.17 to 2.61), Medicaid (OR: 2.13, 95% CI: 1.59 to 2.86), or a malignant neoplasm (OR: 3.10, 95% CI: 1.62 to 5.93) were more likely to have complications. CONCLUSIONS: The rate of major complications following transsphenoidal pituitary surgery is lower than earlier retrospective reports. The overall complication rate following revision surgery was not significantly different from primary surgery. Insurance status and a diagnosis of a malignant neoplasm were associated with a higher rate of complications. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 2C Laryngoscope, 125:311-317, 2015.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1501
[Cu] Class update date: 150124
[Lr] Last revision date:150124
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1002/lary.24892

  3 / 4066470 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25200807
[Au] Autor:Redshaw JD; Broghammer JA; Smith TG; Voelzke BB; Erickson BA; McClung CD; Elliott SP; Alsikafi NF; Presson AP; Aberger ME; Craig JR; Brant WO; Myers JB
[Ad] Address:Department of Surgery, the Center for Reconstructive Urology and Men's Health, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah....
[Ti] Title:Intralesional Injection of Mitomycin C at Transurethral Incision of Bladder Neck Contracture May Offer Limited Benefit: TURNS Study Group.
[So] Source:J Urol;193(2):587-92, 2015 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1527-3792
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:PURPOSE: Injection of mitomycin C may increase the success of transurethral incision of the bladder neck for the treatment of bladder neck contracture. We evaluated the efficacy of mitomycin C injection across multiple institutions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data on all patients who underwent transurethral incision of the bladder neck with mitomycin C from 2009 to 2014 were retrospectively reviewed from 6 centers in the TURNS. Patients with at least 3 months of cystoscopic followup were included in the analysis. RESULTS: A total of 66 patients underwent transurethral incision of the bladder neck with mitomycin C and 55 meeting the study inclusion criteria were analyzed. Mean ± SD patient age was 64 ± 7.6 years. Dilation or prior transurethral incision of the bladder neck failed in 80% (44 of 55) of patients. Overall 58% (32 of 55) of patients achieved resolution of bladder neck contracture after 1 transurethral incision of the bladder neck with mitomycin C at a median followup of 9.2 months (IQR 11.7). There were 23 patients who had recurrence at a median of 3.7 months (IQR 4.2), 15 who underwent repeat transurethral incision of the bladder neck with mitomycin C and 9 of 15 (60%) who were free of another recurrence at a median of 8.6 months (IQR 8.8), for an overall success rate of 75% (41 of 55). Incision with electrocautery (Collins knife) was predictive of success compared with cold knife incision (63% vs 50%, p=0.03). Four patients experienced serious adverse events related to mitomycin C and 3 needed or are planning cystectomy. CONCLUSIONS: The efficacy of intralesional injection of mitomycin C at transurethral incision of the bladder neck was lower than previously reported and was associated with a 7% rate of serious adverse events.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1501
[Cu] Class update date: 150124
[Lr] Last revision date:150124
[Js] Journal subset:AIM; IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  4 / 4066470 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25108275
[Au] Autor:Schroeck FR; Kaufman SR; Jacobs BL; Hollenbeck BK
[Ad] Address:Division of Health Services Research, Department of Urology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan; Division of Urologic Oncology, Department of Urology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan; Section of Urology, Department of Surgery, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Ham...
[Ti] Title:Receipt of best care according to current quality of care measures and outcomes in men with prostate cancer.
[So] Source:J Urol;193(2):500-6, 2015 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1527-3792
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:PURPOSE: We evaluated whether patients with prostate cancer who received best care according to a set of 5 nationally endorsed quality measures had decreased treatment related morbidity and improved cancer control. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study we included 38,055 men from the SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results)-Medicare database treated for localized prostate cancer between 2004 and 2010. We determined whether each patient received best care, defined as care adherent to all applicable measures. We measured associations of best care with the need for interventions, addressing treatment related morbidity, and with the need for secondary cancer therapy using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: Only 3,412 men (9.0%) received best care. Five years after treatment these men and men who did not receive best care had a similar likelihood of undergoing procedures for urinary morbidity (prostatectomy subset 10.7% vs 12.9%, p = 0.338) and secondary cancer therapy (prostatectomy for high risk prostate cancer subset 40.9% vs 37.3%, p = 0.522). However, they were more likely to be treated with a procedure for sexual morbidity (prostatectomy 17.3% vs 10.8%, p <0.001). Similar trends were observed in men treated with radiotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Overall men who received best care did not fare better in regard to treatment related morbidity or cancer control. Collectively our findings suggest that the current process of care measures are not tightly linked to outcomes and further research is needed to identify better measures that are meaningful and important to patients.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1501
[Cu] Class update date: 150124
[Lr] Last revision date:150124
[Js] Journal subset:AIM; IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  5 / 4066470 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 23913129
[Au] Autor:Vijayan T; Zheng P; Nguyen C; Brown AM; Chen YW; Peters MG
[Ad] Address:Division of Infectious Diseases, University of California, San Francisco, 513 Parnassus Ave, Room S-380, San Francisco, CA, 94143-0654, USA, tara.vijayan@ucsf.edu.
[Ti] Title:Survey of asian patients with hepatitis B infection: limited knowledge of transmission and screening of family members.
[So] Source:J Immigr Minor Health;17(1):112-7, 2015 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1557-1920
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Asian American families are disproportionately affected by Hepatitis B (HBV) infection. We aimed to assess the extent of screening family members of Asian patients with known HBV infection as well as patients' knowledge of HBV disease. A cross-sectional survey of established Asian patients with HBV-infection was performed at a university liver clinic. Outcome measures included the percentage of family members whose HBV serostatus was unknown and the percentage of patients who were able to correctly identify modes of transmission. A total of 803 US-based family members were identified by 58 patients. Patients did not know the HBV serostatus of 50 % of their family members and 28 % of their immediate family members. Fifty percent of participants did not know how they had acquired HBV or stated unlikely transmission modes. Though nationwide vaccination campaigns target this underrepresented population, screening family members of Asian patients with HBV remains a challenge.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1501
[Cu] Class update date: 150124
[Lr] Last revision date:150124
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1007/s10903-013-9883-8

  6 / 4066470 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25373706
[Au] Autor:Nguyen AH; Toste PA; Farrell JJ; Clerkin BM; Williams J; Muthusamy VR; Watson RR; Tomlinson JS; Hines OJ; Reber HA; Donahue TR
[Ad] Address:Department of Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 10833 Le Conte Ave, CHS 72-215, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA.
[Ti] Title:Current recommendations for surveillance and surgery of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms may overlook some patients with cancer.
[So] Source:J Gastrointest Surg;19(2):258-65, 2015 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1873-4626
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: The 2012 Sendai Criteria recommend that patients with 3 cm or larger branch duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (BD-IPMN) without any additional "worrisome features" or "high-risk stigmata" may undergo close observation. Furthermore, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is not recommended for BD-IPMN <2 cm. These changes have generated concern among physicians treating patients with pancreatic diseases. The purposes of this study were to (i) apply the new Sendai guidelines to our institution's surgically resected BD-IPMN and (ii) reevaluate cyst size cutoffs in identifying patients with lesions harboring high-grade dysplasia or invasive cancer. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 150 patients at a university medical center with preoperatively diagnosed and pathologically confirmed IPMNs. Sixty-six patients had BD-IPMN. Pathologic grade was dichotomized into low-grade (low or intermediate grade dysplasia) or high-grade/invasive (high-grade dysplasia or invasive cancers). Fisher's exact test, chi-square test, student's t test, linear regression, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were performed. RESULTS: The median BD-IPMN size on imaging was 2.4 cm (interquartile range 1.5-3.0). Fifty-one (77 %) low-grade and 15 (23 %) high-grade/invasive BD-IPMN were identified. ROC analysis demonstrated that cyst size on preoperative imaging is a reasonable predictor of grade with an area under the curve of 0.691. Two-thirds of high-grade/invasive BD-IPMN were <3 cm (n = 10). Compared to a cutoff of 3, 2 cm was associated with higher sensitivity (73.3 vs. 33.3 %) and negative predictive value (83.3 vs. 80 %, NPV) for high-grade/invasive BD-IPMN. Mural nodules on endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) or atypical cells on endoscopic ultrasound-fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) were identified in all cysts <2 and only 50 % of those <3 cm. Forty percent of cysts >3 cm were removed based on size alone. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that "larger" size on noninvasive imaging can indicate high-grade/invasive cysts, and EUS-FNA may help identify "smaller" cysts with high-grade/invasive pathology.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1501
[Cu] Class update date: 150124
[Lr] Last revision date:150124
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1007/s11605-014-2693-z

  7 / 4066470 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25319035
[Au] Autor:Palanisamy AP; Taber DJ; Sutter AG; Nadig SN; Dowden JE; McGillicuddy JW; Baliga PK; Chavin KD
[Ad] Address:Division of Transplant Surgery, Department of Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, 96 Jonathan Lucas Street, CSB 412, Charleston, SC, 29425, USA, arunp@musc.edu.
[Ti] Title:Clinical Outcomes and Costs Associated with In-hospital Biliary Complications After Liver Transplantation: a Cross-Sectional Analysis.
[So] Source:J Gastrointest Surg;19(2):282-9, 2015 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1873-4626
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:INTRODUCTION: In-hospital biliary complications (BCs) after liver transplantation (LT) are reported in up to 20 % of patients and contribute to poor outcomes and increased costs. Existing single-center outcome and cost analyses studies are limited in scope. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional analysis of national data involving 7,967 patients transplanted between 2011 and 2012 with the primary aim of determining the association between BCs and clinical outcomes and costs. Age, race, diagnosis, and severity of illness are associated with the development of BCs. RESULTS: BCs develop in 14.6 % of LT recipients and have substantial implications for perioperative outcomes, including length of hospital and ICU stay (27.9 vs 19.6 mean days, p < 0.001 and 12.0 vs 8.3 mean days, p < 0.001, respectively), in-hospital morbidity (39 vs 27 %, p < 0.001), 30-day readmissions (14.8 vs 11.2 %, p < 0.001), and in-hospital mortality (5.8 vs 4.0 %, p < 0.001). BCs contributed to a mean increase in in-hospital costs of $36,212 (p < 0.001), due to increases in accommodations ($9,539, p < 0.001), surgical services ($3,988, p < 0.001), and pharmacy services ($8,445, p < 0.001). DISCUSSION: BCs are a predominant etiology for in-hospital morbidity and mortality, while contributing significantly to the high cost of LT. Efforts should be focused on understanding salient and modifiable risk factors, while developing innovative strategies to reduce BCs.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1501
[Cu] Class update date: 150124
[Lr] Last revision date:150124
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1007/s11605-014-2675-1

  8 / 4066470 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25202916
[Au] Autor:Sheridan R; Belludi C; Khoury J; Stanek J; Handwerger S
[Ad] Address:Division of Pathology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati Medical College, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA....
[Ti] Title:FOXO1 expression in villous trophoblast of preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction placentas.
[So] Source:Histol Histopathol;30(2):213-22, 2015 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1699-5848
[Cp] Country of publication:Spain
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Oxidative stress and increased apoptosis are implicated in the pathogenesis of many disorders of pregnancy, including preeclampsia (PE) and fetal growth restriction (FGR). Since the transcription factor FOXO1 (forkhead box protein O1) is implicated in the regulation of a variety of cellular processes, including resistance to oxidative stress, apoptosis and morphogenesis of the placenta, we examined whether FOXO1 expression is abnormal in placentas from patients with PE or FGR. Paracentral sections from grossly unremarkable areas of 9 or 10 placentas each from early third trimester patients (31.7±5.0 weeks) with mild PE, severe PE, FGR and a gestational age-matched comparison group (GA controls) were double immunostained for FOXO1 and E-cadherin, the latter distinguishing villous cytotrophoblast cells (CTB) from syncytiotrophoblast (STB). The numbers of FOXO1-positive and FOXO1 negative STB and CTB nuclei were determined on ten 20x objective fields of each placenta section by three observers who were blinded to the clinical outcome. The results were evaluated by a generalized linear mixed model. In mild PE, FOXO1-positive STB nuclei were significantly decreased in number and FOXO1-negative STB nuclei were increased as compared to GA controls. However, the number of FOXO1-positive and FOXO1-negative CTB nuclei were not significantly changes as compared to GA controls. In severe PE and FGR, the numbers of FOXO-positive and FOXO1-negative STB and CTB were not statistically different from GA controls. Since FOXO1 is critical for placental cellular morphogenesis, abnormal FOXO1 expression may contribute in part to the abnormal trophoblast differentiation in mild PE. The differences in FOXO1 expression in mild and severe PE are consistent with other studies suggesting that the two forms of PE are different disease processes.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1501
[Cu] Class update date: 150124
[Lr] Last revision date:150124
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  9 / 4066470 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25447851
[Au] Autor:Palles C; Chegwidden L; Li X; Findlay JM; Farnham G; Castro Giner F; Peppelenbosch MP; Kovac M; Adams CL; Prenen H; Briggs S; Harrison R; Sanders S; MacDonald D; Haigh C; Tucker A; Love S; Nanji M; deCaestecker J; Ferry D; Rathbone B; Hapeshi J; Barr H; Moayyedi P; Watson P; Zietek B; Maroo N; Gay L; Underwood T; Boulter L; McMurtry H; Monk D; Patel P; Ragunath K; Al Dulaimi D; Murray I; Koss K; Veitch A; Trudgill N; Nwokolo C; Rembacken B; Atherfold P; Green E; Ang Y; Kuipers EJ; Chow W; Paterson S; Kadri S; Beales I; Grimley C
[Ad] Address:Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. Electronic address: cpalles@well.ox.ac.uk....
[Ti] Title:Polymorphisms Near TBX5 and GDF7 Are Associated With Increased Risk for Barrett's Esophagus.
[So] Source:Gastroenterology;148(2):367-78, 2015 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1528-0012
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND & AIMS: Barrett's esophagus (BE) increases the risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). We found the risk to be BE has been associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on chromosome 6p21 (within the HLA region) and on 16q23, where the closest protein-coding gene is FOXF1. Subsequently, the Barrett's and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Consortium (BEACON) identified risk loci for BE and esophageal adenocarcinoma near CRTC1 and BARX1, and within 100 kb of FOXP1. We aimed to identify further SNPs that increased BE risk and to validate previously reported associations. METHODS: We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify variants associated with BE and further analyzed promising variants identified by BEACON by genotyping 10,158 patients with BE and 21,062 controls. RESULTS: We identified 2 SNPs not previously associated with BE: rs3072 (2p24.1; odds ratio [OR] = 1.14; 95% CI: 1.09-1.18; P = 1.8 × 10(-11)) and rs2701108 (12q24.21; OR = 0.90; 95% CI: 0.86-0.93; P = 7.5 × 10(-9)). The closest protein-coding genes were respectively GDF7 (rs3072), which encodes a ligand in the bone morphogenetic protein pathway, and TBX5 (rs2701108), which encodes a transcription factor that regulates esophageal and cardiac development. Our data also supported in BE cases 3 risk SNPs identified by BEACON (rs2687201, rs11789015, and rs10423674). Meta-analysis of all data identified another SNP associated with BE and esophageal adenocarcinoma: rs3784262, within ALDH1A2 (OR = 0.90; 95% CI: 0.87-0.93; P = 3.72 × 10(-9)). CONCLUSIONS: We identified 2 loci associated with risk of BE and provided data to support a further locus. The genes we found to be associated with risk for BE encode transcription factors involved in thoracic, diaphragmatic, and esophageal development or proteins involved in the inflammatory response.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1501
[Cu] Class update date: 150124
[Lr] Last revision date:150124
[Js] Journal subset:AIM; IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  10 / 4066470 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25331941
[Au] Autor:Liu L; McCullough L; Li J
[Ti] Title:Genetic deletion of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase ß (CaMKK ß) or CaMK IV exacerbates stroke outcomes in ovariectomized (OVXed) female mice.
[So] Source:BMC Neurosci;15(1):118, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1471-2202
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Stroke is the primary cause of long-term disability in the United States. Interestingly, mounting evidence has suggested potential sex differences in the response to stroke treatment in patients as, at least in part, distinct cell death programs may be triggered in females and males following stroke. The NIH has recognized that females are strikingly under-represented in pre-clinical trials. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK) is a major kinase that is activated by elevated intracellular calcium. It has recently been suggested that CaMKK and CaMK IV, a downstream target molecule, are neuroprotective in stroke in males. In this study, we examined stroke outcomes in ovariectomized CaMKK ß and CaMK IV deficient females. Cell death/survival signaling and inflammatory responses were assessed. RESULTS: Our results demonstrated that CaMKK ß or CaMK IV KO exacerbated both ischemic injury and behavioral deficits in female mice. Genetic deletion of CaMKK ß or CaMK IV increased hemorrhagic transformation after stroke, and this was associated with both increased MMP9 activity and loss of the blood brain barrier (BBB) protein collagen IV. Transcriptional inactivation was observed in mice lacking either CaMKK ß or CaMK IV, as indicated by reduced levels of phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (p-CREB) and B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) proteins. Finally, inhibiting this pathway exacerbated the inflammatory response to stroke as CaMKK ß or CaMK IV KO mice had increased levels of the pro-inflammatory serum cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) after stroke. This suggests that the CaMKK pathway is involved in the immune response to brain injury. CONCLUSIONS: Inhibition of CaMKK signaling exacerbated stroke outcome and increased BBB impairment, transcriptional inactivation and inflammatory responses in females after stroke. Therefore, CaMKK signaling may be a potential target for stroke treatment in both males and females.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1501
[Cu] Class update date: 150124
[Lr] Last revision date:150124
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12868-014-0118-2


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