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[PMID]: 28826029
[Au] Autor:Masondo NA; Kulkarni MG; Finnie JF; Van Staden J
[Ad] Address:Research Centre for Plant Growth and Development, School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg Campus, Private Bag X01, Scottsville 3209, South Africa.
[Ti] Title:Influence of biostimulants-seed-priming on Ceratotheca triloba germination and seedling growth under low temperatures, low osmotic potential and salinity stress.
[So] Source:Ecotoxicol Environ Saf;147:43-48, 2018 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1090-2414
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Extreme temperatures, drought and salinity stress adversely affect seed germination and seedling growth in crop species. Seed priming has been recognized as an indispensable technique in the production of stress-tolerant plants. Seed priming increases seed water content, improves protein synthesis using mRNA and DNA and repair mitochondria in seeds prior to germination. The current study aimed to determine the role of biostimulants-seed-priming during germination and seedling growth of Ceratotheca triloba (Bernh.) Hook.f. (an indigenous African leafy vegetable) under low temperature, low osmotic potential and salinity stress conditions. Ceratotheca triloba seeds were primed with biostimulants [smoke-water (SW), synthesized smoke-compound karrikinolide (KAR ), Kelpak (commercial seaweed extract), phloroglucinol (PG) and distilled water (control)] for 48h at 25°C. Thereafter, primed seeds were germinated at low temperatures, low osmotic potential and high NaCl concentrations. Low temperature (10°C) completely inhibited seed germination. However, temperature shift to 15°C improved germination. Smoke-water and KAR enhanced seed germination with SW improving seedling growth under different stress conditions. Furthermore, priming seeds with Kelpak stimulated percentage germination, while PG and the control treatment improved seedling growth at different PEG and NaCl concentrations. Generally, high concentrations of PEG and NaCl brought about detrimental effects on seed germination and seedling growth. Findings from this study show the potential role of seed priming with biostimulants in the alleviation of abiotic stress conditions during seed germination and seedling growth in C. triloba plants.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Furans/pharmacology
Germination/drug effects
Pedaliaceae/drug effects
Pyrans/pharmacology
Seedlings/drug effects
Seeds/drug effects
Stress, Physiological/drug effects
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Cold Temperature
Droughts
Osmosis
Pedaliaceae/growth & development
Salinity
Seedlings/growth & development
South Africa
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Furans); 0 (Pyrans); 0 (karrikinolide)
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170822
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 29232753
[Au] Autor:Qadir A; Ali A; Arif M; Al-Rohaimi AH; Singh SP; Ahmad U; Khalid M; Kumar A
[Ad] Address:Faculty of Pharmacy, Integral University, Lucknow, India.
[Ti] Title:Solvent Extraction and GC-MS Analysis of Sesame Seeds for Determination of Bioactive Antioxidant Fatty Acid/Fatty Oil Components.
[So] Source:Drug Res (Stuttg);, 2017 Dec 12.
[Is] ISSN:2194-9387
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The seed kernels of Sesamum indicum L. (family: Pedaliaceae) were extracted with ethanol and yield of components determined by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). The free radical scavenging activities of ethanolic extract against1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) were determined by UV spectrophotometer at 517 nm. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of numerous bioactive compounds including steroids, phenolic, terpenoids, fatty acids and different types of ester compounds. The ethanolic extract was purified and analyzed by GC MS.The prevailing compounds found in ethanolic extract were Carvacrol (0.04%),Sesamol (0.11%), 4-Allyl-2-methoxy-phenol(0.04%),Palmitic acid (1.08%), cis-9-Hexadecenal (85.40%), Lineoleoyl chloride (0.52%), Palmitic acid ß-monoglyceride (0.40%), Dihydro-aplotaxene (0.61%), Oleoyl chloride (1.11%), (+)-Sesamin (4.73%), 1,3-Benzodioxole, 5-[4-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yloxy)tetrahydro-1 H,3 H-furo [3,4-c]furan-1-yl], [1 S-(1,3,4,6α.), (2.01%)], 6-Nitrocholest-5-en-3-yl acetate (0.22%), Ergost-5-en-3ß-ol (2.35%) and 24-Propylidenecholesterol (0.16%). The presence ofsaturated and unsaturated fatty acids in ethanolicextract justifies the use of this plant to treat many ailments in folk and traditional medicine. Ethanolic extract have shown significant antioxidant activity(IC 120.38±2.8 µg/ml). The presence of phenolic (Sesamol), lignin (Sesamin) compounds and unsaturated fatty acids are reported as possible contributor for antioxidantactivity of seed extract.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 171212
[Lr] Last revision date:171212
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1055/s-0043-123466

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[PMID]: 29030920
[Au] Autor:Zhao R; Miao H; Song W; Chen C; Zhang H
[Ad] Address:College of Life Science, Nankai University, Tianjin, China.
[Ti] Title:Identification of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) chromosomes using the BAC-FISH system.
[So] Source:Plant Biol (Stuttg);, 2017 Oct 14.
[Is] ISSN:1438-8677
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.; Pedaliaceae) is a commercially valuable oilseed crop with high oil content. Its small genome size favours the genomic analysis of key biological processes, such as oil synthesis and metabolism. However, the 13 chromosome pairs of sesame have not been characterised because of technological limitations and their small size. We constructed a BAC library comprising 57,600 BAC clones for sesame. The estimated genome coverage of the sesame BAC library was 13.8×. The successive double colour fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) with bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) for sesame was established in this study. Subsequently, the 13 sesame chromosome pairs were individually differentiated using 17 specific BACs for the first time. The schematic of the sesame chromosome set was drawn according to the chromosome relative length and relative position of the BAC signal. The cytogenetic characteristics of sesame chromosomes were also explored. The results provide the technical background required for further cytogenetic map construction, genome assembly and localisation of the DNA sequence in sesame.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171122
[Lr] Last revision date:171122
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1111/plb.12647

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[PMID]: 28772238
[Au] Autor:Ishwarya R; Vaseeharan B; Anuradha R; Rekha R; Govindarajan M; Alharbi NS; Kadaikunnan S; Khaled JM; Benelli G
[Ad] Address:Biomaterials and Biotechnology in Animal Health Lab, Department of Animal Health and Management, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630004, Tamil Nadu, India.
[Ti] Title:Eco-friendly fabrication of Ag nanostructures using the seed extract of Pedalium murex, an ancient Indian medicinal plant: Histopathological effects on the Zika virus vector Aedes aegypti and inhibition of biofilm-forming pathogenic bacteria.
[So] Source:J Photochem Photobiol B;174:133-143, 2017 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1873-2682
[Cp] Country of publication:Switzerland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The control of Zika virus mosquito vectors and well as the development of drugs in the fight against biofilm-forming microbial pathogens, are timely and important challenges in current bionanoscience. Here we focused on the eco-friendly fabrication of Ag nanostructures using the seed extract of Pedalium murex, an ancient Indian medicinal plant. Initial confirmation of Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) production was showed by a color change from transparent to dark brown. The UV-Visible spectrum (476nm), X-ray diffraction peaks (101, 200, 220 and 311) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy shed light on the production of green-capped AgNPs. Morphological structure analysis using HR-TEM showed that the AgNPs were mostly hexagonal in shape with rough edges, and a size of 20-30nm. The larvicidal potential of P. murex seed extract and AgNPs fabricated using the P. murex seed extract (Pm-AgNPs) was tested on fourth instar mosquito larvae of the Zika virus vector Aedes aegypti. Maximum efficacy was achieved by Pm-AgNPs against Ae. aegypti after 24h (LC 34.88; LC 64.56mg/ml), if compared to the P. murex seed extract. Histopathological analyses showed severe damages to the hindgut and larval muscles in NPs-treated Ae. aegypti larvae. The sub-MIC concentrations of Pm-AgNPs exhibited significant anti-biofilm activity against Gram positive (Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram negative (Shigella sonnei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacterial pathogens, as showed by EPS and MTP assays. Light and CLSM microscopic studies highlighted a significant impact of P. murex seed extract and Pm-synthesized AgNPs on the surface topography and architecture of bacterial biofilm, both in Gram positive and Gram negative species. Overall, results reported here contribute to the development of reliable large-scale protocols for the green fabrication of effective mosquito larvicides and biofilm inhibitors.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Aedes/cytology
Bacteria/drug effects
Biofilms/drug effects
Pedaliaceae/chemistry
Silver/chemistry
Silver/pharmacology
Zika Virus
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Green Chemistry Technology
Insect Vectors/drug effects
Insecticides/chemistry
Insecticides/pharmacology
Larva/cytology
Metal Nanoparticles
Plant Extracts/chemistry
Plants, Medicinal/chemistry
Seeds/chemistry
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Insecticides); 0 (Plant Extracts); 3M4G523W1G (Silver)
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171012
[Lr] Last revision date:171012
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170804
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 27150318
[Au] Autor:Jones BO; John OO; Luke C; Ochieng A; Bassey BJ
[Ad] Address:Department of Ecology and Resources Management, School of Environmental Sciences, University of Venda, X0950, South Africa. Electronic address: odojones@gmail.com.
[Ti] Title:Application of mucilage from Dicerocaryum eriocarpum plant as biosorption medium in the removal of selected heavy metal ions.
[So] Source:J Environ Manage;177:365-72, 2016 Jul 15.
[Is] ISSN:1095-8630
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The ability of mucilage from Dicerocaryum eriocarpum (DE) plant to act as biosorption medium in the removal of metals ions from aqueous solution was investigated. Functional groups present in the mucilage were identified using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Mucilage was modified with sodium and potassium chlorides. This was aimed at assessing the biosorption efficiency of modified mucilage: potassium mucilage (PCE) and sodium mucilage (SCE) and comparing it with non-modified deionised water mucilage (DCE) in the uptake of metal ions. FTIR results showed that the functional groups providing the active sites in PCE and SCE and DCE include: carboxyl, hydroxyl and carbonyl groups. The chloride used in the modification of the mucilage did not introduce new functional groups but increased the intensity of the already existing functional groups in the mucilage. Results from biosorption experiment showed that DE mucilage displays good binding affinity with metals ions [Zn(II), Cd(II) Ni(II), Cr(III) and Fe(II)] in the aqueous solution. Increase in the aqueous solution pH, metal ions initial concentration and mucilage concentration increased the biosorption efficiency of DE mucilage. The maximum contact time varied with each species of metal ions. Optimum pH for [Zn(II), Cd(II) Ni(II) and Fe(II)] occurred at pH 4 and pH 6 for Cr(III). Kinetic models result fitted well to pseudo-second-order with a coefficient values of R(2) = 1 for Cd(II), Ni(II), Cr(III), Fe(II) and R(2) = 0.9974 for Zn(II). Biosorption isotherms conforms best with Freundlich model for all the metal ions with correlation factors of 0.9994, 0.9987, 0.9554, 0.9621 and 0.937 for Zn(II), Ni(II), Fe(II), Cr(III) and Cd(II), respectively. Biosorption capacity of DE mucilage was 0.010, 2.387, 4.902, 0688 and 0.125 for Zn(II), Cr(III), Fe(II), Cd(II) and Ni(II) respectively. The modified mucilage was found to be highly efficient in the removal of metal ions than the unmodified mucilage.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Metals, Heavy/isolation & purification
Pedaliaceae/chemistry
Water Pollutants, Chemical/isolation & purification
Water Purification/methods
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adsorption
Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Kinetics
Potassium/chemistry
Sodium/chemistry
Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Metals, Heavy); 0 (Water Pollutants, Chemical); 9NEZ333N27 (Sodium); RWP5GA015D (Potassium)
[Em] Entry month:1703
[Cu] Class update date: 170817
[Lr] Last revision date:170817
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:160507
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 26657496
[Au] Autor:Masondo NA; Finnie JF; Van Staden J
[Ad] Address:Research Centre for Plant Growth and Development, School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg Campus, P/Bag X01, Scottsville 3209, South Africa.
[Ti] Title:Nutritional and pharmacological potential of the genus Ceratotheca--An underutilized leafy vegetable of Africa.
[So] Source:J Ethnopharmacol;178:209-21, 2016 Feb 03.
[Is] ISSN:1872-7573
[Cp] Country of publication:Ireland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ceratotheca (Pedaliaceae) is an endemic African genus comprising of five species. The genus is commonly used as a leafy vegetable with medicinal properties. AIM OF THE REVIEW: The review aims to highlight the unexplored nutritional and pharmacological potential of African indigenous leafy vegetables Ceratotheca sesamoides and triloba, in order to conserve and domesticate these species. METHODS: The information was obtained from various search engines such as Scopus, Google Scholar and Web of Science as well as Ethnobotanical books. RESULTS: Ceratotheca sesamoides and triloba have good nutritional potential. The species are high in energy levels, fat content, proteins and carbohydrate values. The species have also been reported to have good antibacterial, antidiarrhoeal, antidiabetic, antiplasmodial and antiviral properties. These species have slight toxicity and cytotoxic activity when extracted at high concentrations but no mutagenic activity was detected. CONCLUSIONS: To date, few studies have documented the usage (nutrition and pharmacology) of Ceratotheca sesamoides and triloba. More studies investigating the nutritional content as well as methods of its improvement are necessary if the plant is to be included as a domesticated vegetable crop. Safety and toxicity analysis of this leafy vegetable need to be extensively studied as the plants are consumed in high quantities.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Pedaliaceae/chemistry
Plant Extracts/pharmacology
Plant Leaves/chemistry
Vegetables/chemistry
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Africa
Animals
Humans
Medicine, Traditional/methods
Plant Extracts/chemistry
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T; REVIEW
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Plant Extracts)
[Em] Entry month:1610
[Cu] Class update date: 161230
[Lr] Last revision date:161230
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:151215
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 26181100
[Au] Autor:Dat NT; Dang NH; Thanh le N
[Ad] Address:a Institute of Marine Biochemistry, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology , 18-Hoang Quoc Viet, Cau Giay , Hanoi , Vietnam.
[Ti] Title:New flavonoid and pentacyclic triterpene from Sesamum indicum leaves.
[So] Source:Nat Prod Res;30(3):311-5, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:1478-6427
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Two new and one known compounds were isolated from the methanol extract of Sesamum indicum leaves. By means of spectroscopic methods, their structures were elucidated and identified to be 3-epibartogenic acid (1), kaempferol 3-O-[2-O-(trans-p-coumaroyl)-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl]-ß-D-glucopyranoside (2) and epigallocatechin (3). Compound 1 and 3 strongly inhibited α-amylase with the IC50 values of 146.7 and 303.9 µM, respectively, in comparison with acarbose (IC50 124.0 µM).
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology
Flavonoids/isolation & purification
Flavonoids/pharmacology
Pentacyclic Triterpenes/isolation & purification
Pentacyclic Triterpenes/pharmacology
Sesamum/chemistry
alpha-Amylases/antagonists & inhibitors
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Acarbose/pharmacology
Chromatography, Thin Layer
Plant Leaves/chemistry
Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Enzyme Inhibitors); 0 (Flavonoids); 0 (Pentacyclic Triterpenes); EC 3.2.1.1 (alpha-Amylases); T58MSI464G (Acarbose)
[Em] Entry month:1607
[Cu] Class update date: 151215
[Lr] Last revision date:151215
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:150717
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1080/14786419.2015.1057730

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[PMID]: 25829772
[Au] Autor:John J; Nampoothiri M; Kumar N; Mudgal J; Nampurath GK; Chamallamudi MR
[Ad] Address:Department of Pharmacology, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, India.
[Ti] Title:Sesamol, a lipid lowering agent, ameliorates aluminium chloride induced behavioral and biochemical alterations in rats.
[So] Source:Pharmacogn Mag;11(42):327-36, 2015 Apr-Jun.
[Is] ISSN:0973-1296
[Cp] Country of publication:India
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Sesame oil from the seeds of Sesamum indicum Linn. (Pedaliaceae) has been used traditionally in Indian medical practice of Ayurveda in the treatment of central nervous system disorders and insomnia. A few published reports favor the anti-dementia effect of sesamol (SML), an active constituent of sesame oil. OBJECTIVE: Thus, the present study was aimed to explore the anti-dementia effect and possible mechanism (s) of SML in aluminium chloride (AlCl3)-induced cognitive dysfunction model in rodents with special emphasis on memory centers viz., hippocampus and frontal cortex. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were exposed to AlCl3 (175 mg/kg p.o.) for 60 days. SML (10 and 20 mg/kg) and rivastigmine (1 mg/kg) were administered orally 45 min before administration of AlCl3 for 60 days. Spatial memory was assessed using Morris water maze test. After 60 days of treatment animals were sacrificed, hippocampus and frontal cortex were collected and analyzed for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) level, antioxidant enzymes (Glutathione, catalase), lipid peroxidation, and nitrite level. The circulating triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels were also analyzed. RESULTS: SML significantly prevented behavioral impairments in aluminium-exposed rats. Treatment with SML reversed the increased cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL while raised the HDL levels. SML significantly corrected the effect of AlCl3 on AChE activity. Further, SML reversed the elevated nitric oxide, TNF-α and reduced antioxidant enzymes in hippocampus and frontal cortex. CONCLUSION: The present study suggests the neuro-protection by SML against cognitive dysfunction induced by environmental toxin (AlCl3) in hippocampus and frontal cortex.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1504
[Cu] Class update date: 170220
[Lr] Last revision date:170220
[Da] Date of entry for processing:150402
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.153086

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[PMID]: 25254377
[Au] Autor:Zhu P; Lu Z; Heong K; Chen G; Zheng X; Xu H; Yang Y; Nicol HI; Gurr GM
[Ad] Address:State Key Laboratory Breeding Base for Zhejiang Sustainable Pest and Disease Control, Institute for Plant Protection and Microbiology, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou, China; Jinhua Plant Protection Station, Jinhua, China.
[Ti] Title:Selection of nectar plants for use in ecological engineering to promote biological control of rice pests by the predatory bug, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis, (Heteroptera: Miridae).
[So] Source:PLoS One;9(9):e108669, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Ecological engineering for pest management involves the identification of optimal forms of botanical diversity to incorporate into a farming system to suppress pests, by promoting their natural enemies. Whilst this approach has been extensively researched in many temperate crop systems, much less has been done for rice. This paper reports the influence of various plant species on the performance of a key natural enemy of rice planthopper pests, the predatory mirid bug, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis. Survival of adult males and females was increased by the presence of flowering Tagetes erecta, Trida procumbens, Emilia sonchifolia (Compositae), and Sesamum indicum (Pedaliaceae) compared with water or nil controls. All flower treatments resulted in increased consumption of brown plant hopper, Nilaparvata lugens, and for female C. lividipennis, S. indicum was the most favorable. A separate study with a wider range of plant species and varying densities of prey eggs showed that S. indicum most strongly promoted predation by C. lividipennis. Reflecting this, S. indicum gave a relatively high rate of prey search and low prey handling time. On this basis, S. indicum was selected for more detailed studies to check if its potential incorporation into the farming system would not inadvertently benefit Cnaphalocrocis medinalis and Marasmia patnalis, serious Lepidoptera pests of rice. Adult longevity and fecundity of both pests was comparable for S. indicum and water treatments and significantly lower than the honey solution treatment. Findings indicate that S. indicumis well suited for use as an ecological engineering plant in the margins of rice crops. Sesame indicum can be a valuable crop as well as providing benefits to C. lividipennis whilst denying benefit to key pests.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Heteroptera
Oryza/parasitology
Pest Control, Biological
Plant Nectar
Predatory Behavior
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Female
Fertility
Flowers
Herbivory
Longevity
Male
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Plant Nectar)
[Em] Entry month:1512
[Cu] Class update date: 140926
[Lr] Last revision date:140926
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:140926
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0108669

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[PMID]: 25041697
[Au] Autor:Mncwangi NP; Viljoen AM; Zhao J; Vermaak I; Chen W; Khan I
[Ad] Address:Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, Pretoria 0001, South Africa.
[Ti] Title:What the devil is in your phytomedicine? Exploring species substitution in Harpagophytum through chemometric modeling of 1H-NMR and UHPLC-MS datasets.
[So] Source:Phytochemistry;106:104-115, 2014 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1873-3700
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Harpagophytum procumbens (Pedaliaceae) and its close taxonomical ally Harpagophytum zeyheri, indigenous to southern Africa, are being harvested for exportation to Europe where phytomedicines are developed to treat inflammation-related disorders. The phytochemical variation within and between natural populations of H. procumbens (n=241) and H. zeyheri (n=107) was explored using proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) in combination with multivariate data analysis methods. The UHPLC-MS results revealed significant variation in the harpagoside content: H. procumbens (0.17-4.37%); H. zeyheri (0.00-3.07%). Only 41% of the H. procumbens samples and 17% of the H. zeyheri samples met the pharmacopoeial specification of ⩾1.2%. Both principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) indicated separation based on species (UHPLC-MS data OPLS-DA model statistics: R(2)X=0.258, R(2)Y (cum)=0.957 and Q(2)(cum)=0.934; (1)H-NMR data OPLS-DA model statistics: R(2)X=0.830, R(2)Y=0.865 (cum) and Q(2)(cum)=0.829). It was concluded that two species are not chemically equivalent and should not be used interchangeably.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Glycosides/chemistry
Harpagophytum/chemistry
Plant Extracts/chemistry
Plants, Medicinal/chemistry
Pyrans/chemistry
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Biomarkers/chemistry
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
Harpagophytum/classification
Mass Spectrometry
Models, Chemical
Plants, Medicinal/classification
Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Biomarkers); 0 (Glycosides); 0 (Plant Extracts); 0 (Pyrans); 8KGS1DC5ZU (harpagoside)
[Em] Entry month:1505
[Cu] Class update date: 170917
[Lr] Last revision date:170917
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:140722
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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