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[PMID]: 29293992
[Au] Autor:Tsai T; Diggle PK; Frye HA; Jones CS
[Ad] Address:Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA.
[Ti] Title:Contrasting lengths of Pelargonium floral nectar tubes result from late differences in rate and duration of growth.
[So] Source:Ann Bot;121(3):549-560, 2018 Mar 05.
[Is] ISSN:1095-8290
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Background and Aims: Much of morphological evolution in flowers has arisen from pollinator-mediated selection, often manifest as a match between the length of the pollinator's proboscis and the depth of tubular corollas or spurs. We investigate development, growth and homology of the unique nectar tube of Pelargonium, frequently described as 'a spur adnate to the pedicel'. Methods: We focused on two species. The nectar tube of P. ionidiflorum is three times longer than that of P. odoratissimum. Light and scanning electron microscopy were carried out, and daily growth measurements were used to compare nectar tube development and vascular patterns. Key Results: Nectar tubes in both species are initiated centripetally to the dorsal sepal in a space created by lateral displacement of two antepetalous stamens. The cavity deepens through subsequent intercalary growth of the receptacle that proceeds at the same rate in both species until tubes reach approx. 10 mm in length. Differences in final nectar tube lengths arise via an increase in the rate and duration of growth of the receptacle that begins just before anthesis (floral opening) and continues for several days past anthesis in P. ionidiflorum but does not occur in P. odoratissimum. Epidermal cells of the dorsal surface of the nectar tube in P. ionidiflorum are approx. 1.6 times longer than those in P. odoratissimum. Histological sections show no evidence that the nectar tube is a spur that became evolutionarily fused to the pedicel. Conclusions: Nectar tubes in Pelargonium are localized cavities that form in the receptacle via intercalary growth. Differences in the rate and duration of growth just prior to and following anthesis underlie differences in final tube lengths. Because differences in cell lengths do not fully account for differences in nectar tube lengths, evolutionary diversification must involve changes in both cell cycle and cell expansion.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1093/aob/mcx171

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[PMID]: 29468757
[Au] Autor:Abouhosseini Tabari M; Hajizadeh Moghaddam A; Maggi F; Benelli G
[Ad] Address:Department of Pharmacology, Amol University of Special Modern Technologies, Amol, Iran.
[Ti] Title:Anxiolytic and antidepressant activities of Pelargonium roseum essential oil on Swiss albino mice: Possible involvement of serotonergic transmission.
[So] Source:Phytother Res;, 2018 Feb 22.
[Is] ISSN:1099-1573
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The anxiolytic and antidepressant activities of the Reunion Geranium (Pelargonium roseum Willd) essential oil (EO) were evaluated in male Swiss albino mice by intraperitoneal administration of 10, 20, and 50 mg/kg bw using elevated plus maze (EPM), open-field test (OFT), and forced swimming test (FST). Moreover, we evaluated whether the 5-HT and GABA -benzodiazepine receptor systems are involved in the anxiolytic effects through the coadministration of WAY-100635 (a selective 5-HT receptor antagonist) and flumazenil (an antagonist of benzodiazepine). GC-MS revealed the monoterpene alcohols citronellol (35.9%) and geraniol (18.5%) as the main components of the P. roseum EO. EO was effective in increasing the total number of entries and time spent in the open arms of EPM whereas number of rearing in OFT was significantly decreased in comparison with the control. In the FST, immobility time decreased in EO treated mice. Pretreatment with WAY-100635, but not Flumazenil, was able to reverse the effects of the EO in the EPM and FST, indicating that the EO activity occurs via the serotonergic but not GABAergic transmission. Overall, results of this work showed significant anxiolytic and antidepressant activity of P. roseum EO and confirmed the traditional uses of Pelargonium species as calming agents.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180222
[Lr] Last revision date:180222
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1002/ptr.6038

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[PMID]: 29351747
[Au] Autor:Park SM; Min BG; Jung JY; Jegal KH; Lee CW; Kim KY; Kim YW; Choi YW; Cho IJ; Ku SK; Kim SC
[Ad] Address:College of Korean Medicine, Daegu Haany University, Gyeongsan, 38610, Republic of Korea.
[Ti] Title:Combination of Pelargonium sidoides and Coptis chinensis root inhibits nuclear factor kappa B-mediated inflammatory response in vitro and in vivo.
[So] Source:BMC Complement Altern Med;18(1):20, 2018 Jan 19.
[Is] ISSN:1472-6882
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Pelargonium sidoides (PS) and Coptis chinensis root (CR) have traditionally been used to treat various diseases, including respiratory and gastrointestinal infections, dysmenorrhea, and hepatic disorders. The present study was conducted to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of a combination of PS and CR in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: The in vitro effects of PS + CR on the induction of inflammation-related proteins were evaluated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. The levels of nitric oxide (NO) and of inflammatory cytokines and prostaglandin E (PGE ) were measured using the Griess reagent and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods, respectively. The expression of inflammation-related proteins was confirmed by Western blot. Additionally, the effects of PS + CR on paw edema volume, skin thickness, and numbers of infiltrated inflammatory cells, mast cells, COX-2-, iNOS-, and TNF-α-immunoreactive cells in dorsum and ventrum pedis skin were evaluated in a rat model of carrageenan (CA)-induced paw edema. RESULTS: PS + CR significantly reduced production of NO, PGE and three pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1ß, and IL-6) and also decreased levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Treatment with PS + CR significantly reduced the protein expression levels of LPS-stimulated nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and phosphorylated inhibitor of NF-κB (p-I-κBα). Additionally, PS + CR significantly inhibited the increases in paw swelling, skin thickness, infiltrated inflammatory cells, mast cell degranulation, COX-2-, iNOS-, and TNF-α-immunoreactive cells in the rat model of CA-induced acute edematous paw. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that PS + CR exhibits anti-inflammatory properties through decreasing the production of pro-inflammatory mediators (NO, PGE , TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6), suppressing NF-κB signaling in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Additionally, the results of the CA-induced rat paw edema assay revealed an anti-edema effect of PS + CR. Furthermore, it is suggested that PS + CR also inhibits acute edematous inflammation by suppressing mast cell degranulation and inflammatory mediators (COX-2, iNOS, and TNF-α). Thus, PS + CR may be a potential candidate for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, and it may also contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying inflammatory response regulation.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Coptis/chemistry
Inflammation/metabolism
NF-kappa B/metabolism
Pelargonium/chemistry
Plant Extracts/chemistry
Plant Extracts/pharmacology
Plant Roots/chemistry
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Cytokines/metabolism
Edema/metabolism
Gene Expression/drug effects
Male
Mast Cells/drug effects
Mice
Nitric Oxide/metabolism
RAW 264.7 Cells
Rats
Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Skin/drug effects
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Cytokines); 0 (NF-kappa B); 0 (Plant Extracts); 31C4KY9ESH (Nitric Oxide)
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180216
[Lr] Last revision date:180216
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:180121
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12906-018-2088-x

  4 / 492 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29417500
[Au] Autor:Hubert M
[Ad] Address:.
[Ti] Title:Mit Pelargonium-Extrakt schneller wieder auf den Beinen.
[So] Source:MMW Fortschr Med;160(2):65, 2018 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1613-3560
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:ger
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180208
[Lr] Last revision date:180208
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1007/s15006-018-0161-5

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[PMID]: 29231073
[Au] Autor:Matthys H; Funk P
[Ad] Address:a Medical Director Emeritus, Department of Pneumology , University Hospital at Freiburg University , Freiburg , Germany.
[Ti] Title:Pelargonium sidoides preparation EPs 7630 in COPD: health-related quality-of-life and other patient-reported outcomes in adults receiving add-on therapy.
[So] Source:Curr Med Res Opin;:1-7, 2018 Jan 18.
[Is] ISSN:1473-4877
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE: Patient-reported outcomes (PRO) such as health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) belong to the most important criteria for the evaluation of medical therapies in clinical trials or practice-based benefit assessments. This study, therefore, revisited results of an earlier published clinical trial investigating the effects of the herbal drug preparation from the roots of Pelargonium sidoides EPs 7630, administered as add-on therapy in patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), with respect to HRQoL and other PRO. METHODS: A total of 199 adults diagnosed with COPD stages II/III and receiving standard treatment according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) were randomly assigned to add-on therapy with EPs 7630 or placebo for 24 weeks. HRQoL (disease-specific St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire, SGRQ; current HRQoL state according to the EuroQuol visual analog scale, EQ VAS) and PRO (Integrative Medicine Outcomes Scale, IMOS; Integrative Medicine Patient Satisfaction Scale, IMPSS; symptom severity score of cough, sputum production and sternal pain while coughing; duration of inability to work) were assessed at each study visit or documented daily by the patient in a patient diary, respectively. RESULTS: At week 24, all HRQoL and PRO measures showed a more pronounced improvement under EPs 7630 than under placebo (EQ VAS, p < .001; SGRQ total score, p < .001; symptom severity score of cough, sputum production, and sternal pain while coughing, p = .021; duration of inability to work, p = .004; two-sided t-test each; IMOS, p < .001, IMPSS, p < .001, two-sided Mantel-Haenszel test each). Moreover, the difference seen for the SGRQ exceeded the SGRQ minimal clinically important difference (MCID) threshold of 4 points. CONCLUSIONS: Add-on therapy with EPs 7630 led to an improvement in HRQoL and other PRO in adult patients with COPD compared to placebo while showing a good long-term tolerability.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 180118
[Lr] Last revision date:180118
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1080/03007995.2017.1416344

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[PMID]: 28743644
[Au] Autor:Schmidt-Lebuhn AN; Aitken NC; Chuah A
[Ad] Address:CSIRO, Australian National Herbarium, Clunies Ross Street, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Electronic address: Alexander.S-L@csiro.au.
[Ti] Title:Species trees from consensus single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data: Testing phylogenetic approaches with simulated and empirical data.
[So] Source:Mol Phylogenet Evol;116:192-201, 2017 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1095-9513
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Datasets of hundreds or thousands of SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms) from multiple individuals per species are increasingly used to study population structure, species delimitation and shallow phylogenetics. The principal software tool to infer species or population trees from SNP data is currently the BEAST template SNAPP which uses a Bayesian coalescent analysis. However, it is computationally extremely demanding and tolerates only small amounts of missing data. We used simulated and empirical SNPs from plants (Australian Craspedia, Asteraceae, and Pelargonium, Geraniaceae) to compare species trees produced (1) by SNAPP, (2) using SVD quartets, and (3) using Bayesian and parsimony analysis with several different approaches to summarising data from multiple samples into one set of traits per species. Our aims were to explore the impact of tree topology and missing data on the results, and to test which data summarising and analyses approaches would best approximate the results obtained from SNAPP for empirical data. SVD quartets retrieved the correct topology from simulated data, as did SNAPP except in the case of a very unbalanced phylogeny. Both methods failed to retrieve the correct topology when large amounts of data were missing. Bayesian analysis of species level summary data scoring the two alleles of each SNP as independent characters and parsimony analysis of data scoring each SNP as one character produced trees with branch length distributions closest to the true trees on which SNPs were simulated. For empirical data, Bayesian inference and Dollo parsimony analysis of data scored allele-wise produced phylogenies most congruent with the results of SNAPP. In the case of study groups divergent enough for missing data to be phylogenetically informative (because of additional mutations preventing amplification of genomic fragments or bioinformatic establishment of homology), scoring of SNP data as a presence/absence matrix irrespective of allele content might be an additional option. As this depends on sampling across species being reasonably even and a random distribution of non-informative instances of missing data, however, further exploration of this approach is needed. Properly chosen data summary approaches to inferring species trees from SNP data may represent a potential alternative to currently available individual-level coalescent analyses especially for quick data exploration and when dealing with computationally demanding or patchy datasets.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Computer Simulation
Phylogeny
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Bayes Theorem
Software
Species Specificity
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180115
[Lr] Last revision date:180115
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170727
[St] Status:MEDLINE

  7 / 492 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29318991
[Au] Autor:Limoncu ME; Balcioglu C; Oyur T; Zeybek G; Zeybek U
[Ad] Address:Manisa Celal Bayar Üniversitesi, Saglik Hizmetleri Meslek Yüksek Okulu , Manisa, Türkiye.
[Ti] Title:In vitro Investigation of the Pediculicidal Activities of the Volatile Oil Components of Some Medical Plants Raised in Turkey.
[So] Source:Turkiye Parazitol Derg;41(4):208-213, 2017 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:2146-3077
[Cp] Country of publication:Turkey
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE: The human head louse Pediculus capitis has recently acquired resistance to commercially available insecticides, which has expanded the search concerning the pediculicidal activities of some herbal products. The present study aimed to assess the in vitro pediculicidal activities of volatile oils extracted from 10 medical plants raised in Turkey: Rosa damascena (red provins rose), Pelargonium graveolens (geranium), Lavandula angustifolia (lavender), Salvia triloba (salvia), Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary; two different chemotypes), Citrus bergamia (citrus tree), Cymbopogon nardus (citronella), Citrus limonum (lemon), and Cymbopogon flexuosus (lemongrass). METHODS: Head lice obtained from school children in Manisa Province were initially grouped as adults and nymphs and were then kept under optimal conditions (temperature of 27°C and humidity of 50%). A pinch of hair and filter paper were placed in Petri dishes and seven adults and seven nymphs were separately put in Petri dishes. The extracts obtained from each volatile oil were dropped on the lice specimens. RESULTS: The active movement of the external (antenna and legs) and internal (midgut and intestine) organs of the lice was monitored and recorded starting from 5th min for 24 hours by 10 to 30 minutes intervals. The time of death was defined as the loss of active movement and cessation of intestinal activities of lice. The results were analyzed using Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 15. CONCLUSION: The results showed that the volatile oil of Rosmarinus officinalis (two different chemotypes) was more effective than the other oils.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180110
[Lr] Last revision date:180110
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.5152/tpd.2017.5201

  8 / 492 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29183576
[Au] Autor:Adesanya AW; Held DW; Liu N
[Ad] Address:Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Auburn University, 301 Funchess Hall, Auburn, AL 36830, United States; Department of Entomology, Washington State University, 279A FSHN building, Pullman, WA 99163, United States. Electronic address: adekunle.adesanya@wsu.edu.
[Ti] Title:Geranium intoxication induces detoxification enzymes in the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman.
[So] Source:Pestic Biochem Physiol;143:1-7, 2017 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1095-9939
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Popillia japonica is a generalist herbivore that feeds on >300 host plant species in at least 72 plant families. It is unknown why P. japonica, despite possessing active detoxification enzymes in its gut, is paralyzed when feeding on the petals of one of its preferred host plant, Pelargonium×hortorum, or on artificial diet containing quisqualic acid (QA), the active compound in zonal geranium. We hypothesized that Pelargonium×hortorum or QA do not induce activity of the cytochrome P450, glutathione S transferase (GST), and carboxylesterase (CoE) detoxification enzymes in P. japonica. In this study, P. japonica were fed petals of zonal geranium or agar plugs containing QA, or rose petals, another preferred but non-toxic host. Midgut enzyme activities of P450, GST, and CoE were then assayed after 6, 12, or 24h of feeding. In most cases, P450, GST, and CoE activities were significantly induced in P. japonica midguts by geranium petals and QA, though the induction was slower than with rose petals. Induced enzyme activity reached a peak at 24h after consumption, which coincides with the period of highest recovery from geranium and QA paralysis. This study shows that toxic geranium and QA induce detoxification enzyme activity, but the induced enzymes do not effectively protect P. japonica from paralysis by QA. Further investigation is required through in vitro studies to know if the enzymes induced by geranium are capable of metabolizing QA. This study highlights a rare physiological mismatch between the detoxification tool kit of a generalist and its preferred host.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1711
[Cu] Class update date: 171129
[Lr] Last revision date:171129
[St] Status:In-Process

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[PMID]: 29159610
[Au] Autor:Hubert M
[Ad] Address:.
[Ti] Title:Pelargonium-Extrakt gegen Atemwegsinfekte.
[So] Source:MMW Fortschr Med;159(20):74, 2017 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1613-3560
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:ger
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1711
[Cu] Class update date: 171121
[Lr] Last revision date:171121
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1007/s15006-017-0336-5

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[PMID]: 29119837
[Au] Autor:Kamin W; Funk P; Seifert G; Zimmermann A; Lehmacher W
[Ad] Address:a Clinic for Paediatrics, Evangelic Hospital Hamm , Werler Straße 110 , 59063 Hamm , Germany.
[Ti] Title:EPs 7630 is effective and safe in children under 6 years with acute respiratory tract infections: clinical studies revisited.
[So] Source:Curr Med Res Opin;:1-24, 2017 Nov 09.
[Is] ISSN:1473-4877
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Objective - Pelargonium sidoides preparation EPs 7630 has been proven safe and effective in acute respiratory tract infections (aRTIs), but data for young children have not been presented separately. We reviewed clinical studies and present an overview of known and newly analyzed data from children <6 years. Methods - We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for interventional and non-interventional studies which investigated the effects of EPs 7630 in aRTIs and included children <6 years of age. Subgroup analyses for this age range were performed for symptom scales, global efficacy or effectiveness assessments, and safety outcomes. Results - Seven studies with 1,067 children <6 years exposed to EPs 7630 were identified. Efficacy of EPs 7630 was significantly superior to placebo in reducing symptom intensity and time until complete recovery in 2 randomized, double-blind trials in patients with acute bronchitis (AB). Similar symptom time courses were observed in 2 non-comparative observational studies in AB. One non-comparative, open-label study was identified in acute tonsillopharyngitis (ATP), and one in acute rhinosinusitis (ARS). In both indications, nearly all children showed complete recovery or major symptom improvements during the treatment period, with changes that were similar to those observed in controlled trials investigating older patient populations. The results were supported by an additional observational study including children with various diagnoses of aRTIs. EPs 7630 was safe and well tolerated. Conclusions - EPs 7630 is efficacious in children <6 years suffering from AB. The analyses also support the effectiveness of the product in ATP and in ARS. No safety concerns were identified.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1711
[Cu] Class update date: 171109
[Lr] Last revision date:171109
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1080/03007995.2017.1402754


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