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[PMID]: 29462207
[Au] Autor:Winterfeld G; Becher H; Voshell S; Hilu K; Röser M
[Ad] Address:Institute of Biology, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale), Germany.
[Ti] Title:Karyotype evolution in Phalaris (Poaceae): The role of reductional dysploidy, polyploidy and chromosome alteration in a wide-spread and diverse genus.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(2):e0192869, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Karyotype characteristics can provide valuable information on genome evolution and speciation, in particular in taxa with varying basic chromosome numbers and ploidy levels. Due to its worldwide distribution, remarkable variability in morphological traits and the fact that ploidy change plays a key role in its evolution, the canary grass genus Phalaris (Poaceae) is an excellent study system to investigate the role of chromosomal changes in species diversification and expansion. Phalaris comprises diploid species with two basic chromosome numbers of x = 6 and 7 as well as polyploids based on x = 7. To identify distinct karyotype structures and to trace chromosome evolution within the genus, we apply fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) of 5S and 45S rDNA probes in four diploid and four tetraploid Phalaris species of both basic numbers. The data agree with a dysploid reduction from x = 7 to x = 6 as the result of reciprocal translocations between three chromosomes of an ancestor with a diploid chromosome complement of 2n = 14. We recognize three different genomes in the genus: (1) the exclusively Mediterranean genome A based on x = 6, (2) the cosmopolitan genome B based on x = 7 and (3) a genome C based on x = 7 and with a distribution in the Mediterranean and the Middle East. Both auto- and allopolyploidy of genomes B and C are suggested for the formation of tetraploids. The chromosomal divergence observed in Phalaris can be explained by the occurrence of dysploidy, the emergence of three different genomes, and the chromosome rearrangements accompanied by karyotype change and polyploidization. Mapping the recognized karyotypes on the existing phylogenetic tree suggests that genomes A and C are restricted to sections Phalaris and Bulbophalaris, respectively, while genome B occurs across all taxa with x = 7.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180220
[Lr] Last revision date:180220
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0192869

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[PMID]: 28456920
[Au] Autor:Mayerová M; Petrová S; Madaras M; Lipavský J; Simon T; Vanek T
[Ad] Address:Division of Crop Management System, Crop Research Institute, 161 06, Prague, Czech Republic. mayerova@vurv.cz.
[Ti] Title:Non-enhanced phytoextraction of cadmium, zinc, and lead by high-yielding crops.
[So] Source:Environ Sci Pollut Res Int;24(17):14706-14716, 2017 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1614-7499
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Heavy metal soil contamination from mining and smelting has been reported in several regions around the world, and phytoextraction, using plants to accumulate risk elements in aboveground harvestable organs, is a useful method of substantially reducing this contamination. In our 3-year experiment, we tested the hypothesis that phytoextraction can be successful in local soil conditions without external fertilizer input. The phytoextraction efficiency of 15 high-yielding crop species was assessed in a field experiment performed at the Litavka River alluvium in the Príbram region of Czechia. This area is heavily polluted by Cd, Zn, and Pb from smelter installations which also polluted the river water and flood sediments. Heavy metal concentrations were analyzed in the herbaceous plants' aboveground and belowground biomass and in woody plants' leaves and branches. The highest Cd and Zn mean concentrations in the aboveground biomass were recorded in Salix x fragilis L. (10.14 and 343 mg kg in twigs and 16.74 and 1188 mg kg in leaves, respectively). The heavy metal content in woody plants was significantly higher in leaves than in twigs. In addition, Malva verticillata L. had the highest Cd, Pb, and Zn concentrations in herbaceous species (6.26, 12.44, and 207 mg kg , respectively). The calculated heavy metal removal capacities in this study proved high phytoextraction efficiency in woody species; especially for Salix × fragilis L. In other tested plants, Sorghum bicolor L., Helianthus tuberosus L., Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, and Phalaris arundinacea L. species are also recommended for phytoextraction.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Metals, Heavy/analysis
Soil Pollutants/analysis
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Agriculture
Biodegradation, Environmental
Cadmium
Fertilizers
Lead
Malva
Zinc
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Fertilizers); 0 (Metals, Heavy); 0 (Soil Pollutants); 00BH33GNGH (Cadmium); 2P299V784P (Lead); J41CSQ7QDS (Zinc)
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 171215
[Lr] Last revision date:171215
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170501
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s11356-017-9051-0

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[PMID]: 29145129
[Au] Autor:Atibu EK; Lacroix P; Sivalingam P; Ray N; Giuliani G; Mulaji CK; Otamonga JP; Mpiana PT; Slaveykova VI; Poté J
[Ad] Address:University of Kinshasa, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, B.P. 190, Kinshasa XI, Democratic Republic of the Congo.
[Ti] Title:High contamination in the areas surrounding abandoned mines and mining activities: An impact assessment of the Dilala, Luilu and Mpingiri Rivers, Democratic Republic of the Congo.
[So] Source:Chemosphere;191:1008-1020, 2017 Oct 21.
[Is] ISSN:1879-1298
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Abandoned mines and mining activities constitute important sources of toxic metals and Rare Earth Elements (REEs) affecting surrounding environmental compartments and biota. This study investigates the contamination degree and distribution of toxic metals and REEs in contrasting sediment, soil and plant samples surrounding rivers in the African copperbelt area characterized by the presence of numerous abandoned mines, artisanal and industrial mining activities. ICP-MS results highlighted the highest concentration of Cu, Co and Pb in sediments reaching values of 146,801, 18,434 and 899 mg kg , respectively. In soil, the values of 175,859, 21,134 and 1164 mg kg were found for Cu, Co and Pb, respectively. These values are much higher than the sediment guidelines for the protection of aquatic life and international soil clean-up standards. Enrichment factor and geoaccumulation index results indicated important contribution of mining activities to the study sites pollution in addition to natural background. Highest metal accumulation in leaves of Phalaris arundinacea L., was observed, reaching values of 34,061, 5050 and 230 mg kg for Cu, Co, and Pb, respectively. The ∑REE concentration reached values of 2306, 733, 2796 mg kg in sediment, soil and plant samples, respectively. The above results were combined with geographical information including satellite imagery, hydrography and mining concessions. Maps were produced to present the results in a comprehensive and compelling visual format. The results will be disseminated through an innovative mapping online platform to simplify access to data and to facilitate dialogue between stakeholders.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1711
[Cu] Class update date: 171117
[Lr] Last revision date:171117
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 29105256
[Au] Autor:Kazan K; Gardiner D
[Ad] Address:Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation - Agriculture, 306 Carmody Road, Brisbane, Queensland 4067, Australia.
[Ti] Title:FUSARIUM CROWN ROT CAUSED BY FUSARIUM PSEUDOGRAMINEARUM IN CEREAL CROPS: RECENT PROGRESS AND FUTURE PROSPECTS.
[So] Source:Mol Plant Pathol;, 2017 Nov 04.
[Is] ISSN:1364-3703
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Diseases caused by Fusarium pathogens inflict major yield and quality losses on many economically important plant species worldwide, including cereals. Fusarium crown rot (FCR) caused by Fusarium pseudograminearum is a cereal disease that occurs in many arid and semi-arid cropping regions of the world. In recent years, this disease has become more prevalent, in part due to the adoption of moisture-preserving cultural practices such as minimum tillage and stubble retention. In this pathogen profile, we present a brief overview of recent research efforts that not only have advanced our understanding of the interactions between F. pseudograminearum and cereal hosts but also have provided new disease management options. For instance, significant progress has been made in genetically characterising pathogen populations, developing new tools for disease prediction, and identifying and pyramiding loci that confer quantitative resistance to FCR in wheat and barley. In addition, transcriptome analyses have revealed new insights into the processes involved in host defence. Significant progress has also been made to understand the mechanistic details of the F. pseudograminearum infection process. The sequencing and comparative analyses of the F. pseudograminearum genome have revealed novel virulence factors, possibly acquired through horizontal gene transfer. In addition, a conserved pathogen gene cluster involved in the degradation of wheat defence compounds has been identified, and a role for the trichothecene toxin deoxynivalenol (DON) in pathogen virulence has been reported. Overall, a better understanding of cereal host-F. pseudograminearum interactions will lead to the development of new control options for this increasingly important disease problem. Taxonomy: Fusarium pseudograminearum O'Donnell & Aoki; Kingdom Fungi; Phylum Ascomycota; Subphylum Pezizomycotina; Class Sordariomycetes; Subclass Hypocreomycetidae; Order Hypocreales; Family Nectriaceae; Genus Fusarium. Disease symptoms: Fusarium crown rot caused by F. pseudograminearum is also known as crown rot, foot rot, and root rot. Infected seedlings can die before or after emergence. If infected seedlings survive, typical disease symptoms are browning of the coleoptile, sub-crown internode, the lower leaf sheaths and adjacent stems and nodal tissues; this browning can become evident within a few weeks after planting or throughout plant development. Infected plants may develop white heads with no or shrivelled grains. Disease symptoms are exacerbated under water limitation. Identification and detection: Fusarium pseudograminearum macroconidia usually contain 3-5 septa (22-60.5 x 2.5-5.5 µm). On potato dextrose agar (PDA), aerial mycelia appear floccose and reddish white, with red or reddish-brown reverse pigmentation. Diagnostic PCR tests based on the amplification of the gene encoding translation elongation factor-1a (TEF) have been developed for molecular identification. Host range: All major winter cereals can be colonised by F. pseudograminearum. However, the main impact of this pathogen is on bread (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum (Triticum turgidum L. spp. durum (Dest.)) wheat and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Oats (Avena sativa L.) can be infected but show little or no disease symptoms. In addition, the pathogen has been isolated from various other grass genera such as, Phalaris, Agropyron and Bromus that may occur as common weeds. Useful websites: https://nt.ars-grin.gov/fungaldatabases/; http://plantpath.psu.edu/facilities/fusarium-research-center; https://nt.ars-grin.gov/fungaldatabases/; http://www.speciesfungorum.org/Names/Names.asp This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1711
[Cu] Class update date: 171106
[Lr] Last revision date:171106
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1111/mpp.12639

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[PMID]: 28913899
[Au] Autor:Malmberg MM; Pembleton LW; Baillie RC; Drayton MC; Sudheesh S; Kaur S; Shinozuka H; Verma P; Spangenberg GC; Daetwyler HD; Forster JW; Cogan NOI
[Ad] Address:Agriculture Victoria, AgriBio, Centre for AgriBioscience, 5 Ring Road, Bundoora, Victoria 3083, Australia.
[Ti] Title:Genotyping-by-sequencing through transcriptomics: implementation in a range of crop species with varying reproductive habits and ploidy levels.
[So] Source:Plant Biotechnol J;, 2017 Sep 15.
[Is] ISSN:1467-7652
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The application of genomics in crops has the ability to significantly improve genetic gain for agriculture. Many marker-dense tools have been developed, but few have seen broad adoption in plant genomics due to issues of significant variations of genome size, levels of ploidy, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) frequency and reproductive habit. When combined with limited breeding activities, small research communities and scant sequence resources, the suitability of popular systems is often suboptimal and routinely fails to effectively balance cost-effectiveness and sample throughput. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) encompasses a range of protocols including resequencing of the transcriptome. This study describes a skim GBS-transcriptomics (GBS-t) approach developed to be broadly applicable, cost-effective and high-throughput while still assaying a significant number of SNP loci. A range of crop species with differing levels of ploidy and degree of inbreeding/outbreeding were chosen, including perennial ryegrass, a diploid outbreeding forage grass; phalaris, a putative segmental allotetraploid outbreeding forage grass; lentil, a diploid inbreeding grain legume; and canola, an allotetraploid partially outbreeding oilseed. GBS-t was validated as a simple and largely automated, cost-effective method which generates sufficient SNPs (from 89 738 to 231 977) with acceptable levels of missing data and even genome coverage from c. 3 million sequence reads per sample. GBS-t is therefore a broadly applicable system suitable for many crops, offering advantages over other systems. The correct choice of subsequent sequence analysis software is important, and the bioinformatics process should be iterative and tailored to the specific challenges posed by ploidy variation and extent of heterozygosity.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1709
[Cu] Class update date: 171013
[Lr] Last revision date:171013
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1111/pbi.12835

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[PMID]: 28724475
[Au] Autor:Utama DT; Lee SG; Baek KH; Chung WS; Chung IA; Kim DI; Kim GY; Lee SK
[Ad] Address:1Animal Products and Food Science Program,Division of Animal Applied Science,College of Animal Life Sciences,Kangwon National University,Chuncheon 24341,Republic of Korea.
[Ti] Title:Blood profile and meat quality of Holstein-Friesian steers finished on total mixed ration or flaxseed oil-supplemented pellet mixed with reed canary grass haylage.
[So] Source:Animal;:1-8, 2017 Jul 20.
[Is] ISSN:1751-732X
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Holstein-Friesian steer beef production is renowned globally as a secondary product of the milk industry. Grass feeding is a common practice in raising Holstein steers because of its low cost. Furthermore, grass feeding is an alternative way to produce beef with a balanced n-6 to n-3 fatty acids (FAs) ratio. However, the performance and meat quality of Holstein-Friesian cattle is more likely to depend on a high-quality diet. The aim of this study was to observe whether feeding two mixed diets; a corn-based total mixed ration (TMR) with winter ryegrass (Lolium perenne) or flaxseed oil-supplemented pellets with reed canary grass haylage (n-3 mix) provided benefits on carcass weight, meat quality and FA composition compared with cattle fed with reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea) haylage alone. In all, 15 21-month-old Holstein-Friesian steers were randomly assigned to three group pens, were allowed free access to water and were fed different experimental diets for 150 days. Blood samples were taken a week before slaughter. Carcass weight and meat quality were evaluated after slaughter. Plasma lipid levels and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), creatine kinase (CK) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities were determined. Diet did not affect plasma triglyceride levels and GGT activity. Plasma cholesterol levels, including low-density and high-density lipoproteins, were higher in both mixed-diet groups than in the haylae group. The highest activities of plasma AST, CK and ALP were observed in the haylage group, followed by n-3 mix and TMR groups, respectively. Carcass weight was lower in the haylage group than in the other groups and no differences were found between the TMR and n-3 mix groups. Although the n-3 mix-fed and haylage-fed beef provided lower n-6 to n-3 FAs ratio than TMR-fed beef, the roasted beef obtained from the TMR group was more acceptable with better overall meat physicochemical properties and sensory scores. According to daily cost, carcass weight and n-6 to n-3 FAs ratio, the finishing diet containing flaxseed oil-supplemented pellets and reed canary grass haylage at the as-fed ratio of 40 : 60 could be beneficial for the production of n-3-enriched beef.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1707
[Cu] Class update date: 170720
[Lr] Last revision date:170720
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1017/S1751731117001707

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[PMID]: 28588236
[Au] Autor:Li F; Gao H; Zhu L; Xie Y; Yang G; Hu C; Chen X; Deng Z
[Ad] Address:Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha, Hunan, 410125, China.
[Ti] Title:Foliar nitrogen and phosphorus stoichiometry of three wetland plants distributed along an elevation gradient in Dongting Lake, China.
[So] Source:Sci Rep;7(1):2820, 2017 Jun 06.
[Is] ISSN:2045-2322
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:We examined foliar nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) stoichiometry of 3 wetland plants (Phalaris arundinacea, Miscanthus sacchariflorus, and Carex brevicuspis) distributed along an elevation gradient in the Dongting Lake, China, and how this stoichiometry is related to soil physico-chemical characteristics, elevation, and flooding days. Plant and soil samples were collected from 3 lakeshore sites. Total N and P concentrations of plants and six physico-chemical characteristics of the soil were measured, in addition to the elevation and flooding days. P. arundinacea and M. sacchariflorus had higher total N and P concentrations than C. brevicuspis. The foliar N:P ratio decreased with increasing elevation, and only increased with increasing foliar total N concentration. Canonical correspondence analysis indicated that the foliar stoichiometry was primarily regulated by soil water content, followed by soil nutrient concentration. The foliar N and P stoichiometry of the 3 wetland plants was insignificantly correlated with soil total P concentration. However, foliar stoichiometric characteristics and soil total N concentration significantly differed among the 3 species. These results demonstrate that spatial variation of foliar stoichiometry in wetland plants exists along an elevation gradient, with this information being useful for the conservation and management of wetland plants in this lake.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1706
[Cu] Class update date: 170611
[Lr] Last revision date:170611
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1038/s41598-017-03126-9

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[PMID]: 28562074
[Au] Autor:Ahmed HM
[Ad] Address:a Department of Agricultural Extension , Bakrajo Technical Institute, Sulaimani Polytechnic University , Sulaymaniyah , Kurdistan Regional Government/Iraq.
[Ti] Title:Phytochemical screening, total phenolic content and phytotoxic activity of corn (Zea mays) extracts against some indicator species.
[So] Source:Nat Prod Res;:1-5, 2017 May 31.
[Is] ISSN:1478-6427
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Allelopathic effects of corn (Zea mays) extracts was studied, against seed germination and seedling growth of Phalaris minor, Helianthus annuus, Triticumaestivum, Sorghum halepense, Z. mays. Bioassay results showed that aqueous extracts of corn root and shoot, markedly affected seed germination, and other parameters compared with related controls. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of various phytochemicals such as tannins, phlobatannins, flavonoids, terpenoids and alkaloids in both roots and shoot aqueous extracts. However, saponins were only present in the shoot aqueous extract, while in shoot ethanol extracts, only terpenoids and alkaloids were detected. Additionally, total polyphenolic (TPC) content in aqueous extracts of corn root and shoot, plus ethanol extracts of corn shoot were determined using an Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Results revealed TPC content of the corn shoot aqueous extract showed the highest yield, compared to other extracts. These findings suggest that phytochemicals present in Z. mays extracts may contribute to allelopathy effect.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1706
[Cu] Class update date: 170622
[Lr] Last revision date:170622
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1080/14786419.2017.1333992

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[PMID]: 28527334
[Au] Autor:Zhang C; Zhang DW; Sun YN; Arfan M; Li DX; Yan JJ; You MH; Bai SQ; Lin HH
[Ad] Address:Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Bio-Resource and Eco-Environment, College of Life Science, State Key Laboratory of Hydraulics and Mountain River Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064, China.
[Ti] Title:Photo-protective mechanisms in reed canary grass to alleviate photo-inhibition of PSII on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.
[So] Source:J Plant Physiol;215:11-19, 2017 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1618-1328
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Due to its characteristic of high biomass yield potential, there is considerable interest in cultivating Phalaris arundinacea L. cv. 'chuancaoyin No.3' (reed canary grass) on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau where there is an abundance of alpine steppe meadow and a potential large market for animal husbandry. In this study, we 1) investigate whether reed canary grass exhibits superior productive capacity to Elymus nutans 'Aba' (E. nutans), ordinary common pasture, during the long warm days of summer at high-altitude; and 2) compare the cold tolerance between reed canary grass and E. nutans, including photosynthesis, photo-inhibition, and photo-protection. The results suggest that reed canary grass exhibits higher photosynthetic capacity compared to E. nutans at latitudes of the cool temperate zone. Meanwhile, cold-induced photo-inhibition and photo-damage at high altitudes in reed canary grass were due to both stomatal and non-stomatal limitation, and the enhancement in photo-respiration, thermal dissipation, and Mehler reaction are important processes to minimize the negative effects of high elevation and a cold environment.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1705
[Cu] Class update date: 170722
[Lr] Last revision date:170722
[St] Status:In-Process

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[PMID]: 28493189
[Au] Autor:Nowrotek M; Kotlarska E; Luczkiewicz A; Felis E; Sochacki A; Miksch K
[Ad] Address:Environmental Biotechnology Department, Silesian University of Technology, ul. Akademicka 2, 44-100, Gliwice, Poland. monika.nowrotek@polsl.pl.
[Ti] Title:The treatment of wastewater containing pharmaceuticals in microcosm constructed wetlands: the occurrence of integrons (int1-2) and associated resistance genes (sul1-3, qacEΔ1).
[So] Source:Environ Sci Pollut Res Int;24(17):15055-15066, 2017 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1614-7499
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The aim of this study was to analyze the occurrence of sulfonamide resistance genes (sul1-3) and other genetic elements as antiseptic resistance gene (qacEΔ1) and class 1 and class 2 integrons (int1-2) in the upper layer of substrate and in the effluent of microcosm constructed wetlands (CWs) treating artificial wastewater containing diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole (SMX), which is a sulfonamide antibiotic. The bacteria in the substrate and in the effluents were equipped with the sul1-2, int1, and qacEΔ1 resistance determinants, which were introduced into the CW system during inoculation with activated sludge and with the soil attached to the rhizosphere of potted seedlings of Phalaris arundinacea 'Picta' roots (int1). By comparing the occurrence of the resistance determinants in the upper substrate layer and the effluent, it can be stated that they neither were lost nor emerged along the flow path. The implications of the presence of antibiotic resistance genes in the effluent may entail a risk of antibiotic resistance being spread in the receiving environment. Additionally, transformation products of SMX were determined. According to the obtained results, four (potential) SMX transformation products were identified. Two major metabolites of SMX, 2,3,5-trihydroxy-SMX and 3,5-dihydroxy-SMX, indicated that SMX may be partly oxidized during the treatment. The remaining two SMX transformation products (hydroxy-glutathionyl-SMX and glutathionyl-SMX) are conjugates with glutathione, which suggests the ability of CW bacterial community to degrade SMX and resist antimicrobial stress.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1705
[Cu] Class update date: 170714
[Lr] Last revision date:170714
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1007/s11356-017-9079-1


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