Database : MEDLINE
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[PMID]: 28452705
[Au] Autor:Lin L; Chen Z; Cao Y; Sun G
[Ad] Address:Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Huashan Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China.
[Ti] Title:Normal saline solution nasal-pharyngeal irrigation improves chronic cough associated with allergic rhinitis.
[So] Source:Am J Rhinol Allergy;31(2):96-104, 2017 Mar 01.
[Is] ISSN:1945-8932
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Upper airway inflammation is one of the most commonly identified causes of chronic cough, although the underlying mechanism is not clear. This study compared normal saline solution nasal-pharyngeal irrigation (NSNPI) and fluticasone propionate nasal spray (FPNS) treatment for chronic cough associated with allergic rhinitis (AR). METHODS: Patients with suspected AR to house-dust mite were enrolled, and the symptom of cough was assessed by a cough symptom score and the Leicester Cough Questionnaire, and cough response to capsaicin was evaluated. AR was assessed by using the visual analog scale (VAS) and the Mini Juniper Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (MiniRQLQ). Mediators, including histamine, leukotriene C4, and prostaglandin D2, and the major basic protein from nasal lavage fluid (NLF) were examined. The patients were treated with NSNPI (the NSNPI group) or FPNS (the FPNS group) for 30 days, after which they were reassessed. RESULTS: Forty-five of 50 patients completed this study. The scores of the cough symptom and the Leicester Cough Questionnaire, and the capsaicin cough threshold all improved statistically after NSNPI but did not change after FPNS. There were statistically significant changes in the evaluations of the MiniRQLQ and the mediators, including histamine and leukotriene C4, in the NLF in the NSNPI group. However, significant changes were found in the assessments of VAS, MiniRQLQ, and all above mediators including histamine, leukotriene C4, and prostaglandin D2, and the major basic protein in the NLF of the FPNS group. Furthermore, the assessments of VAS and all the mediators were reduced more in the FPNS group compared with those in the NSNPI group. CONCLUSION: The patients with suspected AR to house-dust mite reported a better relief of the cough symptom after 30 days of treatment with NSNPI compared with that after nasal corticosteroid.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Adenoids/pathology
Cough/prevention & control
Fluticasone/therapeutic use
Paranasal Sinuses/pathology
Rhinitis, Allergic/therapy
Sodium Chloride/therapeutic use
Therapeutic Irrigation
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adenoids/drug effects
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Animals
Antigens, Dermatophagoides/immunology
Chronic Disease
Cough/etiology
Humans
Middle Aged
Nasal Sprays
Paranasal Sinuses/drug effects
Pyroglyphidae/immunology
Rhinitis, Allergic/complications
Young Adult
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Antigens, Dermatophagoides); 0 (Nasal Sprays); 451W47IQ8X (Sodium Chloride); CUT2W21N7U (Fluticasone)
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170429
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.2500/ajra.2017.31.4418

  2 / 9310 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29394357
[Au] Autor:Pipkins HR; Bradshaw JL; Keller LE; McDaniel LS
[Ad] Address:Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USA.
[Ti] Title:Virulence of an Encapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae is Increased Upon Expression of Pneumococcal Surface Protein K.
[So] Source:J Infect Dis;, 2018 Jan 31.
[Is] ISSN:1537-6613
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Background: Current Streptococcus pneumoniae vaccines selectively target capsular polysaccharide of specific serotypes, leading to an increase in nonencapsulated S. pneumoniae (NESp). Cocolonization by encapsulated pneumococci and NESp increases the opportunity of intra-species genetic exchange. Acquisition of NESp genes by encapsulated pneumococci could alter virulence and help vaccine-targeted serotypes persist in the host. Methods: Adhesion and invasion assay were performed using immortalized human pharyngeal or lung epithelial cells. In vivo models assessing murine nasopharyngeal colonization and pneumonia as well as chinchilla otitis media (OM) were also used. Results: PspK expression increased encapsulated pneumococcal adhesion and invasion of lung cells and enhanced virulence during pneumonia and OM. Additionally, PspK increased nasopharyngeal colonization, persistence in the lungs, and persistence in the middle ear when expressed in a capsule deletion mutant. Competition experiments demonstrated encapsulated pneumococci expressing PspK also had a selective advantage in both the lungs and nasopharynx. Conclusions: PspK increases pneumococcal virulence during pneumonia and OM. PspK also partially compensate for loss of virulence in the absence of capsule. Additionally, PspK provides a selective advantage in a competitive environment. Therefore, acquisition of PspK increases encapsulated virulence in a condition-dependent manner. Together, these studies demonstrate risks associated with pneumococcal intra-species genetic exchange.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1093/infdis/jiy058

  3 / 9310 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29325033
[Au] Autor:Mahale P; Engels EA; Coghill AE; Kahn AR; Shiels MS
[Ad] Address:Division of Cancer Epidemiology & Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD.
[Ti] Title:Cancer risk in older people living with human immunodeficiency virus infection in the United States.
[So] Source:Clin Infect Dis;, 2018 Jan 08.
[Is] ISSN:1537-6591
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Background: Cancer risk is increased in people living with HIV (PLWH). Improved survival has led to an aging of PLWH. We evaluated the cancer risk in older PLWH (age ≥50 years). Methods: We included data from the HIV/AIDS Cancer Match Study (1996-2012) and evaluated risk of Kaposi sarcoma (KS), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), Hodgkin lymphoma, and cervical, anal, lung, liver, oral cavity/pharyngeal, breast, prostate, and colon cancers in older PLWH compared to the general population by calculating the standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and excess absolute risks (EARs). Cancer risk by time since HIV diagnosis was estimated using Poisson regression. Results: We identified 10,371 cancers among 183,542 older PLWH. Risk was significantly increased for KS (SIR=103.34), NHL (SIR=3.05), Hodgkin lymphoma (SIR=7.61), and cervical (SIR=2.02), anal (SIR=14.00), lung (SIR=1.71), liver (SIR=2.91), and oral cavity/pharyngeal (SIR=1.66) cancers, and reduced for breast (SIR=0.61), prostate (SIR=0.47), and colon (SIR=0.63) cancers. SIRs declined with age for all cancers; however, EARs increased with age for anal, lung, liver, and oral cavity/pharyngeal cancers. Cancer risk was highest for most cancers within 5 years after HIV diagnosis; risk decreased with increasing time since HIV diagnosis for KS, NHL, lung cancer, and Hodgkin lymphoma. Conclusions: Cancer risk is elevated among older PLWH. Although SIRs decrease with age, EARs are higher for some cancers, reflecting a greater absolute excess in cancer incidence among older PLWH. High risk in the first 5 years after HIV diagnosis for some cancers highlights the need for early HIV diagnosis and rapid treatment initiation.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1093/cid/ciy012

  4 / 9310 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29509566
[Au] Autor:Allan-Blitz LT; Mokany E; Miller S; Wee R; Shannon C; Klausner JD
[Ad] Address:Division of Infectious Diseases: Department of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles.
[Ti] Title:Prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium and Azithromycin-Resistant Infections Among Remnant Clinical Specimens, Los Angeles.
[So] Source:Sex Transm Dis;, 2018 Mar 05.
[Is] ISSN:1537-4521
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma genitalium is an important cause of bacterial sexually transmitted diseases. Diagnosis and susceptibility testing of Mycoplasma genitalium are limited by the fastidious nature of the organism. Therefore, the prevalence of infection and azithromycin resistance are poorly studied. METHODS: We conducted an exploratory study on remnant clinical specimens. We collected remnant DNA from urine samples and clinical swabs (cervical/vaginal, rectal, and pharyngeal) previously tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis using the Cobas 4800 CT/NG assay (Roche Molecular Systems, Pleasanton, CA) between March-April 2017 from across the University of California, Los Angeles Health System. We then retrospectively tested all specimens with the ResistancePlus™ MG (550) kit, a molecular assay for the detection of Mycoplasma genitalium and genetic mutations associated with azithromycin resistance. RESULTS: Among 500 specimens, the prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium was 1.1% (95% CI 0.04%-3.0%) in urine samples (n=362), 17.4% (95% CI 5.7%-39.6%) in rectal swabs (n=23), and 1.9% (95% CI 0.3%-7.3%) in cervical/vaginal swabs (n=106). The prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae was 0.6% in urine samples and 4.3% in rectal swabs, while the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis was 2.2% in urine samples, 4.3% in rectal swabs and 3.8% in cervical/vaginal swabs. Of the 10 Mycoplasma genitalium positive specimens, 8 (80.0%) had a mutation associated with azithromycin resistance. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium infection in our population varied by anatomic site of infection. Most Mycoplasma genitalium infections had at least one mutation associated with azithromycin resistance.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180306
[Lr] Last revision date:180306
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1097/OLQ.0000000000000829

  5 / 9310 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29486706
[Au] Autor:Cornelisse VJ; Zhang L; Law M; Chen MY; Bradshaw CS; Bellhouse C; Fairley CK; Chow EPF
[Ad] Address:The Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, Alfred Health, 580 Swanston St, Carlton, Melbourne, VIC, 3053, Australia. VCornelisse@mshc.org.au.
[Ti] Title:Concordance of gonorrhoea of the rectum, pharynx and urethra in same-sex male partnerships attending a sexual health service in Melbourne, Australia.
[So] Source:BMC Infect Dis;18(1):95, 2018 Feb 27.
[Is] ISSN:1471-2334
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: We aimed to describe anatomic site-specific concordance of gonococcal infections in partnerships of men who have sex with men (MSM). METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data from MSM partnerships attending Melbourne Sexual Health Centre between March 2011 and February 2015. Logistic regression models (random effect) were used to examine the association between gonococcal infections of the urethra, rectum and pharynx. Gonococci were detected by culture at all anatomic sites. RESULTS: The analysis included 495 partnerships. Of the men with urethral gonorrhoea, 33% (95% CI 18-52) had partners with pharyngeal gonorrhoea and 67% (95% CI 48-82) had partners with rectal gonorrhoea. The adjusted odds of having urethral gonorrhoea was 4.6 (95% CI 1.2-17.1) for a man whose partner had pharyngeal gonorrhoea, and 48.1 (95% CI 18.3-126.7) for a man whose partner had rectal gonorrhoea. Of the men with rectal gonorrhoea, 46% (95% CI 31-61) had a partner with urethral gonorrhoea and 23% (95% CI 12-37) had a partner with pharyngeal gonorrhoea. The adjusted odds of having rectal gonorrhoea was 63.9 (95% CI 24.7-165.6) for a man whose partner had urethral gonorrhoea. Of the men with pharyngeal gonorrhoea, 42% (95% CI 23-63) had a partner with rectal gonorrhoea and 23% (95% CI 9-44) had a partner with had a partner with pharyngeal gonorrhoea. The adjusted odds of having pharyngeal gonorrhoea was 8.9 (95% CI 3.2-24.6) for a man whose partner had rectal gonorrhoea. The crude odds of having pharyngeal gonorrhoea was 14.2 (95% CI 5.1-39.0) for a man whose partner had pharyngeal gonorrhoea. CONCLUSIONS: These data provide the first estimates of concordance of anatomic site-specific gonococcal infections in MSM partnerships, and confirm that urethral gonorrhoea is contracted from both rectal and pharyngeal sites, and suggest that gonococci transmit between the rectum and pharynx. However, due to use of culture rather than NAAT, our analysis was not adequately powered to assess pharynx-to-pharynx transmission of gonococci.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180307
[Lr] Last revision date:180307
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12879-018-3003-2

  6 / 9310 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29485543
[Au] Autor:Javanbakht M; Westmoreland D; Gorbach P
[Ad] Address:Department of Epidemiology, Fielding School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles.
[Ti] Title:Factors associated with pharyngeal gonorrhea in young people: Implications for prevention.
[So] Source:Sex Transm Dis;, 2018 Feb 26.
[Is] ISSN:1537-4521
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to examine the proportion of missed infections and correlates of pharyngeal gonorrhea among young people attending public STD clinics. METHODS: We conducted a case control study of 245 young men and women between April 2012 and May 2014. Participants were eligible for inclusion if they were: (1) age 15 - 29 years, (2) reported giving oral sex to a partner of the opposite sex, in the past 90 days, and (3) attended one of twelve public STD clinics in Los Angeles County. Computer assisted self-interviews were used to collect information on sexual behaviors and tests were conducted for pharyngeal and urogenital gonorrhea. RESULTS: The majority of participants were less than 25 years of age (69%) and more than half were female (56%). We identified a total of 64 cases (27%) of gonorrhea of which 29 (45%) were a urogenital only infection, 18 (28%) were a pharyngeal only, and 17 (27%) were dually infected at both sites. Pharyngeal testing increased case finding by 39% from 46 cases to 64 cases. After adjusting for age, gender, and number of sex partners, those who reported consistent pharyngeal exposure to ejaculate/vaginal fluids were three times as likely to have pharyngeal gonorrhea as compared to those without this exposure (adjusted odds ratio=3.1; 95% CI: 1.3-7.5). CONCLUSION: A large proportion of gonorrhea cases among young people would be missed in the absence of pharyngeal testing. These results have implications for those who provide medical care to clients at STD clinics and highlight the need for pharyngeal screening recommendations and counseling messages related to strategies to reduce exposure to infected fluids.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180307
[Lr] Last revision date:180307
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1097/OLQ.0000000000000822

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[PMID]: 29217814
[Au] Autor:Anitha A; Delhi Kumar CG
[Ad] Address:Department of Pediatrics, JIPMER, Puducherry, India. dillikumar14@gmail.com.
[Ti] Title:An Uncommon Cause of Stridor in a Young Infant.
[So] Source:Indian Pediatr;54(11):976, 2017 11 15.
[Is] ISSN:0974-7559
[Cp] Country of publication:India
[La] Language:eng
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Cysts
Pharyngeal Diseases
Respiratory Sounds/etiology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Cysts/complications
Cysts/diagnostic imaging
Cysts/pathology
Cysts/surgery
Female
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Pharyngeal Diseases/complications
Pharyngeal Diseases/diagnostic imaging
Pharyngeal Diseases/pathology
Pharyngeal Diseases/surgery
Pharynx/diagnostic imaging
Pharynx/pathology
Pharynx/surgery
[Pt] Publication type:CASE REPORTS; LETTER
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180301
[Lr] Last revision date:180301
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:171209
[St] Status:MEDLINE

  8 / 9310 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29281626
[Au] Autor:Lin JR; Zhang Q; Cai Y; Morrow BE; Zhang ZD
[Ad] Address:Department of Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, United States of America.
[Ti] Title:Integrated rare variant-based risk gene prioritization in disease case-control sequencing studies.
[So] Source:PLoS Genet;13(12):e1007142, 2017 12.
[Is] ISSN:1553-7404
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Rare variants of major effect play an important role in human complex diseases and can be discovered by sequencing-based genome-wide association studies. Here, we introduce an integrated approach that combines the rare variant association test with gene network and phenotype information to identify risk genes implicated by rare variants for human complex diseases. Our data integration method follows a 'discovery-driven' strategy without relying on prior knowledge about the disease and thus maintains the unbiased character of genome-wide association studies. Simulations reveal that our method can outperform a widely-used rare variant association test method by 2 to 3 times. In a case study of a small disease cohort, we uncovered putative risk genes and the corresponding rare variants that may act as genetic modifiers of congenital heart disease in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome patients. These variants were missed by a conventional approach that relied on the rare variant association test alone.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Genetic Variation
Genome-Wide Association Study/methods
Sequence Analysis, DNA/methods
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Case-Control Studies
Computer Simulation
Data Interpretation, Statistical
DiGeorge Syndrome/genetics
Humans
Phenotype
Risk Factors
Sequence Analysis, DNA/statistics & numerical data
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180227
[Lr] Last revision date:180227
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:171228
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen.1007142

  9 / 9310 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29465695
[Au] Autor:Mena L; Crosby RA; Chamberlain N
[Ad] Address:University of Mississippi Medical Center.
[Ti] Title:Extragenital Chlamydia and Gonorrhea in Young Black Men Who Have Sex With Men: Missed Treatment Opportunities for HIV-Infected MSM?
[So] Source:Sex Transm Dis;, 2017 Oct 19.
[Is] ISSN:1537-4521
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVES: This study of young Black MSM (YBMSM) assessed the prevalence of extra-genital chlamydia and gonorrhea among those testing negative for urethral infections, and compared prevalence of both by HIV status. METHODS: A convenience sample of 609 YBMSM was recruited for a cross-sectional study from two sexual health clinics located in Jackson, MS. To detect C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae, NAAT was performed on urine, rectal swabs, and oral swabs. OraSure was used to detect HIV. RESULTS: Seventy-three percent of all chlamydia infections and 77% of gonorrhea infections were found from anal and oral swabs in the absence of urethral positivity. Compared to HIV-uninfected, HIV-infected men were significantly more likely to have: pharyngeal chlamydia (P=.03), multiple CT infections (P=.02), rectal NG (P<.001), multiple NG infections (P=.04), both CT/NG rectal infections (P=.001). CONCLUSION: As much as three-quarters of all chlamydia and gonorrhea infections may be missed when only urine-based NAAT testing is used to screen YBMSM for bacterial STIs. These missed opportunities for diagnosis may be particularly likely among HIV-infected YBMSM.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180221
[Lr] Last revision date:180221
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1097/OLQ.0000000000000746

  10 / 9310 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29465642
[Au] Autor:Hananta IPY; de Vries HJC; van Dam AP; van Rooijen MS; Soebono H; Schim van der Loeff MF
[Ad] Address:Department of Infectious Diseases, Public Health Service (GGD) of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
[Ti] Title:Spontaneous clearance of pharyngeal gonococcal infections: a retrospective study in patients of the sexually transmitted infections clinic, Amsterdam, the Netherlands 2012-2015.
[So] Source:Sex Transm Dis;, 2018 Feb 13.
[Is] ISSN:1537-4521
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:INTRODUCTION: Pharyngeal Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections are mostly asymptomatic, yet sustain ongoing gonococcal transmission. We assessed the proportion of pharyngeal gonorrhea that spontaneously clears and identified determinants of clearance. METHODS: At the sexually transmitted infections clinic Amsterdam, at-risk females and men who have sex with men were routinely screened for pharyngeal N. gonorrhoeae using an RNA-based nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT; Aptima Combo 2®).We retrospectively examined medical records of pharyngeal gonorrhea patients (January 2012-August 2015). We included patients who returned for antibiotic treatment and had a new sample taken for NAAT prior to treatment. Spontaneous clearance was defined as a negative NAAT at the follow-up visit. RESULTS: During the study period, 1,266 cases with a pharyngeal gonorrhea were not treated at the first consultation and returned for a follow-up visit. Median time between the first consultation and follow-up [interquartile range] was 10 [7-14] days. Spontaneous clearance was found in 139 cases (11.0%) and was associated with age ≥45 years (vs 16-24 years) (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=2.02 [95%CI 1.09-3.75]), and with time from the first consultation to follow-up (aOR=1.08 [1.06-1.10], per extra day). CONCLUSION: Eleven percent of pharyngeal gonorrhea cases cleared spontaneously. Spontaneous clearance of pharyngeal gonorrhea was more often seen among older patients.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180221
[Lr] Last revision date:180221
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1097/OLQ.0000000000000807


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