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[PMID]: 28151972
[Au] Autor:Lima DF; de Lima LI; Rocha JA; de Andrade IM; Grazina LG; Villa C; Meira L; Véras LM; Azevedo IF; Biase AG; Costa J; Oliveira MB; Mafra I; Leite JR
[Ad] Address:Núcleo de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia, Campus Ministro Reis Velloso, Universidade Federal do Piauí, Parnaíba, Piauí, Brazil.
[Ti] Title:Seasonal change in main alkaloids of jaborandi (Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Wardleworth), an economically important species from the Brazilian flora.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(2):e0170281, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Wardleworth (jaborandi, Rutaceae) is one of the most important Brazilian medicinal species owing to its content of pilocarpine (PIL), an alkaloid used for treating glaucoma and xerostomia. This species contains another alkaloid, epiisopiloturine (EPI), which has demonstrated effectiveness against schistosomiasis. The aim of this work was to assess seasonal changes of PIL and EPI in three populations of cultivated P. microphyllus from northeastern Brazil over one year, including the dry and rainy seasons. Alkaloid profiles were correlated to phenotypic and genetic patterns in the morphological and molecular characterizations. PIL was the primary alkaloid and its levels differed among populations in all months except September. The S01 population (green line) showed an especially high PIL content compared to populations S02 and S03 (traditional line), which had similar alkaloid contents. PIL content gradually decreased in the three populations in the rainy season.EPI content was significantly different between the green line (S01) and the traditional line (S02 and S03).S01 had a significantly lower EPI content in all months, demonstrating that it was not the best source for EPI extraction. Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers and morphological analyses clearly separated S01 from S02 and S03, in agreement with the alkaloid results. This study shows the first correlation between the chemical, morphological, and molecular markers of P. microphyllus and highlights the potential benefits of a multidisciplinary research approach aimed at supporting both industry and conservation of natural resources.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Alkaloids/analysis
Pilocarpus/chemistry
Plants, Medicinal/chemistry
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: 4-Butyrolactone/analogs & derivatives
4-Butyrolactone/analysis
Brazil
DNA, Plant/genetics
Genetics, Population
Imidazoles/analysis
Microsatellite Repeats
Pilocarpine/analysis
Pilocarpus/anatomy & histology
Pilocarpus/genetics
Plant Leaves/anatomy & histology
Plant Leaves/chemistry
Plant Leaves/genetics
Plants, Medicinal/anatomy & histology
Plants, Medicinal/genetics
Seasons
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Alkaloids); 0 (DNA, Plant); 0 (Imidazoles); 0 (epiisopiloturine); 01MI4Q9DI3 (Pilocarpine); OL659KIY4X (4-Butyrolactone)
[Em] Entry month:1708
[Cu] Class update date: 170814
[Lr] Last revision date:170814
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170202
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0170281

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[PMID]: 28056423
[Au] Autor:Nicolau LAD; Carvalho NS; Pacífico DM; Lucetti LT; Aragão KS; Véras LMC; Souza MHLP; Leite JRSA; Medeiros JVR
[Ad] Address:Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza, CE, Brazil.
[Ti] Title:Epiisopiloturine hydrochloride, an imidazole alkaloid isolated from Pilocarpus microphyllus leaves, protects against naproxen-induced gastrointestinal damage in rats.
[So] Source:Biomed Pharmacother;87:188-195, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1950-6007
[Cp] Country of publication:France
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of epiisopiloturine hydrochloride (EPI), an imidazole alkaloid, on NAP-induced gastrointestinal damage in rats. METHODS: Initially, rats were pretreated with 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose (vehicle) or EPI (3, 10 and 30mg/kg, p.o. or i.p., groups 3-5, respectively) twice daily, for 2days. After 1h, NAP (80mg/kg, p.o.) was given. The control group received only vehicle (group 1) or vehicle+naproxen (group 2). Rats were euthanized on 2nd day, 4h after NAP treatment. Stomachs lesions were measured. Samples were collected for histological evaluation and glutathione (GSH), malonyldialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and cytokines levels. Moreover, gastric mucosal blood flow (GMBF) was evaluated. RESULTS: EPI pretreatment prevented NAP-induced macro and microscopic gastric damage with a maximal effect at 10mg/kg. Histological analysis revealed that EPI decreased scores of damage caused by NAP. EPI reduced MPO (3.4±0.3U/mg of gastric tissue) and inhibited changes in MDA (70.4±8.3mg/g of gastric tissue) and GSH (246.2±26.4mg/g of gastric tissue). NAP increased TNF-α levels, and this effect was reduced by EPI pretreatment. Furthermore, EPI increased GMBF by 15% compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: Our data show that EPI protects against NAP-induced gastric and intestinal damage by reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines, reducing oxidative stress, and increasing GMBF.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: 4-Butyrolactone/analogs & derivatives
Alkaloids/therapeutic use
Gastrointestinal Diseases/prevention & control
Imidazoles/therapeutic use
Naproxen/toxicity
Pilocarpus
Plant Extracts/pharmacology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: 4-Butyrolactone/isolation & purification
4-Butyrolactone/pharmacology
4-Butyrolactone/therapeutic use
Alkaloids/isolation & purification
Alkaloids/pharmacology
Animals
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Gastric Mucosa/drug effects
Gastric Mucosa/pathology
Gastrointestinal Diseases/chemically induced
Gastrointestinal Diseases/pathology
Imidazoles/isolation & purification
Imidazoles/pharmacology
Intestinal Mucosa/drug effects
Intestinal Mucosa/pathology
Male
Plant Extracts/isolation & purification
Plant Leaves
Protective Agents/isolation & purification
Protective Agents/pharmacology
Rats
Rats, Wistar
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Alkaloids); 0 (Imidazoles); 0 (Plant Extracts); 0 (Protective Agents); 0 (epiisopiloturine); 57Y76R9ATQ (Naproxen); OL659KIY4X (4-Butyrolactone)
[Em] Entry month:1702
[Cu] Class update date: 170710
[Lr] Last revision date:170710
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170105
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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Mendonça, Ronaldo Z
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[PMID]: 28126674
[Au] Autor:Campelo YDM; Mafud AC; Véras LMC; Guimarães MA; Yamaguchi LF; Lima DF; Arcanjo DDR; Kato MJ; Mendonça RZ; Pinto PLS; Mascarenhas YP; Silva MPN; de Moraes J; Eaton P; de Souza de Almeida Leite JR
[Ad] Address:Biodiversity and Biotechnology Research Center, Biotec, Federal University of Piauí, UFPI, Parnaíba, PI, 64202020, Brazil; Institute of Higher Education of Vale do Parnaíba, FAHESP/IESVAP, Parnaíba, PI, Brazil.
[Ti] Title:Synergistic effects of in vitro combinations of piplartine, epiisopiloturine and praziquantel against Schistosoma mansoni.
[So] Source:Biomed Pharmacother;88:488-499, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1950-6007
[Cp] Country of publication:France
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Schistosomiasis is a world health problem, and praziquantel is the only drug currently used for the treatment. There is some evidence that extensive monotherapy of praziquantel may be leading to drug resistance in the parasite. In order to find alternative treatments, the effects of the combination of epiisopiloturine (EPI), piplartine (PPT) and praziquantel (PZQ) were evaluated. Similarity analysis of these compounds was performed using optimized molecular structures to compare the shape and the charge modeling of combinations between PZQ and EPI or PPT. Supported by this data, in vitro association of PZQ-PPT, PZQ-EPI, and EPI-PPT was carried out, and the activity of these combinations against Schistosoma mansoni was assessed. The results showed synergistic activity with a combination index (CI) of 0.42 for the treatment with PZQ-PPT. Both PZQ-EPI and EPI-PPT combinations also showed synergistic effects, with CI values of 0.86 and 0.61, respectively. Surface alterations in the tegument of adult schistosomes after the treatments were observed using laser confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Additionally, the association of EPI-PPT decreased the cytotoxicity when compared with both isolated compounds in three different lines of mammalian cells. Thus, synergistic combinations of PZQ-PPT, PZQ-EPI, and EPI-PPT create the possibility of reduced doses to be used against Schistosoma mansoni.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: 4-Butyrolactone/analogs & derivatives
Imidazoles/pharmacology
Piperidones/pharmacology
Praziquantel/pharmacology
Schistosoma mansoni/drug effects
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: 4-Butyrolactone/chemistry
4-Butyrolactone/pharmacology
Animals
Antiprotozoal Agents/pharmacology
Cell Shape/drug effects
Cercopithecus aethiops
Cricetinae
Dogs
Drug Synergism
Drug Therapy, Combination
Imidazoles/chemistry
Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells
Male
Mice
Microscopy, Confocal
Piperidones/chemistry
Praziquantel/chemistry
Schistosoma mansoni/ultrastructure
Vero Cells
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Antiprotozoal Agents); 0 (Imidazoles); 0 (Piperidones); 0 (epiisopiloturine); 0 (piplartine); 6490C9U457 (Praziquantel); OL659KIY4X (4-Butyrolactone)
[Em] Entry month:1703
[Cu] Class update date: 170627
[Lr] Last revision date:170627
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170127
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 28111828
[Au] Autor:Rocha JA; Andrade IM; Véras LM; Quelemes PV; Lima DF; Soares MJ; Pinto PL; Mayo SJ; Ivanova G; Rangel M; Correia M; Mafud AC; Mascarenhas YP; Delerue-Matos C; de Moraes J; Eaton P; Leite JR
[Ad] Address:Programa de Mestrado em Biotecnologia (PPGBiotec), Campus de Parnaíba, Universidade Federal do Piauí (UFPI), Parnaíba, PI, Brazil.
[Ti] Title:Anthelmintic, Antibacterial and Cytotoxicity Activity of Imidazole Alkaloids from Pilocarpus microphyllus Leaves.
[So] Source:Phytother Res;31(4):624-630, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1099-1573
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Wardlew (Rutaceae), popularly known as jaborandi, is a plant native to the northern and northeastern macroregions of Brazil. Several alkaloids from this species have been isolated. There are few reports of antibacterial and anthelmintic activities for these compounds. In this work, we report the antibacterial and anthelmintic activity of five alkaloids found in P. microphyllus leaves, namely, pilosine, epiisopilosine, isopilosine, epiisopiloturine and macaubine. Of these, only anthelmintic activity of one of the compounds has been previously reported. Nuclear magnetic resonance, HPLC and mass spectrometry were combined and used to identify and confirm the structure of the five compounds. As regards the anthelmintic activity, the alkaloids were studied using in vitro assays to evaluate survival time and damaged teguments for Schistosoma mansoni adult worms. We found epiisopilosine to have anthelmintic activity at very low concentrations (3.125 µg mL ); at this concentration, it prevented mating, oviposition, reducing motor activity and altered the tegument of these worms. In contrast, none of the alkaloids showed antibacterial activity. Additionally, alkaloids displayed no cytotoxic effect on vero cells. The potent anthelmintic activity of epiisopilosine indicates the potential of this natural compound as an antiparasitic agent. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Alkaloids/chemistry
Anthelmintics/chemistry
Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry
Imidazoles/chemistry
Pilocarpus/chemistry
Plant Extracts/chemistry
Plant Leaves/chemistry
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: 4-Butyrolactone/analogs & derivatives
Animals
Imidazoles/pharmacology
Vero Cells
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Alkaloids); 0 (Anthelmintics); 0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents); 0 (Imidazoles); 0 (Plant Extracts); 0 (epiisopiloturine); 7GBN705NH1 (imidazole); OL659KIY4X (4-Butyrolactone)
[Em] Entry month:1705
[Cu] Class update date: 170503
[Lr] Last revision date:170503
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170123
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/ptr.5771

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[PMID]: 28109770
[Au] Autor:Madeiro SA; Borges NH; Souto AL; de Figueiredo PT; Siqueira-Junior JP; Tavares JF
[Ad] Address:Centro de Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, João Pessoa, Brazil.
[Ti] Title:Modulation of the antibiotic activity against multidrug resistant strains of coumarins isolated from Rutaceae species.
[So] Source:Microb Pathog;104:151-154, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1096-1208
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The first occurrences and dissemination of resistant microorganisms led to the inefficacy of many antibiotics, available in the market nowadays, therefore, the search for new substances with antimicrobial activity from natural sources has gained a great importance. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the antibacterial activity and modulation of drug resistance in Staphylococcus aureus by coumarins such as bergapten, xantotoxin, isopimpinellin and imperatorin obtained from two Rutaceae species (Metrodorea mollis and Pilocarpus spicatus). The antimicrobial activity was assessed based on the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), using the microdilution method. The MIC was >256 g/mL for all coumarins tested. Regarding the modulation of drug resistance assay, the isopimpinellin reducted the MIC of erytromicin by 4 times, whereas imperatorin exhibited the best result, reducing the MIC of tetracycline (2 times), erytomicin (4 times) and norfloxacin (4 times). By reducing the MIC of ethidium bromide, the imperatorin is consider in fact, as a putative efflux pump inhibitor of bacteria.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
Coumarins/pharmacology
Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/drug effects
Phytochemicals/pharmacology
Rutaceae/chemistry
Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Anti-Bacterial Agents/isolation & purification
Coumarins/isolation & purification
Drug Synergism
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Phytochemicals/isolation & purification
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents); 0 (Coumarins); 0 (Phytochemicals)
[Em] Entry month:1704
[Cu] Class update date: 170413
[Lr] Last revision date:170413
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170122
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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SciELO Brazil full text

[PMID]: 27334829
[Au] Autor:Castro KN; Lima DF; Wolschick D; Andrade IM; Santos RC; Santos FJ; Veras LM; Costa-Júnior LM
[Ad] Address:Laboratório de Doenças Parasitárias, Embrapa Meio-Norte, Embrapa Meio-Norte, Parnaíba PI , Brasil, Laboratório de Doenças Parasitárias, Embrapa Meio-Norte, Parnaíba, PI, Brasil.
[Ti] Title:In vitro effects of Pilocarpus microphyllus extracts and pilocarpine hydrochloride on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.
[So] Source:Rev Bras Parasitol Vet;25(2):248-53, 2016 Jun 07.
[Is] ISSN:1984-2961
[Cp] Country of publication:Brazil
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The aim of this study was to assess the activity of aqueous (AE) and ethanolic extracts (EE) and pilocarpine hydrochloride, which were extracted and isolated from Pilocarpus microphyllus (Jaborandi), respectively, on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was performed to quantify these compounds. Larval packet and adult immersion tests were conducted with different concentrations. Five AE and EE concentrations, ranging from 6.2 to 100.0 mg mL-1, and six concentrations of pilocarpine hydrochloride, ranging from 0.7 to 24.0 mg mL-1, were tested. The lethal concentration (LC50) of each extract for larvae and engorged females was calculated through Probit analysis. The concentration of pilocarpine hydrochloride obtained from the EE and the AE was 1.3 and 0.3% (m/m), respectively. Pilocarpine hydrochloride presented the highest acaricidal activity on larvae (LC50 2.6 mg mL-1) and engorged females (LC50 11.8 mg mL-1) of R.(B.) microplus, followed by the EE which presented LC50 of 56.4 and 15.9 mg mL-1, for larvae and engorged females, respectively. Such results indicate that pilocarpine hydrochloride has acaricidal activity, and may be the primary compound responsible for this activity by P. microphyllus EE.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1606
[Cu] Class update date: 161219
[Lr] Last revision date:161219
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Process

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SciELO Brazil full text

[PMID]: 27276670
[Au] Autor:Castro KN; Lima DF; Wolschick D; Andrade IM; Santos RC; Santos FJ; Veras LM; Costa-Júnior LM
[Ad] Address:Laboratório de Doenças Parasitárias, Embrapa Meio-Norte, Embrapa Meio-Norte, Parnaíba PI , Brasil, Laboratório de Doenças Parasitárias, Embrapa Meio-Norte, Parnaíba, PI, Brasil.
[Ti] Title:In vitro effects of Pilocarpus microphyllus extracts and pilocarpine hydrochloride on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.
[So] Source:Rev Bras Parasitol Vet;0:0, 2016 Jun 07.
[Is] ISSN:1984-2961
[Cp] Country of publication:Brazil
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The aim of this study was to assess the activity of aqueous (AE) and ethanolic extracts (EE) and pilocarpine hydrochloride, which were extracted and isolated from Pilocarpus microphyllus (Jaborandi), respectively, on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was performed to quantify these compounds. Larval packet and adult immersion tests were conducted with different concentrations. Five AE and EE concentrations, ranging from 6.2 to 100.0 mg mL-1, and six concentrations of pilocarpine hydrochloride, ranging from 0.7 to 24.0 mg mL-1, were tested. The lethal concentration (LC50) of each extract for larvae and engorged females was calculated through Probit analysis. The concentration of pilocarpine hydrochloride obtained from the EE and the AE was 1.3 and 0.3% (m/m), respectively. Pilocarpine hydrochloride presented the highest acaricidal activity on larvae (LC50 2.6 mg mL-1) and engorged females (LC50 11.8 mg mL-1) of R.(B.) microplus, followed by the EE which presented LC50 of 56.4 and 15.9 mg mL-1, for larvae and engorged females, respectively. Such results indicate that pilocarpine hydrochloride has acaricidal activity, and may be the primary compound responsible for this activity by P. microphyllus EE.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1606
[Cu] Class update date: 161219
[Lr] Last revision date:161219
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Process

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Mazzafera, Paulo

[PMID]: 26058143
[Au] Autor:Sawaya AC; Costa YD; Mazzafera P
[Ti] Title:Unraveling the biosynthesis of pilocarpine in Pilocarpus microphyllus.
[So] Source:Nat Prod Commun;10(5):721-4, 2015 May.
[Is] ISSN:1934-578X
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Pilocarpine is found exclusively in species of Pilocarpus and the presence of other imidazole alkaloids has been reported in several species of the genus. Pilocarpine has several important pharmaceutical applications. Although several imidazole alkaloids related to pilocarpine have been reported in the previous years, little is still known about its biosynthetic route. At most, histidine has been reported as the precursor of pilocarpine. Based on our own previous reports and in an experiment where pilocarpine and related alkaloids (pilosine, trachyllophiline and anhydropilosine) were supplied to P. microphyllus leaves and the alkaloid profile analyzed by UPLC-MS, we suggest a biosynthesis pathway for pilocarpine. Further experiments using labeled precursors associated with transcriptome data may allow us to understand the whole biosynthesis pathway and its genetic control.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Pilocarpine/biosynthesis
Pilocarpus/metabolism
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Biosynthetic Pathways
Molecular Structure
Pilocarpine/chemistry
Pilocarpus/chemistry
Plant Leaves/chemistry
Plant Leaves/metabolism
Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Name of substance:01MI4Q9DI3 (Pilocarpine)
[Em] Entry month:1507
[Cu] Class update date: 150610
[Lr] Last revision date:150610
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:150610
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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Abreu, Ilka Nacif
Mazzafera, Paulo
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[PMID]: 25474486
[Au] Autor:Andreazza NL; Abreu IN; Sawaya AC; Mazzafera P
[Ad] Address:Departamento de Biologia Vegetal, Instituto de Biologia, CP 6109, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-970 Campinas, SP, Brazil.
[Ti] Title:Characterisation of the membrane transport of pilocarpine in cell suspension cultures of Pilocarpus microphyllus.
[So] Source:J Plant Physiol;175:37-47, 2015 Mar 01.
[Is] ISSN:1618-1328
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Pilocarpine is an alkaloid obtained from the leaves of Pilocarpus genus, with important pharmaceutical applications. Previous reports have investigated the production of pilocarpine by Pilocarpus microphyllus cell cultures and tried to establish the alkaloid biosynthetic route. However, the site of pilocarpine accumulation inside of the cell and its exchange to the medium culture is still unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the intracellular accumulation of pilocarpine and characterise its transport across membranes in cell suspension cultures of P. microphyllus. Histochemical analysis and toxicity assays indicated that pilocarpine is most likely stored in the vacuoles probably to avoid cell toxicity. Assays with exogenous pilocarpine supplementation to the culture medium showed that the alkaloid is promptly uptaken but it is rapidly metabolised. Treatment with specific ABC protein transporter inhibitors and substances that disturb the activity of secondary active transporters suppressed pilocarpine uptake and release suggesting that both proteins may participate in the traffic of pilocarpine to inside and outside of the cells. As bafilomicin A1, a specific V-type ATPase inhibitor, had little effect and NH4Cl (induces membrane proton gradient dissipation) had moderate effect, while cyclosporin A and nifedipine (ABC proteins inhibitors) strongly inhibited the transport of pilocarpine, it is believed that ABC proteins play a major role in the alkaloid transport across membranes but it is not the exclusive one. Kinetic studies supported these results.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Pilocarpine/metabolism
Pilocarpus/metabolism
Vacuolar Proton-Translocating ATPases/metabolism
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Biological Transport
Cell Culture Techniques
Coffea/drug effects
Culture Media
Cyclosporine/pharmacology
Kinetics
Nifedipine/pharmacology
Pilocarpine/isolation & purification
Pilocarpine/toxicity
Pilocarpus/chemistry
Pilocarpus/genetics
Piper/drug effects
Plant Leaves/chemistry
Plant Leaves/genetics
Plant Leaves/metabolism
Plant Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors
Plant Proteins/genetics
Plant Proteins/metabolism
Vacuolar Proton-Translocating ATPases/antagonists & inhibitors
Vacuolar Proton-Translocating ATPases/genetics
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Culture Media); 0 (Plant Proteins); 01MI4Q9DI3 (Pilocarpine); 83HN0GTJ6D (Cyclosporine); EC 3.6.1.- (Vacuolar Proton-Translocating ATPases); I9ZF7L6G2L (Nifedipine)
[Em] Entry month:1602
[Cu] Class update date: 150225
[Lr] Last revision date:150225
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:150225
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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PubMed Central Full text
Full text

[PMID]: 25505476
[Au] Autor:Skirycz A; Castilho A; Chaparro C; Carvalho N; Tzotzos G; Siqueira JO
[Ad] Address:Department of Sustainable Development, Vale Institute of Technology Belém, Brazil.
[Ti] Title:Canga biodiversity, a matter of mining.
[So] Source:Front Plant Sci;5:653, 2014.
[Cp] Country of publication:Switzerland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Brazilian name canga refers to the ecosystems associated with superficial iron crusts typical for the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais (MG) and some parts of Amazon (Flona de Carajas). Iron stone is associated with mountain plateaux and so, in addition to high metal concentrations (particularly iron and manganese), canga ecosystems, as other rock outcrops, are characterized by isolation and environmental harshness. Canga inselbergs, all together, occupy no more than 200 km(2) of area spread over thousands of km(2) of the Iron Quadrangle (MG) and the Flona de Carajas, resulting in considerable beta biodiversity. Moreover, the presence of different microhabitats within the iron crust is associated with high alpha biodiversity. Hundreds of angiosperm species have been reported so far across remote canga inselbergs and different micro-habitats. Among these are endemics such as the cactus Arthrocereus glaziovii and the medicinal plant Pilocarpus microphyllus. Canga is also home to iron and manganese metallophytes; species that evolved to tolerate high metal concentrations. These are particularly interesting to study metal homeostasis as both iron and manganese are essential plant micro-elements. Besides being models for metal metabolism, metallophytes can be used for bio-remediation of metal contaminated sites, and as such are considered among priority species for canga restoration. "Biodiversity mining" is not the only mining business attracted to canga. Open cast iron mining generates as much as 5-6% of Brazilian gross domestic product and dialog between mining companies, government, society, and ecologists, enforced by legal regulation, is ongoing to find compromise for canga protection, and where mining is unavoidable for ecosystem restoration. Environmental factors that shaped canga vegetation, canga biodiversity, physiological mechanisms to play a role, and ways to protect and restore canga will be reviewed.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1412
[Cu] Class update date: 141218
[Lr] Last revision date:141218
[Da] Date of entry for processing:141216
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3389/fpls.2014.00653


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