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[PMID]: 29508154
[Au] Autor:Baric H; Dordevic V; Cerovecki I; Trkulja V
[Ad] Address:Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital Center Zagreb, Zagreb University School of Medicine, Zagreb, Croatia.
[Ti] Title:Complementary and Alternative Medicine Treatments for Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.
[So] Source:Adv Ther;, 2018 Mar 05.
[Is] ISSN:1865-8652
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:INTRODUCTION: The objective was to evaluate efficacy/safety of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) methods for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) based on randomized controlled trials in adults. METHODS: Data sources. Six electronic databases ("generalized anxiety (disorder)" and "randomized trial") and reference lists of identified publications were searched to March 2017. STUDY SELECTION: Eligibility: full-text publications (English, German language); CAM versus conventional treatment, placebo/sham or no treatment; GAD diagnosed according to standard criteria; and a validated scale for disease severity. Of the 6693 screened records, 32 were included (18 on biologically-based therapies, exclusively herbal preparations; eight on manipulative and body-based therapies; and three on alternative medical systems and three on mind-body therapies). DATA EXTRACTION: Cochrane Collaboration methodology was used for quality assessment and data extraction. RESULTS: Direct comparisons of Kava Kava (Piper methysticum) extracts to placebo (4 quality trials, n = 233) were highly heterogeneous. Network meta-regression reduced heterogeneity and suggested a modest Kava effect [end-of-treatment Hamilton Anxiety scale score difference adjusted for baseline scores and trial duration: - 3.24 (95% CI - 6.65, 0.17; P = 0.059), Kava Kava 4 arms, n = 139; placebo 5 arms, n = 359]. Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) extract (1 quality trial, 10 weeks, n = 523) and a combination of extracts of C. oxycantha, E. californica and magnesium (1 quality trial, 12 weeks, n = 264) were superior to placebo and balneotherapy was superior to paroxetine (1 quality trial, 8 weeks, n = 237) indicating efficacy. All other trials were small and/or of modest/low quality and/or lacked assay sensitivity. Safety reporting was poor. CONCLUSION: Evidence about efficacy/safety of most CAM methods in GAD is limited. Apparent efficacy of certain herbal preparations and body-based therapies requires further confirmation.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180306
[Lr] Last revision date:180306
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1007/s12325-018-0680-6

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[PMID]: 29462698
[Au] Autor:Yeo ETY; Wong KWL; See ML; Wong KY; Gan SY; Chan EWL
[Ad] Address:School of Pharmacy, International Medical University, No. 126, Jalan Jalil Perkasa 19, Bukit Jalil, 57000 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Electronic address: Emilia.YeoTzeYing@student.imu.edu.my.
[Ti] Title:Piper sarmentosum Roxb. confers neuroprotection on beta-amyloid (Aß)-induced microglia-mediated neuroinflammation and attenuates tau hyperphosphorylation in SH-SY5Y cells.
[So] Source:J Ethnopharmacol;217:187-194, 2018 Feb 17.
[Is] ISSN:1872-7573
[Cp] Country of publication:Ireland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Piper sarmentosum Roxb. (PS), belonging to Piperaceae family, is an edible plant with medicinal properties. It is traditionally used by the Malays to treat headache and boost memory. Pharmacological studies revealed that PS exhibits anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-acetylcholinesterase, and anti-depressant-like effects. In view of this, the present study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory actions of PS and its potential neuroprotective effects against beta-amyloid (Aß)-induced microglia-mediated neurotoxicity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The inhibitory effects of hexane (L ), dichloromethane (L ), ethyl acetate (L ) and methanol (L ) extracts from leaves of PS on Aß-induced production and mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory mediators in BV-2 microglial cells were assessed using colorimetric assay with Griess reagent, ELISA kit and real-time RT-PCR respectively. Subsequently, MTT reduction assay was used to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of PS leaf extracts against Aß-induced microglia-mediated neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. The levels of tau proteins phosphorylated at threonine 231 (pT231) and total tau proteins (T-tau) were determined using ELISA kits. RESULTS: Polar extracts of PS leaves (L and L ) reduced the Aß-induced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß and TNF-α) in BV-2 cells by downregulating the mRNA expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production could be due to the free radical scavenging activity of the extracts. In addition, conditioned media from Aß-induced BV-2 cells pre-treated with L and L protected SH-SY5Y cells against microglia-mediated neurotoxicity. Further mechanistic study suggested that the neuroprotective effects were associated with the downregulation of phosphorylated tau proteins. CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that polar extracts of PS leaves confer neuroprotection against Aß-induced microglia-mediated neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells by attenuating tau hyperphosphorylation through their anti-inflammatory actions and could be a potential therapeutic agent for Alzheimer's disease.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180303
[Lr] Last revision date:180303
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 29428241
[Au] Autor:Durant-Archibold AA; Santana AI; Gupta MP
[Ad] Address:Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine Research Unit, Center for Drug Discovery and Biodiversity Institute of Scientific Research and High Technology Services (INDICASAT, AIP), Panama City, Panama; College of Natural, Exact Sciences and Technology, University of Panama, Panama City, Panama. Electronic address: adurant@indicasat.org.pa.
[Ti] Title:Ethnomedical uses and pharmacological activities of most prevalent species of genus Piper in Panama: A review.
[So] Source:J Ethnopharmacol;217:63-82, 2018 Feb 09.
[Is] ISSN:1872-7573
[Cp] Country of publication:Ireland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Piperaceae is the fifth largest family of plants in Panama. This review focuses on the ethnomedical uses of the most prevalent Panamanian species and biological activities of their extracts and/or constituents both in Panama and worldwide. Many species have a plethora of ethnomedical uses such as antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-Helicobacter pylori, antiulcer, antiprotozoal, estrogenic, insecticidal, local anesthetic, diuretic, and for women's health conditions. AIM OF THE REVIEW: The aim of this review is to compile all ethnomedical uses of most prevalent species of Piper in Panama, and their extracts or phytoconstituents worldwide, through a complete literature search, so that it may allow selection of potential unexplored Piper species for future research and development of phytotherapeuticals for important ailments. METHODOLOGY: This review conducted a thorough search in books and databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed, Sci-Finder, Scopus, ACS publications, Science Direct, and Reaxys (Elsevier), until October of 2017. The information provided in this review is based on peer-reviewed papers only in English. The key words used to search were: "Piper", "Piperaceae", "Panama", "Pharmacological activity", "Chemistry," "Toxicity," and "Clinical studies". Scientific names of the plants were validated through www.tropicos.org. Potential full-texts of eligible papers, irrespective of database, were identified. Study selection and data extraction were conducted by one author (AIS) and confirmed by others (MPG, ADA). The extracted data were summarized in tabular form and a narrative description was used to provide a summary of updated information. RESULTS: The ethnomedical uses of most prevalent 23 Panamanian species of Piper both in Panama as well in the world are provided. Of these species only Piper arboreum, Piper auritum, Piper cordulatum, Piper hispidum, Piper dariense, Piper multiplinervium and Piper umbellatum have ethnomedical uses in Panama. Some of the uses are by native Amerindians of Panama. These include ailments such as liver pains, common colds, skin infections, insecticidal, as a bath to alleviate colds, snakebites, different types of pains, skin ailments, wound healing, rheumatism, women's health, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory. Other Panamanian species are widely used in many countries of the world. Of all the Piper species, P. aduncum has the most ethnomedical uses. Panamanian uses are different from the ones in other countries. A total of 61 compounds present in Piper species reported in this review have shown a variety of biological activities in vitro. These compounds belong to different chemical types, such as chromenes, amides, alkaloids, benzopyrans, benzoates, essential oils, pyrrolidines, flavokaines, chalcones, methylenedioxy propiophenones, cinnamates, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, phenols, among others. From this review it is evident that extracts and pure compounds isolated from Piper species have shown a wide array of mainly in vitro activity and some ethnomedical uses may be correlated with their activities reported. CONCLUSIONS: Plants of this genus have provided bioactive species, both from crude extracts and pure compounds thus substantiating their efficacy in traditional medicine. In vivo and toxicological studies are still limited, but the results of different activities of Piper reported point out the great potential of these species for obtaining bioactive principles that may be useful in treating diseases. However, a thorough investigation of Piper species relating to chemistry, in vivo pharmacological activities, with emphasis on their mechanism of action, safety and efficacy and toxicity is warranted.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180303
[Lr] Last revision date:180303
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 29479742
[Au] Autor:Dos Santos AL; Novaes ADS; Polidoro ADS; de Barros ME; Mota JS; Lima DBM; Krause LC; Cardoso CAL; Jacques RA; Caramão EB
[Ad] Address:Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.
[Ti] Title:Chemical characterisation of Piper amalago (Piperaceae) essential oil by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with rapid-scanning quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC×GC/qMS) and their antilithiasic activity and acute toxicity.
[So] Source:Phytochem Anal;, 2018 Feb 26.
[Is] ISSN:1099-1565
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:INTRODUCTION: Piper amalago has a distribution from Mexico to Brazil; their aerial parts have been used in folk medicine to treat diuretic and kidney diseases. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to obtain a deeper understanding of the chemical composition of essential oils (EOs) extracted from both the leaves and stems of P. amalago, compare them, and evaluate their antilithiasic activity and acute toxicity. METHODOLOGY: Extraction was performed by hydrodistillation, whereas chemical characterisation by two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with rapid-scanning quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC×GC/qMS). The antilithiasic activity was evaluated by the effect of the EOs on calcium oxalate crystallisation in vitro. The turbidity index and the number of crystals formed were determined and used as an estimative of the activity. In the acute toxicity assay, the effects of a single oral dose of the EOs in Wistar rats were determined. General behaviour, adverse effects, and mortality were determined. RESULTS: A total of 322 compounds were identified in the EOs. The sesquiterpenes displayed the highest contribution in leaves EOs among which included bicyclogermacrene and δ-cadinene. Sesquiterpenes and oxygenated sesquiterpenes displayed the highest contribution in EOs from stems, among which included bicyclogermacrene and α-cadinol. The EOs demonstrated an excellent action on the crystals growth inhibition, and the oral dose tested did not induce significant changes in the parameters for acute toxicity. CONCLUSION: The oils have a high chemical complexity, and there are differences between their compositions, which could explain the observed differences in antilithiasic activity. The findings support the use of this plant in folk medicine to treat kidney diseases.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180226
[Lr] Last revision date:180226
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1002/pca.2747

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[PMID]: 29475162
[Au] Autor:Shakoor MB; Bibi I; Niazi NK; Shahid M; Nawaz MF; Farooqi A; Naidu R; Rahman MM; Murtaza G; Lüttge A
[Ad] Address:Institute of Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Faisalabad, 38040, Pakistan; Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Government College University Faisalabad, Faisalabad, 38000, Pakistan.
[Ti] Title:The evaluation of arsenic contamination potential, speciation and hydrogeochemical behaviour in aquifers of Punjab, Pakistan.
[So] Source:Chemosphere;199:737-746, 2018 Feb 03.
[Is] ISSN:1879-1298
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:In this study, we tested 123 groundwater wells from five different areas of Punjab, Pakistan for arsenic (As) contamination level and species, as well as delineated hydrogeochemical behaviour of As in aquifers. Results revealed that 75% and 41% of the groundwater wells exceeded the safe As limit of World Health Organisation (WHO, 10 µg L ) and Pakistan-EPA (50 µg L ), respectively. Arsenite (As(III)) and arsenate (As(V)) spanned 0-80% and 20-100% of total As (1.2-206 µg L ), respectively. The mean As content (5.2 µg L ) of shallow wells at 9-40 m depth did not exceed the WHO safe limit, representing a safe aquifer zone for pumping of groundwater compared to deeper wells at 41-90 m (51 µg L ) and >90 m (23 µg L ) depths. Piper-plot elucidated that the aqueous chemistry was dominated with Na-SO , Na-Ca-SO , Na-Mg-SO type saline water. Principal component analysis grouped As concentration with well depth, pH, salinity, Fe and CO , exhibiting that these hydrogeochemical factors could have potential role in controlling As release/sequestration into the aquifers of study area. Geochemical modeling showed positive saturation indices only for iron (Fe) oxide-phases, indicating Fe oxides as the major carriers of As. Overall, this study provides insights to tackle emerging As threat to the communities in Punjab, Pakistan, as well as help develop suitable management/mitigation strategies - based on the baseline knowledge of As levels/species and factors governing As contamination in the study area.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180223
[Lr] Last revision date:180223
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 29461056
[Au] Autor:Dethe DH; Dherange BD
[Ad] Address:Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur , Kanpur-208016, India.
[Ti] Title:Total Synthesis of Adunctin B.
[So] Source:J Org Chem;, 2018 Feb 23.
[Is] ISSN:1520-6904
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Total synthesis of (±)-adunctin B, a natural product isolated from Piper aduncum (Piperaceae), has been achieved using two different strategies, in seven and three steps. The efficient approach features highly atom economical and diastereoselective Friedel-Crafts acylation, alkylation reaction and palladium catalyzed Wacker type oxidative cyclization.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180223
[Lr] Last revision date:180223
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1021/acs.joc.8b00015

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[PMID]: 29473847
[Au] Autor:Ali A; Chong CH; Mah SH; Abdullah LC; Choong TSY; Chua BL
[Ad] Address:School of Engineering, Taylor's University, Lakeside Campus, No 1, Jalan Taylor's, Subang Jaya, Selangor 47500, Malaysia. amenaali@ymail.com.
[Ti] Title:Impact of Storage Conditions on the Stability of Predominant Phenolic Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of Dried Piper betle Extracts.
[So] Source:Molecules;23(2), 2018 Feb 23.
[Is] ISSN:1420-3049
[Cp] Country of publication:Switzerland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The phenolic constituents in are well known for their antioxidant potential; however, current literature has very little information on their stability under the influence of storage factors. Present study evaluated the stability of total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity together with individual phenolic constituents (hydroxychavicol, eugenol, isoeugenol and allylpyrocatechol 3,4-diacetate) present in dried 's extract under different storage temperature of 5 and 25 °C with and without light for a period of six months. Both light and temperature significantly influenced TPC and its corresponding antioxidant activity over time. More than 95% TPC and antioxidant activity was retained at 5 °C in dark condition after 180 days of storage. Hydroxychavicol demonstrated the best stability with no degradation while eugenol and isoeugenol displayed moderate stability in low temperature (5 °C) and dark conditions. 4-allyl-1,2-diacetoxybenzene was the only compound that underwent complete degradation. A new compound, 2,4-di- -butylphenol, was detected after five weeks of storage only in the extracts exposed to light. Both zero-order and first-order kinetic models were adopted to describe the degradation kinetics of the extract's antioxidant activity. Zero-order displayed better fit with higher correlation coefficients ( ² = 0.9046) and the half-life was determined as 62 days for the optimised storage conditions (5 °C in dark conditions).
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180223
[Lr] Last revision date:180223
[St] Status:In-Process

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[PMID]: 29471237
[Au] Autor:Parreira DS; Alcántara-de la Cruz R; Leite GLD; Ramalho FS; Zanuncio JC; Serrão JE
[Ad] Address:Departamento de Fitotecnia, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, 36570-900, Viçosa, Brazil.
[Ti] Title:Quantifying the harmful potential of ten essential oils on immature Trichogramma pretiosum stages.
[So] Source:Chemosphere;199:670-675, 2018 Feb 14.
[Is] ISSN:1879-1298
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The use of chemical insecticides and non-selective natural products authorized for use in organic farming may reduce the effectiveness of egg parasitoids. The side-effects of ten plant essential oils on immature stages of Trichogramma pretiosum were evaluated. Carapa guianensis, Origanum vulgare and Zingiber officinalle during the F generation, and Azadirachtin and Mentha piperita in the F generation were slightly harmful (class II: 30-79%) to the emergence of this parasitoid. All essential oils affected the longevity of females of the F and F generations. Thymus vulgaris and Z. officinalle were the oils most harmful to female longevity. Carapa guianensis proved slightly harmful (class II: 30-79%) to parasitism in the F generation when applied during the egg-larval and pre-pupal stages and O. vulgare in the F generation in the pre-pupal stage alone, of this parasitoid. The sex ratio was lower than 0.5 during the pre-pupal stage of the F generation with Azadirachtin, C. guianensis, O. vulgare, Piper nigrum and Syzigium aromaticum, but this parameter was not affected for the other biological stages of T. pretiosum in the F and F generations. The Azadirachtin, C. guianensis, M. piperita, O. vulgare, T. vulgaris and Z. officinalle oils revealed a mild toxic effect to the immature stages of T. pretiosum and, therefore, it should be used according to patterns of ecological selectivity. Allium sativum and Citrus sinensis essential oils were not harmful to T. pretiosum, and can be used in Integrated Pest Management.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180222
[Lr] Last revision date:180222
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 29433359
[Au] Autor:Liu J; Liu W; Lu Y; Tian H; Duan C; Lu L; Gao G; Wu X; Wang X; Yang H
[Ad] Address:a Center of Parkinson Disease Beijing Institute for Brain Disorders, Beijing Key Laboratory on Parkinson Disease, Key Laboratory for Neurodegenerative Disease of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Center of Neural Regeneration and Repair, Department of Neurobiology, Capital Medical University , Beij
[Ti] Title:Piperlongumine restores the balance of autophagy and apoptosis by increasing BCL2 phosphorylation in rotenone-induced Parkinson disease models.
[So] Source:Autophagy;:1-17, 2018 Feb 13.
[Is] ISSN:1554-8635
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Parkinson disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer disease and is caused by genetics, environmental factors and aging, with few treatments currently available. Apoptosis and macroautophagy/autophagy play critical roles in PD pathogenesis; as such, modulating their balance is a potential treatment strategy. BCL2 (B cell leukemia/lymphoma 2) is a key molecule regulating this balance. Piperlongumine (PLG) is an alkaloid extracted from Piper longum L. that has antiinflammatory and anticancer effects. The present study investigated the protective effects of PLG in rotenone-induced PD cell and mouse models. We found that PLG administration (2 and 4 mg/kg) for 4 wk attenuated motor deficits in mice and prevented the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra induced by oral administration of rotenone (10 mg/kg) for 6 wk. PLG improved cell viability and enhanced mitochondrial function in primary neurons and SK-N-SH cells. These protective effects were exerted via inhibition of apoptosis and induction of autophagy through enhancement of BCL2 phosphorylation at Ser70. These results demonstrate that PLG exerts therapeutic effects in a rotenone-induced PD models by restoring the balance between apoptosis and autophagy. ABBREVIATIONS: 6-OHDA, 6-hydroxydopamine; ACTB, actin, beta; BafA1, bafilomycin A ; BAK1, BCL2-antagonist/killer 1; BAX, BCL2-associated X protein; BCL2, B cell leukemia/lymphoma2; BECN1, Beclin 1, autophagy related; CoQ10, coenzyme Q ; COX4I1/COX IV, cytochrome c oxidase subunit 4I1; CsA, cyclosporine A; ED50, 50% effective dose; FITC, fluorescein isothiocyanate; GFP, green fluorescent protein; HPLC, high-performance liquid chromatography; JC-1, tetraethylbenz-imidazolylcarbocyanine iodide; LC3, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain3; LC-MS/MS, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry; LDH, lactate dehydrogenase; l-dopa, 3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl-l-alanine; MAPK8/JNK1, mitogen-activated protein kinase 8; MMP, mitochondrial membrane potential; mPTP, mitochondrial permeability transition pore; mRFP, monomeric red fluorescent protein; MPTP, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine; MTT, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide; NFE2L2/NRF2, nuclear factor, erythroid derived 2, like 2; PD, Parkinson disease; PLG, piperlongumine; pNA, p-nitroanilide; PI, propidium iodide; PtdIns3K, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; PtdIns3P, phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate; PTX, paclitaxel; Rap, rapamycin; SQSTM1/p62, sequestosome 1; TH, tyrosine hydroxylase; TUNEL, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling; WIPI2, WD repeat domain, phosphoinositide interacting 2; ZFYVE1/DFCP1, zinc finger, FYVE domain containing 1.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180221
[Lr] Last revision date:180221
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1080/15548627.2017.1390636

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[PMID]: 29344735
[Au] Autor:Gaury PK; Meena NK; Mahajan AK
[Ad] Address:Department of Environmental Sciences, Central University of Himachal Pradesh, Dharamshala, 176215, India. pawan.evs@gmail.com.
[Ti] Title:Hydrochemistry and water quality of Rewalsar Lake of Lesser Himalaya, Himachal Pradesh, India.
[So] Source:Environ Monit Assess;190(2):84, 2018 Jan 17.
[Is] ISSN:1573-2959
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The present research is to study hydrochemistry and water quality of Rewalsar Lake during pre-monsoon, monsoon, and post-monsoon seasons. The Ca and Na are observed as the dominant cations from pre- to post-monsoon season. On the other hand, HCO and Cl are observed dominant anions during pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons, whereas HCO and SO during post-monsoon season. The comparison of alkaline earth metals with alkali metals and total cations (Tz ) has specified that the carbonate weathering is the dominant source of major ions in the water of lake.  The HCO is noticed to be mainly originated from carbonate/calcareous minerals during monsoon and post-monsoon, but through silicate minerals during pre-monsoon.  The SO in Rewalsar Lake is produced by the dissolution of calcite and dolomite etc. The alkali metals and Cl in the lake can be attributed to the silicate weathering as well as halite dissolution and anthropogenic activities. Certain other parameters like NO , NH , F , and Br are mainly a result of anthropogenic activities. The alkaline earth metals are found to surpass over alkali metals, whereas weak acid (HCO ) exceed to strong acid (SO ). The Piper diagram has shown Ca -HCO type of water during all the seasons. The water quality index has indicated that the water quality of the lake is unsuitable for drinking from pre- to post-monsoon. Several parameters like salinity index, sodium adsorption ratio, sodium percent, residual sodium carbonate, magnesium hazard etc. have revealed the water of Rewalsar Lake as suitable for irrigation.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180222
[Lr] Last revision date:180222
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1007/s10661-017-6451-z


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