Database : MEDLINE
Search on : Pneumococcal and Infections [Words]
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[PMID]: 29447196
[Au] Autor:Verani JR; Massora S; Acácio S; Dos Santos RT; Vubil D; Pimenta F; Moura I; Whitney CG; Costa MH; Macete E; Matsinhe MB; Carvalho MDG; Sigaúque B
[Ad] Address:Respiratory Diseases Branch, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, United States of America.
[Ti] Title:Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae among HIV-infected and -uninfected children <5 years of age before introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Mozambique.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(2):e0191113, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Nasopharyngeal carriage is a precursor for pneumococcal disease and can be useful for evaluating pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) impact. We studied pre-PCV pneumococcal carriage among HIV-infected and -uninfected children in Mozambique. Between October 2012 and March 2013, we enrolled HIV-infected children age <5 years presenting for routine care at seven HIV clinics in 3 sites, including Maputo (urban-south), Nampula (urban-north), and Manhiça (rural-south). We also enrolled a random sample of HIV-uninfected children <5 years old from a demographic surveillance site in Manhiça. A single nasopharyngeal swab was obtained and cultured following enrichment in Todd Hewitt broth with yeast extract and rabbit serum. Pneumococcal isolates were serotyped by Quellung reaction and multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Factors associated with pneumococcal carriage were examined using logistic regression. Overall pneumococcal carriage prevalence was 80.5% (585/727), with similar prevalences among HIV-infected (81.5%, 339/416) and HIV-uninfected (79.1%, 246/311) children, and across age strata. Among HIV-infected, after adjusting for recent antibiotic use and hospitalization, there was no significant association between study site and colonization: Maputo (74.8%, 92/123), Nampula (83.7%, 82/98), Manhiça (84.6%, 165/195). Among HIV-uninfected, report of having been born to an HIV-infected mother was not associated with colonization. Among 601 pneumococcal isolates from 585 children, serotypes 19F (13.5%), 23F (13.1%), 6A (9.2%), 6B (6.2%) and 19A (5.2%) were most common. The proportion of serotypes included in the 10- and 13-valent vaccines was 44.9% and 61.7%, respectively, with no significant differences by HIV status or age group. Overall 36.9% (n = 268) of children were colonized with a PCV10 serotype and 49.7% (n = 361) with a PCV13 serotype. Pneumococcal carriage was common, with little variation by geographic region, age, or HIV status. PCV10 was introduced in April 2013; ongoing carriage studies will examine the benefits of PCV10 among HIV-infected and-uninfected children.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Pneumococcal Infections/immunology
Pneumococcal Vaccines/administration & dosage
Pneumococcal Vaccines/therapeutic use
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Carrier State/epidemiology
Child, Preschool
Female
HIV Infections/immunology
HIV Infections/microbiology
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods
Mozambique/epidemiology
Nasopharynx/immunology
Pneumococcal Infections/physiopathology
Prevalence
Rural Population
Serogroup
Streptococcus pneumoniae/immunology
Streptococcus pneumoniae/pathogenicity
Vaccines, Conjugate/administration & dosage
Vaccines, Conjugate/therapeutic use
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine); 0 (Pneumococcal Vaccines); 0 (Vaccines, Conjugate)
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:180216
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0191113

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[PMID]: 29287882
[Au] Autor:Cavel O; Tauman R; Simsolo E; Yafit D; Reindorf-Kfir E; Wasserzug O; Unger O; Handzel O; Fishman G; Oestreicher-Kedem Y; DeRowe A
[Ad] Address:Pediatric ENT Unit, Dana-Dwek Children's Hospital, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Affiliated to the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel; Department of Otolaryngology, Head & Neck and Maxillofacial Surgery, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Affiliated to the Sack
[Ti] Title:Changes in the epidemiology and clinical features of acute mastoiditis following the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.
[So] Source:Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol;104:54-57, 2018 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1872-8464
[Cp] Country of publication:Ireland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVES: Seven years after the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) in Israel, its effect on the incidence and severity of episodes of acute mastoiditis (AM) remains unclear. The primary objective of this study was to determine the incidence of AM and describe its clinical features in children during the years that followed the introduction of the PCV13 in comparison with the pre-PCV period. METHODS: Included in this retrospective comparative case series were all pediatric patients diagnosed with AM between Jan. 2007 and Dec. 2015 in one tertiary medical center. The patients were divided into 3 groups: pre-PCV, post-PCV7 (July 2009 through Dec. 2010) and post-PCV13 (Jan. 2011 through Dec. 2015). The patients' medical records were reviewed, and data on age at presentation, gender, presenting signs, bacterial ear cultures, hospitalization course, complications, surgical interventions, inflammatory response and outcome were retrieved and compared between the groups. Comparison was made between the pre-PCV and the post-PCV13 groups. RESULTS: 216 children were identified for analysis, 80 children in the pre-PCV period, 31 in the post-PCV7 period and 105 in the post-PCV13 period. Their mean age was 2.6 years. The number of AM cases per 1000 visits at the emergency room decreased by 46% in the post-PCV13 period compared to the pre-PCV period. There was no difference in the rate of AM between the post-PCV7 and post-PCV13 periods. No differences were found in age, gender, hospitalization length, C-reactive protein level, white blood cell count, rate of surgical interventions (mastoidectomy and incision and drainage) and rate of complications between the 3 groups. CONCLUSION: The incidence of AM was lower in the post-PCV13 period compared to the pre-PCV period. The rate of AM complications, however, has not changed, nor has the number of mastoidectomies.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Heptavalent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine/administration & dosage
Mastoiditis/epidemiology
Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adolescent
C-Reactive Protein
Child
Child, Preschool
Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data
Female
Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Israel/epidemiology
Leukocyte Count
Male
Mastoiditis/diagnosis
Retrospective Studies
[Pt] Publication type:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Heptavalent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine); 9007-41-4 (C-Reactive Protein)
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:171231
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 28457673
[Au] Autor:Lu PJ; O'Halloran A; Kennedy ED; Williams WW; Kim D; Fiebelkorn AP; Donahue S; Bridges CB
[Ad] Address:Immunization Services Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, NE, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA. Electronic address: lhp8@cdc.gov.
[Ti] Title:Awareness among adults of vaccine-preventable diseases and recommended vaccinations, United States, 2015.
[So] Source:Vaccine;35(23):3104-3115, 2017 05 25.
[Is] ISSN:1873-2518
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Adults are recommended to receive select vaccinations based on their age, underlying medical conditions, lifestyle, and other considerations. Factors associated with awareness of vaccine-preventable diseases and recommended vaccines among adults in the United States have not been explored. METHODS: Data from a 2015 internet panel survey of a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults aged ≥19years were analyzed to assess awareness of selected vaccine-preventable diseases and recommended vaccines for adults. A multivariable logistic regression model with a predictive marginal approach was used to identify factors independently associated with awareness of selected vaccine-preventable infections/diseases and corresponding vaccines. RESULTS: Among the surveyed population, from 24.6 to 72.1% reported vaccination for recommended vaccines. Awareness of vaccine-preventable diseases among adults aged ≥19years ranged from 63.4% to 94.0% (63.4% reported awareness of HPV, 71.5% reported awareness of tetanus, 72.0% reported awareness of pertussis, 75.4% reported awareness of HZ, 75.8% reported awareness of hepatitis B, 83.1% reported awareness of pneumonia, and 94.0% reported awareness of influenza). Awareness of the corresponding vaccines among adults aged ≥19years ranged from 59.3% to 94.1% (59.3% HZ vaccine, 59.6% HPV vaccine, 64.3% hepatitis B vaccine, 66.2% pneumococcal vaccine, 86.3% tetanus vaccines, and 94.1% influenza vaccine). In multivariable analysis, being female and being a college graduate were significantly associated with a higher level of awareness for majority of vaccine-preventable diseases, and being female, being a college graduate, and working as a health care provider were significantly associated with a higher level of awareness for majority of corresponding vaccines. CONCLUSIONS: Although adults in this survey reported high levels of awareness for most vaccines recommended for adults, self-reported vaccination coverage was not optimal. Combining interventions known to increase uptake of recommended vaccines, such as patient reminder/recall systems and other healthcare system-based interventions, and ensuring patients' vaccination needs are assessed, are needed to improve vaccination of adults.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Immunization Programs
Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adult
Aged
Educational Status
Female
Hepatitis B/prevention & control
Hepatitis B Vaccines/administration & dosage
Humans
Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Papillomavirus Vaccines/administration & dosage
Pneumococcal Vaccines/administration & dosage
Sex Factors
Tetanus/prevention & control
United States
Vaccination/psychology
Whooping Cough/prevention & control
Young Adult
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Hepatitis B Vaccines); 0 (Influenza Vaccines); 0 (Papillomavirus Vaccines); 0 (Pneumococcal Vaccines)
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170502
[St] Status:MEDLINE

  4 / 16573 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28455171
[Au] Autor:Moberley S; Licciardi PV; Balloch A; Andrews R; Leach AJ; Kirkwood M; Binks P; Mulholland K; Carapetis J; Tang MLK; Skull S
[Ad] Address:Menzies School of Health Research, Child Health Division, Charles Darwin University, Northern Territory, Australia.
[Ti] Title:Repeat pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine in Indigenous Australian adults is associated with decreased immune responsiveness.
[So] Source:Vaccine;35(22):2908-2915, 2017 05 19.
[Is] ISSN:1873-2518
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Indigenous adults residing in the Northern Territory of Australia experience elevated rates of invasive pneumococcal disease despite the routine use of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23vPPV). We hypothesised that the limited protection from 23vPPV may be due to hyporesponsiveness as a result of vaccine failure from repeated vaccination. To explore this possibility, we evaluated the immune response to a first and second dose of 23vPPV in Indigenous adults and a first dose of 23vPPV in non-Indigenous adults. METHODS: Serotype-specific IgG was measured by ELISA for all 23 vaccine serotypes at baseline and at one month post-vaccination. Individuals were considered to have an adequate immune response if paired sera demonstrated either: a four-fold rise in antibody concentration; a two-fold rise if the post vaccination antibody was >1.3µg/ml but <4.0µg/ml; or a post-vaccination antibody concentration >4.0µg/ml for at least half of the serotypes tested (12/23). Our per-protocol analysis included the comparison of outcomes for three groups: Indigenous adults receiving a second 23vPPV dose (N=20) and Indigenous (N=60) and non-Indigenous adults (N=25) receiving their first 23vPPV dose. RESULTS: All non-Indigenous adults receiving a first dose of 23vPPV mounted an adequate immune response (25/25). There was no significant difference in the proportion of individuals with an adequate response using our definition (primary endpoint), with 88% of Indigenous adults mounted an adequate response following first dose 23vPPV (53/60) compared to 70% having an adequate response following a second dose of 23vPPV (14/20; p=0.05). The risk difference between Indigenous participants receiving first dose compared to non-Indigenous participants receiving first dose was significant when comparing a response threshold of at least 70% (-27%, 95% CI: -43% to -11%; p=0.01) and 90% (-38%, 95% CI: -60% to -16%; p=0.006) of serotypes with a positive response. CONCLUSION: Indigenous participants demonstrated a poorer response to a first dose 23vPPV compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts, with lower IgG following a second 23vPPV dose. These findings highlight the critical need to evaluate the efficacy of future pneumococcal vaccine programs in the Australian Indigenous populations that recommend repeated doses of 23vPPV.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Immunity, Humoral
Immunogenicity, Vaccine
Oceanic Ancestry Group
Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control
Pneumococcal Vaccines/immunology
Streptococcus pneumoniae/immunology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adolescent
Adult
Antibodies, Bacterial/blood
Female
Humans
Immunoglobulin G/blood
Male
Middle Aged
Northern Territory/epidemiology
Pneumococcal Infections/ethnology
Pneumococcal Infections/immunology
Pneumococcal Infections/microbiology
Pneumococcal Vaccines/administration & dosage
Pneumococcal Vaccines/adverse effects
Serotyping
Vaccination
Vaccine Potency
Young Adult
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (23-valent pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide vaccine); 0 (Antibodies, Bacterial); 0 (Immunoglobulin G); 0 (Pneumococcal Vaccines)
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170430
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 28449971
[Au] Autor:Tsaban G; Ben-Shimol S
[Ad] Address:Pediatric Infectious Disease Unit, Soroka University Medical Center, Beer Sheva, Israel; Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel.
[Ti] Title:Indirect (herd) protection, following pneumococcal conjugated vaccines introduction: A systematic review of the literature.
[So] Source:Vaccine;35(22):2882-2891, 2017 05 19.
[Is] ISSN:1873-2518
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal diseases are major causes of morbidity among adults, especially those over 50years of age. While pneumococcal conjugated vaccines (PCV's) impact on pneumococcal disease rates among children is well established, the extent of its impact on adult pneumococcal related illness remains unclear. The aim of this systematic literature review was to describe the impact of PCV introduction to childhood national immunization programs worldwide on PCV-naive adult population. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed using the PubMed database. The search was limited to articles written in English and published between January 2000 and February 2016. Studies evaluating pneumococcal disease rates in individuals over 5years of age were included. Independent extraction of articles was performed by the two authors. Search terms included: Pneumococcal conjugated vaccine, herd, indirect, adults, and pneumonia. RESULTS: Forty-nine articles meeting the selection criteria were identified, 39 regarding invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD, one on meningitis only), 8 regarding pneumonia, and 2 on both IPD and pneumonia. The majority of reports were from the US, UK and Canada. Considerable variability in the data sources, quality and completeness was observed. While most studies reported either statistically significant reduction or insignificant changes in IPD and pneumonia disease rates in adults following PCV nationwide implementation, few studies reported statistically significant increase in pneumococcal disease rates, these were mainly from countries with low PCV coverage rates and/or inadequate surveillance. CONCLUSION: Invasive pneumococcal diseases and pneumonia rates among the adult population decreased in most countries following PCV introduction into the NIP. This indirect effect on older population seems to be dependent on PCV coverage rates and time from PCV nationwide implementation. Adults >65years old seem to benefit the most from PCV introduction.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Immunity, Herd
Immunization Programs
Pneumococcal Vaccines/immunology
Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/prevention & control
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Canada/epidemiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology
Pneumococcal Infections/immunology
Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control
Pneumococcal Vaccines/administration & dosage
Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/epidemiology
Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/microbiology
Streptococcus pneumoniae/immunology
Vaccination
Vaccines, Conjugate/administration & dosage
Vaccines, Conjugate/immunology
Young Adult
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Pneumococcal Vaccines); 0 (Vaccines, Conjugate)
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170429
[St] Status:MEDLINE

  6 / 16573 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29463618
[Au] Autor:Moffitt K; Cheung E; Manis J; Malley R
[Ad] Address:Boston Children's Hospital, Division of Infectious Diseases Kristin.moffitt@childrens.harvard.edu.
[Ti] Title:Evaluation of the role of in antibody and T 17-mediated responses to pneumococcal immunization and infection using a mouse model of Autosomal Dominant Hyper IgE Syndrome.
[So] Source:Infect Immun;, 2018 02 20.
[Is] ISSN:1098-5522
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Loss-of-function mutations in Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 gene ( ) result in Autosomal Dominant Hyper IgE Syndrome (AD-HIES), a condition in which patients have recurrent debilitating infections, including frequent pneumococcal and staphylococcal pneumonias. mutations cause defective adaptive T 17-cellular responses, an immune mechanism believed to be critical for clearance of pneumococcal colonization, and diminished antibody responses. Here we wished to evaluate the role of in clearance of pneumococcal carriage and immunity using mice with a mutation recapitulating AD-HIES. We show here that naïve AD-HIES mice have prolonged nasal carriage of pneumococcus compared to WT mice. Mutant and wild-type mice were then immunized with a pneumococcal whole cell vaccine (WCV) that provides T -17-mediated protection against pneumococcal colonization and antibody-mediated protection against pneumonia and sepsis. WCV-immunized AD-HIES mice made significantly less pneumococcal-specific IL-17A and antibody compared to WT mice. WCV-elicited protection against colonization was abrogated in AD-HIES mice, but immunization with WCV still protected AD-HIES mice against aspiration pneumonia/sepsis. Taken together, our results suggest that impaired clearance of nasopharyngeal carriage due to poor adaptive IL-17A responses may contribute to the increased rates of pneumococcal respiratory infection in AD-HIES patients.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180307
[Lr] Last revision date:180307
[St] Status:Publisher

  7 / 16573 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29512243
[Au] Autor:Yamazaki R; Kikuchi T; Kato J; Sakurai M; Koda Y; Hashida R; Yamane Y; Abe R; Hasegawa N; Okamoto S; Mori T
[Ad] Address:Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
[Ti] Title:Recurrent bacterial pneumonia due to immunoglobulin G2 subclass deficiency after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: efficacy of immunoglobulin replacement.
[So] Source:Transpl Infect Dis;, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1399-3062
[Cp] Country of publication:Denmark
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Immunoglobulin (Ig) G2 subclass deficiency is known to be associated with recurrent bacterial respiratory infections caused by capsulated bacteria. We encountered a case of recurrent pneumonia due to Streptococcus pneumoniae after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). IgG2 subclass level was specifically low, and prophylactic Ig replacement successfully prevented subsequent infections. However, the cessation of Ig replacement resulted in subsequent pneumonia. These findings suggested that IgG2 deficiency could be a cause of recurrent pneumococcal infection after allogeneic HSCT. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180307
[Lr] Last revision date:180307
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1111/tid.12863

  8 / 16573 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29429025
[Au] Autor:Theunisse HJ; Pennings RJE; Kunst HPM; Mulder JJ; Mylanus EAM
[Ad] Address:Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Canisius-Wilhelmina Hospital, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. e.theunisse@cwz.nl.
[Ti] Title:Risk factors for complications in cochlear implant surgery.
[So] Source:Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol;275(4):895-903, 2018 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1434-4726
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to achieve uniform reporting of complications and failures in cochlear implantation, to analyze complications and failures and to identify risk factors for complications in a series of over 1300 cochlear implantations. METHODS: In a retrospective chart review and observational study, data from all cochlear implantations from 1987 to 2015 were entered in a custom-made database. Complications were classified using the contracted form of the Clavien-Dindo system and risk factors were identified by statistical analysis. RESULTS: A complication rate of 18.4% and a device failure rate of 2.9% were found. There was a higher rate of hematoma in patients with a clotting disorder and when a subtotal petrosectomy was performed, a higher rate of wound infections in patients who were not vaccinated against Streptococcus pneumoniae and a higher rate of meningitis in patients with an inner ear malformation. CONCLUSIONS: The use of a strict definition of a medical complication and device failure-in combination with the Clavien-Dindo classification system-enables uniform and objective registration of adverse events and prevents any tendency to downgrade complications. Complication and failure rates in this series are comparable to those reported in the literature. These results stress the need for pneumococcal vaccination, which may prevent general wound infections, but is especially important for patients with inner ear malformation, who have an increased risk of (postoperative) meningitis.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180306
[Lr] Last revision date:180306
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00405-018-4901-z

  9 / 16573 MEDLINE  
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Clinical Trials Registry
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[PMID]: 29503110
[Au] Autor:Palmu AA; Jokinen J; Nieminen H; Rinta-Kokko H; Ruokokoski E; Puumalainen T; Moreira M; Schuerman L; Borys D; Kilpi TM
[Ad] Address:National Institute for Health and Welfare, Tampere, Finland. Electronic address: arto.palmu@thl.fi.
[Ti] Title:Vaccine-preventable disease incidence of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the Finnish invasive pneumococcal disease vaccine trial.
[So] Source:Vaccine;, 2018 Mar 01.
[Is] ISSN:1873-2518
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Estimation of the full disease burden caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae is challenging due to the difficulties in assigning the aetiology especially in lower and upper respiratory infections. We estimated the pneumococcal disease burden by using the vaccine-preventable disease incidence (VPDI) of PHiD-CV10 vaccine (GSK) in our clinical trial setting. Finnish Invasive Pneumococcal disease (FinIP) trial was a cluster-randomized, double-blind trial in children <19 months who received PHiD-CV10 in 52 clusters or hepatitis B/A vaccine as control in 26 clusters according to 3+1 or 2+1 schedules (infants < 7 months) or catch-up schedules (children 7-18 months). Outcome data were collected using Finnish routine health-care registers, consisting of THL National Infectious Diseases Register, THL Care register, and Benefits Register of Social Insurance Institution of Finland. Blinded follow-up lasted from the date of first vaccination (trial enrolment Feb-2009 through Aug-2010) to January 31, 2012 for Invasive Pneumococcal Disease (IPD) and to end of December 2011 for four other outcomes: non-laboratory-confirmed IPD, hospital-diagnosed pneumonia, tympanostomy tube placements, and antimicrobial purchases. VPDI was estimated as difference in disease incidences between PHiD-CV10 clusters and control clusters. Altogether >47,000 children were enrolled. In 30,527 vaccinated infants <7 months at first dose, the VPDIs per 100,000 person-years were 75 for laboratory-confirmed IPD, 210 for non-laboratory-confirmed IPD, 271 for hospital-diagnosed pneumonia, 1143 for any tympanostomy tube placements and 11,381 for antimicrobial outpatient prescription, mainly due to otitis media. In a European developed-country setting, over 95% of the disease episode reductions in vaccinated children were seen in mild upper respiratory infections. The VPDIs of severe diseases are underestimated, because the majority of invasive disease goes undetected with routine blood-culture-based definitions. Evaluation of the absolute reduction achievable with vaccinations using sensitive case detection is essential for understanding the full disease burden, for valid cost-effectiveness analyses and for appropriate vaccination policy decisions. Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00861380 and NCT00839254.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180305
[Lr] Last revision date:180305
[Cl] Clinical Trial:ClinicalTrial
[St] Status:Publisher

  10 / 16573 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29497602
[Au] Autor:Karlsson EA; Schultz-Cherry S; Rosch JW
[Ad] Address:Department of Infectious Diseases, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, United States.
[Ti] Title:Protective Capacity of Statins during Pneumonia Is Dependent on Etiological Agent and Obesity.
[So] Source:Front Cell Infect Microbiol;8:41, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:2235-2988
[Cp] Country of publication:Switzerland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Acute respiratory infections are a leading cause of death worldwide. Clinical data is conflicted regarding whether statins improve outcomes for pneumonia. Potential confounding factors including specific etiology of pneumonia as well as obesity could potentially mask protective benefit. Obesity is a risk factor for high cholesterol, the main target for statin therapy. We demonstrate that statin intervention conferred no protective benefit in the context of wild-type mice regardless of infectious agent. Statin intervention conferred either a protective benefit, during influenza infection, or detrimental effect, in the case of pneumococcal infection, in obese animals. These data suggest etiology of pneumonia in the context of obesity could be dramatically altered by the protective effects of statin therapy during bacterial and viral pneumonia.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180304
[Lr] Last revision date:180304
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.3389/fcimb.2018.00041


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