Database : MEDLINE
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[PMID]: 29477369
[Au] Autor:Odoh UE; Uzor PF; Eze CL; Akunne TC; Onyegbulam CM; Osadebe PO
[Ad] Address:Department of Pharmacognosy and Environmental Medicines, University of Nigeria, Nsukka 410001, Nigeria.
[Ti] Title:Medicinal plants used by the people of Nsukka Local Government Area, south-eastern Nigeria for the treatment of malaria: An ethnobotanical survey.
[So] Source:J Ethnopharmacol;218:1-15, 2018 Feb 28.
[Is] ISSN:1872-7573
[Cp] Country of publication:Ireland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:ETHNOBOTANICAL RELEVANCE: Malaria is a serious public health problem especially in sub-Saharan African countries such as Nigeria. The causative parasite is increasingly developing resistance to the existing drugs. There is urgent need for alternative and affordable therapy from medicinal plants which have been used by the indigenous people for many years. AIM OF STUDY: This study was conducted to document the medicinal plant species traditionally used by the people of Nsukka Local Government Area in south-eastern Nigeria for the treatment of malaria. METHODS: A total of 213 respondents, represented by women (59.2%) and men (40.8%), were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. The results were analysed and discussed in the context of previously published information on anti-malarial and phytochemical studies of the identified plants. RESULTS: The survey revealed that 50 plant species belonging to 30 botanical families were used in this region for the treatment of malaria. The most cited families were Apocynaceae (13.3%), Annonaceae (10.0%), Asteraceae (10.0%), Lamiaceae (10.0%), Poaceae (10.0%), Rubiaceae (10.0%) and Rutaceae (10.0%). The most cited plant species were Azadirachta indica (11.3%), Mangifera indica (9.1%), Carica papaya (8.5%), Cymbopogon citratus (8.5%) and Psidium guajava (8.5%). CONCLUSION: The present findings showed that the people of Nsukka use a large variety of plants for the treatment of malaria. The identified plants are currently undergoing screening for anti-malarial, toxicity and chemical studies in our laboratory.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  2 / 15596 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29523071
[Au] Autor:Dutta S; Biswas P; Chakraborty S; Mitra D; Pal A; Das M
[Ad] Address:Department of Life Sciences, Presidency University, Kolkata, India.
[Ti] Title:Identification, characterization and gene expression analyses of important flowering genes related to photoperiodic pathway in bamboo.
[So] Source:BMC Genomics;19(1):190, 2018 Mar 10.
[Is] ISSN:1471-2164
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Bamboo is an important member of the family Poaceae and has many inflorescence and flowering features rarely observed in other plant groups. It retains an unusual form of perennialism by having a long vegetative phase that can extend up to 120 years, followed by flowering and death of the plants. In contrast to a large number of studies conducted on the annual, reference plants Arabidopsis thaliana and rice, molecular studies to characterize flowering pathways in perennial bamboo are lacking. Since photoperiod plays a crucial role in flower induction in most plants, important genes involved in this pathway have been studied in the field grown Bambusa tulda, which flowers after 40-50 years. RESULTS: We identified several genes from B. tulda, including four related to the circadian clock [LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY), TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION1 (TOC1), ZEITLUPE (ZTL) and GIGANTEA (GI)], two circadian clock response integrators [CONSTANS A (COA), CONSTANS B (COB)] and four floral pathway integrators [FLOWERING LOCUS T1, 2, 3, 4 (FT1, 2, 3, 4)]. These genes were amplified from either gDNA and/or cDNA using degenerate as well as gene specific primers based on homologous sequences obtained from related monocot species. The sequence identity and phylogenetic comparisons revealed their close relationships to homologs identified in the temperate bamboo Phyllostachys edulis. While the four BtFT homologs were highly similar to each other, BtCOA possessed a full-length B-box domain that was truncated in BtCOB. Analysis of the spatial expression of these genes in selected flowering and non-flowering tissue stages indicated their possible involvement in flowering. The diurnal expression patterns of the clock genes were comparable to their homologs in rice, except for BtZTL. Among multiple BtCO and BtFT homologs, the diurnal pattern of only BtCOA and BtFT3, 4 were synchronized in the flower inductive tissue, but not in the non-flowering tissues. CONCLUSION: This study elucidates the photoperiodic regulation of bamboo homologs of important flowering genes. The finding also identifies copy number expansion and gene expression divergence of CO and FT in bamboo. Further studies are required to understand their functional role in bamboo flowering.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12864-018-4571-7

  3 / 15596 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29377943
[Au] Autor:Liang JF; An J; Gao JQ; Zhang XY; Yu FH
[Ad] Address:School of Nature Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, China.
[Ti] Title:Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and soil nutrient addition on the growth of Phragmites australis under different drying-rewetting cycles.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0191999, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The frequency of soil drying-rewetting cycles is predicted to increase under future global climate change, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are symbiotic with most plants. However, it remains unknown how AMF affect plant growth under different frequencies of soil drying-rewetting cycles. We subjected a clonal wetland plant Phragmites australis to three frequencies of drying-rewetting cycles (1, 2, or 4 cycles), two nutrient treatments (with or without), and two AMF treatments (with or without) for 64 days. AMF promoted the growth of P. australis, especially in the 2 cycles of the drying-rewetting treatment. AMF had a significant positive effect on leaf mass and number of ramets in the 2 cycles of the drying-rewetting treatment with nutrient addition. In the 2 cycles of drying-rewetting treatment without nutrient addition, AMF increased leaf area and decreased belowground to aboveground biomass ratio. These results indicate that AMF may assist P. australis in coping with medium frequency of drying-rewetting cycles, and provide theoretical guidance for predicting how wetland plants respond to future global climate change.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Mycorrhizae/growth & development
Poaceae/growth & development
Soil
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Wetlands
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Soil)
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:180130
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0191999

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[PMID]: 29233135
[Au] Autor:Helsen K; Acharya KP; Brunet J; Cousins SAO; Decocq G; Hermy M; Kolb A; Lemke IH; Lenoir J; Plue J; Verheyen K; De Frenne P; Graae BJ
[Ad] Address:Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Høgskoleringen 5, 7034, Trondheim, Norway. kenny.helsen@ntnu.no.
[Ti] Title:Biotic and abiotic drivers of intraspecific trait variation within plant populations of three herbaceous plant species along a latitudinal gradient.
[So] Source:BMC Ecol;17(1):38, 2017 Dec 12.
[Is] ISSN:1472-6785
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: The importance of intraspecific trait variation (ITV) is increasingly acknowledged among plant ecologists. However, our understanding of what drives ITV between individual plants (ITV ) at the population level is still limited. Contrasting theoretical hypotheses state that ITV can be either suppressed (stress-reduced plasticity hypothesis) or enhanced (stress-induced variability hypothesis) under high abiotic stress. Similarly, other hypotheses predict either suppressed (niche packing hypothesis) or enhanced ITV (individual variation hypothesis) under high niche packing in species rich communities. In this study we assess the relative effects of both abiotic and biotic niche effects on ITV of four functional traits (leaf area, specific leaf area, plant height and seed mass), for three herbaceous plant species across a 2300 km long gradient in Europe. The study species were the slow colonizing Anemone nemorosa, a species with intermediate colonization rates, Milium effusum, and the fast colonizing, non-native Impatiens glandulifera. RESULTS: Climatic stress consistently increased ITV across species and traits. Soil nutrient stress, on the other hand, reduced ITV for A. nemorosa and I. glandulifera, but had a reversed effect for M. effusum. We furthermore observed a reversed effect of high niche packing on ITV for the fast colonizing non-native I. glandulifera (increased ITV ), as compared to the slow colonizing native A. nemorosa and M. effusum (reduced ITV ). Additionally, ITV in the fast colonizing species tended to be highest for the vegetative traits plant height and leaf area, but lowest for the measured generative trait seed mass. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that stress can both reduce and increase ITV , seemingly supporting both the stress-reduced plasticity and stress-induced variability hypotheses. Similarly, niche packing effects on ITV supported both the niche packing hypothesis and the individual variation hypothesis. These results clearly illustrates the importance of simultaneously evaluating both abiotic and biotic factors on ITV . This study adds to the growing realization that within-population trait variation should not be ignored and can provide valuable ecological insights.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Anemone/physiology
Impatiens/physiology
Phenotype
Plant Dispersal
Poaceae/physiology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Anemone/genetics
Anemone/growth & development
Environment
Europe
Impatiens/genetics
Impatiens/growth & development
Introduced Species
Poaceae/genetics
Poaceae/growth & development
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:171214
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12898-017-0151-y

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[PMID]: 28464290
[Au] Autor:Connell SD; Fernandes M; Burnell OW; Doubleday ZA; Griffin KJ; Irving AD; Leung JYS; Owen S; Russell BD; Falkenberg LJ
[Ad] Address:Southern Seas Ecology Laboratories, School of Biological Sciences and The Environment Institute, North Terrace, The University of Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.
[Ti] Title:Testing for thresholds of ecosystem collapse in seagrass meadows.
[So] Source:Conserv Biol;31(5):1196-1201, 2017 10.
[Is] ISSN:1523-1739
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Although the public desire for healthy environments is clear-cut, the science and management of ecosystem health has not been as simple. Ecological systems can be dynamic and can shift abruptly from one ecosystem state to another. Such unpredictable shifts result when ecological thresholds are crossed; that is, small cumulative increases in an environmental stressor drive a much greater change than could be predicted from linear effects, suggesting an unforeseen tipping point is crossed. In coastal waters, broad-scale seagrass loss often occurs as a sudden event associated with human-driven nutrient enrichment (eutrophication). We tested whether the response of seagrass ecosystems to coastal nutrient enrichment is subject to a threshold effect. We exposed seagrass plots to different levels of nutrient enrichment (dissolved inorganic nitrogen) for 10 months and measured net production. Seagrass response exhibited a threshold pattern when nutrient enrichment exceeded moderate levels: there was an abrupt and large shift from positive to negative net leaf production (from approximately 0.04 leaf production to 0.02 leaf loss per day). Epiphyte load also increased as nutrient enrichment increased, which may have driven the shift in leaf production. Inadvertently crossing such thresholds, as can occur through ineffective management of land-derived inputs such as wastewater and stormwater runoff along urbanized coasts, may account for the widely observed sudden loss of seagrass meadows. Identification of tipping points may improve not only adaptive-management monitoring that seeks to avoid threshold effects, but also restoration approaches in systems that have crossed them.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Ecosystem
Eutrophication
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Conservation of Natural Resources
Oceans and Seas
Poaceae
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170503
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/cobi.12951

  6 / 15596 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29514210
[Au] Autor:Breeds K; Burger NFV; Botha AM
[Ad] Address:Department of Genetics, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa.
[Ti] Title:New Insights into the Methylation Status of Virulent Diuraphis noxia (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Biotypes.
[So] Source:J Econ Entomol;, 2018 Mar 05.
[Is] ISSN:1938-291X
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Epigenetic modifications provide a means for aphid biotype development that a lack of genetic variation, owing to an anholocyclic reproduction lifecycle, fails to do. Here we present data on the DNA methylation status in four South African Russian wheat aphids (RWA), Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjomov) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) biotypes expressing different levels of virulence against its host, Triticum aestivum L. (Poales: Poaceae, Triticeae). The DNA methylation status of these biotypes was determined through the use of methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism analysis, restriction site-specific fluorescence labeling-a novel technique, and measuring relative global DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation. The least virulent RWA biotype, SA1, was methylated, while biotypes displaying intermediate virulence, SA2 and SA3, exhibited intermediate levels of hemimethylation. The genome of the most virulent RWA biotype, SAM, seems to be hypomethylated, which is likely attained through the process of demethylation.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180307
[Lr] Last revision date:180307
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1093/jee/toy039

  7 / 15596 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29346521
[Au] Autor:Apostolakos P; Livanos P; Giannoutsou E; Panteris E; Galatis B
[Ad] Address:Department of Botany, Faculty of Biology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.
[Ti] Title:The intracellular and intercellular cross-talk during subsidiary cell formation in Zea mays: existing and novel components orchestrating cell polarization and asymmetric division.
[So] Source:Ann Bot;, 2018 Jan 15.
[Is] ISSN:1095-8290
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Background: Formation of stomatal complexes in Poaceae is the outcome of three asymmetric and one symmetric cell division occurring in particular leaf protodermal cells. In this definite sequence of cell division events, the generation of subsidiary cells is of particular importance and constitutes an attractive model for studying local intercellular stimulation. In brief, an induction stimulus emitted by the guard cell mother cells (GMCs) triggers a series of polarization events in their laterally adjacent protodermal cells. This signal determines the fate of the latter cells, forcing them to divide asymmetrically and become committed to subsidiary cell mother cells (SMCs). Scope: This article summarizes old and recent structural and molecular data mostly derived from Zea mays, focusing on the interplay between GMCs and SMCs, and on the unique polarization sequence occurring in both cell types. Recent evidence suggests that auxin operates as an inducer of SMC polarization/asymmetric division. The intercellular auxin transport is facilitated by the distribution of a specific transmembrane auxin carrier and requires reactive oxygen species (ROS). Interestingly, the local differentiation of the common cell wall between SMCs and GMCs is one of the earliest features of SMC polarization. Leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases, Rho-like plant GTPases as well as the SCAR/WAVE regulatory complex also participate in the perception of the morphogenetic stimulus and have been implicated in certain polarization events in SMCs. Moreover, the transduction of the auxin signal and its function are assisted by phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and the products of the catalytic activity of phospholipases C and D. Conclusion: In the present review, the possible role(s) of each of the components in SMC polarization and asymmetric division are discussed, and an overall perspective on the mechanisms beyond these phenomena is provided.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1093/aob/mcx193

  8 / 15596 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29437642
[Au] Autor:Davies JM; Thien F; Hew M
[Ad] Address:Office of Research, Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Queensland, Australia, and Metro North Hospital and Health Service, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.
[Ti] Title:Thunderstorm asthma: controlling (deadly) grass pollen allergy.
[So] Source:BMJ;360:k432, 2018 02 06.
[Is] ISSN:1756-1833
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Asthma
Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Allergens
Humans
Poaceae/immunology
Pollen/immunology
[Pt] Publication type:LETTER; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T; COMMENT
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Allergens)
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180305
[Lr] Last revision date:180305
[Js] Journal subset:AIM; IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:180214
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1136/bmj.k432

  9 / 15596 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29361962
[Au] Autor:Fatima I; Kanwal S; Mahmood T
[Ad] Address:Department of Plant Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, 45320, Pakistan.
[Ti] Title:Evaluation of biological potential of selected species of family Poaceae from Bahawalpur, Pakistan.
[So] Source:BMC Complement Altern Med;18(1):27, 2018 Jan 24.
[Is] ISSN:1472-6882
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress as well as bacterial and fungal infections are common source of diseases while plants are source of medication for curative or protective purposes. Hence, aim of study was to compare the pharmacological potential of seven grass species in two different solvents i.e. ethanol and acetone. METHODS: Preliminary phytochemical tests were done and antioxidant activities were evaluated using ELISA and their IC50 values and AAI (%) were recorded. ANOVA was used for statistical analyses. DNA damage protection assay was done using p1391Z plasmid DNA and DNA bands were analyzed. Antimicrobial activity was done via disc diffusion method and MIC and Activity Index were determined. Cytotoxic activity was carried out using the brine shrimps' assay and LC50 values were calculated using probit analysis program. RESULTS: Phytochemical studies confirmed the presence of secondary metabolites in most of the plant extracts. Maximum antioxidant potential was revealed in DiAEE, DiAAE (AAI- 54.54% and 43.24%) and DaAEE and DaAAE (AAI- 49.13% and 44.52%). However, PoAEE and PoAAE showed minimum antioxidant potential (AAI- 41.04% and 34.11%). SaSEE, DiAEE and ElIEE showed very little DNA damage protection activity. In antimicrobial assay, DaAEE significantly inhibited the growth of most of the microbial pathogens (nine microbes out of eleven tested microbes) among ethanol extracts while DaAAE and ImCAE showed maximum inhibition (eight microbes out of eleven tested microbes) among acetone plant extracts. However, PoAEE and PoAAE showed least antimicrobial activity. F. oxysporum and A. niger were revealed as the most resistant micro-organisms. ImCEA and ImCAE showed maximum cytotoxic potential (LC50 11.004 ppm and 7.932 ppm) as compared to the other plant extracts. CONCLUSION: Fodder grasses also contains a substantial phenols and flavonoids contents along with other secondary metabolites and, hence, possess a significant medicinal value. Ethanol extracts showed more therapeutic potential as compared to the acetone extracts. This study provides experimental evidence that the selected species contains such valuable natural compounds which can be used as medicinal drugs in future.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Antioxidants/pharmacology
Plant Extracts/pharmacology
Poaceae/chemistry
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology
Antioxidants/chemistry
Artemia/drug effects
Bacteria/drug effects
DNA Damage/drug effects
Flavonoids/chemistry
Flavonoids/pharmacology
Fungi/drug effects
Pakistan
Phenols/chemistry
Phenols/pharmacology
Plant Extracts/chemistry
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Anti-Infective Agents); 0 (Antioxidants); 0 (Flavonoids); 0 (Phenols); 0 (Plant Extracts)
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180305
[Lr] Last revision date:180305
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:180125
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12906-018-2092-1

  10 / 15596 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29504831
[Au] Autor:Pulchérie MN; Ndemba Etim SING; Djumyom Wafo GV; Djocgoue PF; Kengne Noumsi IM; Ngnien AW
[Ad] Address:a Laboratory of Biotechnology and Environment, Department of Plant Biology , University of Yaounde I , Yaounde , Cameroon.
[Ti] Title:Floristic surveys of hydrocarbon-polluted sites in some Cameroonian cities (Central Africa).
[So] Source:Int J Phytoremediation;20(3):191-204, 2018 Feb 23.
[Is] ISSN:1549-7879
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Soils pollution with hydrocarbons is on the increase, especially in developing countries like Cameroon. Identifying plant species capable of growing on hydrocarbon-polluted soils remains an essential step in phytoremediation, a low cost, solar energy driven clean up technique in which living green plants are used. Here, we report floristic surveys conducted in 4 cities of Cameroon to identify plants with phytoremediation capacities. A total of 13 hydrocarbon-polluted sites were surveyed in each city using the quadrat method. Unpolluted sites served as the control. 106 species belonging to 76 genera and 30 families were identified on hydrocarbon-polluted sites. Plant diversity was shown to be higher (166 species contained in 125 genera and 50 families) in the control sites. Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Asteraceae and Amaranthaceae families have a higher taxonomic richness on polluted sites (16, 15, 10 and 8 taxa respectively). Shannon diversity index of the hydrocarbon-polluted sites (1.6 to 2.7 bits/ind.) were significantly lower than the control sites (2.7 to 3.2 bit/ind.). Based on a relative frequency > 10% and abundance > 7%, our results show that more than 15 plant species could be tested in preliminary trials to determine their phytoremediation/cleaning-up capacities on hydrocarbon-polluted soils in the tropics.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180305
[Lr] Last revision date:180305
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1080/15226514.2017.1365334


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