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[PMID]: 29496170
[Au] Autor:Chinnadurai GS; Krishnan S; Perumal P
[Ad] Address:Centre for Advanced Studies in Botany, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025, India.
[Ti] Title:Studies on detection and analysis of proteases in leaf extract of medicinally important plants.
[So] Source:Phytomedicine;40:176-188, 2018 Feb 01.
[Is] ISSN:1618-095X
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:ETHNO-PHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The whole plant or the extracts obtained from them have long been used as medicine to treat various human diseases and disorders. Notably, those plants endowed with protease activity have been traditionally used as the agents for treating tumors, digestion disorders, swelling, blood coagulation, fibrinolysis and also for immune-modulation. AIM OF THE STUDY: Proteases occupy a pivotal position in enzyme based industries. Plant proteases have been increasingly exploited for pharmaceutical, food, leather and textile processing industries. Earlier investigations have focused on the occurrence of proteases in medicinally unimportant plants. Therefore it has been aimed to study the occurrence of proteolytic enzymes from medicinally important plants establish any correlation exists between protease activity and medicinal use of individual plants. METHODS: Crude extract were obtained from the leaves of 80 different medicinal plants. Tris-HCl buffer was used as the extraction buffer and the supernatants obtained were used for determination of total protein and protease activity using spectrophotometric methods. Qualitative screening for the presence of protease was carried out with agar diffusion method by incorporating the substrate. SDS-PAGE was used to analyse the isoforms of protease and for determination of relative molecular mass. RESULTS: Relatively higher protease activities were observed in the extracts of leaves of Pongamia pinnata (Fabaceae), Wrightia tinctoria (Apocyanaceae) Acalypha indica (Euphorbiaceae), Adhatoda vasica (Acanthaceae) and Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae). No correlation was found between the total protein content and protease activity in individual plant species. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated the presence of multiple forms of protease of higher molecular weight range in several plant species. We found a strong correlation between the protease activity and medicinal application of the plant CONCLUSION: The present study has unequivocally revealed that the leaves of medicinal plants could serve as excellent sources of proteases which could be exploited for various industrial, food and pharmaceutical applications.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180302
[Lr] Last revision date:180302
[St] Status:In-Process

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[PMID]: 29482940
[Au] Autor:Wen R; Lv H; Jiang Y; Tu P
[Ad] Address:State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China.
[Ti] Title:Anti-inflammatory isoflavones and isoflavanones from the roots of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre.
[So] Source:Bioorg Med Chem Lett;, 2018 Feb 15.
[Is] ISSN:1464-3405
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:A phytochemical study on the roots of Pongamia pinnata afforded five new isoflavone and isoflavanone derivatives (1-5), including two previously undescribed phenylisoflavones possessing an 1,2-oxetane ring, along with 21 known compounds (6-26) among which compound 18 is the first time to be isolated from nature. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined on the basis of 1D, 2D NMR, and HRESIMS. The absolute configurations of the compounds were assigned via analysis of the specific rotations and circular dichroism (CD) spectra, as well as by comparison of the calculated and experimental electronic circular dichroism (ECD) data. All the isolated compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on NO production in LPS-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells. Twelve compounds exhibited different levels of inhibitory effects against NO production, and compound 1 showed the best activity with an IC value at 9.0 µM.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180227
[Lr] Last revision date:180227
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 29459216
[Au] Autor:Wen R; Lv HN; Jiang Y; Tu PF
[Ad] Address:State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100191, People's Republic of China.
[Ti] Title:Anti-inflammatory flavone and chalcone derivatives from the roots of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre.
[So] Source:Phytochemistry;149:56-63, 2018 Feb 17.
[Is] ISSN:1873-3700
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:A phytochemical study on the roots of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre yielded 52 flavonoids, including four previously undescribed flavone and four previously undescribed chalcone derivatives. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined on the basis of the 1D, 2D NMR, and mass spectroscopic data. The absolute configurations of the compounds were assigned via the specific rotation, Mosher's method, as well as the electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra. All the isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on NO production in LPS-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells. Ten compounds showed significant inhibitory effects against NO production, comparable to the positive control, dexamethasone.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180220
[Lr] Last revision date:180220
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 29412176
[Au] Autor:Adhav AS; Kokane SR; Joshi RS
[Ad] Address:Institute of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007, Maharashtra, India.
[Ti] Title:Functional characterization of Helicoverpa armigera trehalase and investigation of physiological effects caused due its inhibition by Validamycin A formulation.
[So] Source:Int J Biol Macromol;112:638-647, 2018 Feb 08.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0003
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Trehalase catalyzes hydrolysis of trehalose and plays a crucial role in insect metabolism. In the present study, phylogenetic analysis and multiple sequence alignment suggested that H. armigera trehalase-1 (HaTre-1) is closely related to other soluble trehalases with conserved signature features and functional sites. We have expressed and purified recombinant HaTre-1 having V ~0.16mM/min and K ~1.34mM. Inhibition kinetics and Microscale thermophoresis illustrated competitive inhibition of HaTre-1 by Validamycin A having K ~3nM and K ~542nM, respectively. Docking studies of HaTre-1 with Validamycin A indicated that it binds at the active site with multiple hydrogen bonds. Ingestion of Validamycin A resulted in impediment of H. armigera growth and developmental defects. Treated larvae showed concentration dependent decrease in fecundity. It also led to total inhibition of ex-vivo trehalase activity and down-regulation of gene expression of HaTre-1. Relatively high insect mortality was observed on tomato plants sprayed with combination of Validamycin A with Azadirachta indica (neem) and Pongamia pinnata (karanj) oil as compared to the individual treatments. This report has re-emphasized trehalase inhibition as a potential insecticidal strategy and also recommends Validamycin A as a prospective value-added ingredient to commercial bio-pesticide formulations.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180217
[Lr] Last revision date:180217
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 29431708
[Au] Autor:Bordoloi N; Dey MD; Mukhopadhyay R; Kataki R
[Ad] Address:Department of Energy, Tezpur University, Tezpur, Assam 784028, India E-mail: rupamkataki@gmail.com.
[Ti] Title:Adsorption of Methylene blue and Rhodamine B by using biochar derived from Pongamia glabra seed cover.
[So] Source:Water Sci Technol;77(3):638-646, 2018 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:0273-1223
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Biochar obtained through the pyrolysis of Pongamia glabra seed cover (PGSC) at 550 °C with a heating rate of 40 °C/min was characterized and its ability to adsorb the dyes Methylene blue (MB) and Rhodamine B (RB) from aqueous solutions was investigated. The effect of pH, temperature and initial concentration of the dyes on adsorption behavior were investigated. The equilibrium sorption data were analyzed by using Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms. Equilibrium data were well fitted for D-R isotherm in case of MB and Langmuir isotherm in case of RB dyes. The kinetics of dye adsorption on PGSC biochar was well described by applying pseudo-second-order rate equations. The surface of adsorbent before and after the removal of dyes was characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The study suggested that PGSC biochar could be used as a highly efficient adsorbent for the removal of synthetic dyes.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180212
[Lr] Last revision date:180212
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.2166/wst.2017.579

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[PMID]: 28893216
[Au] Autor:Satish PVV; Sunita K
[Ad] Address:Department of Zoology and Aquaculture, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjuna Nagar 522510, Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh, India.
[Ti] Title:Antimalarial efficacy of Pongamia pinnata (L) Pierre against Plasmodium falciparum (3D7 strain) and Plasmodium berghei (ANKA).
[So] Source:BMC Complement Altern Med;17(1):458, 2017 Sep 11.
[Is] ISSN:1472-6882
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: The objective of the current study was to assess the in vitro antiplasmodial activities of leaf, bark, flower, and the root of Pongamia pinnata against chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum (3D7 strain), cytotoxicity against Brine shrimp larvae and THP-1 cell line. For in vivo study, the plant extract which has shown potent in vitro antimalarial activity was tested against Plasmodium berghei (ANKA strain). METHODS: The plant Pongamia pinnata was collected from the herbal garden of Acharya Nagarjuna University of Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Sequentially crude extracts of methanol (polar), chloroform (non-polar), hexane (non-polar), ethyl acetate (non-polar) and aqueous (polar) of dried leaves, bark, flowers and roots of Pongamia pinnata were prepared using Soxhlet apparatus. The extracts were screened for in vitro antimalarial activity against P. falciparum 3D7 strain. The cytotoxicity studies of crude extracts were conducted against Brine shrimp larvae and THP-1 cell line. Phytochemical analysis of the plant extracts was carried out by following the standard methods. The chemical injury to erythrocytes due to the plant extracts was checked. The in vivo study was conducted on P. berghei (ANKA) infected BALB/c albino mice by following 4-Day Suppressive, Repository, and Curative tests. RESULTS: Out of all the tested extracts, the methanol extract of the bark of Pongamia pinnata had shown an IC value of 11.67 µg/mL with potent in vitro antimalarial activity and cytotoxicity evaluation revealed that this extract was not toxic against Brine shrimp and THP-1 cells. The injury to erythrocytes analysis had not shown any morphological alterations and damage to the erythrocytes after 48 h of incubation. Because methanolic bark extract of Pongamia pinnata has shown good antimalarial activity in vitro, it was also tested in vivo. So the extract had exhibited an excellent activity against P. berghei malaria parasite while decrement of parasite counts was moderately low and dose-dependent (P < 0.05) when compared to the control groups, which shown a daily increase of parasitemia, unlike the CQ-treated groups. The highest concentration of the extract (1000 mg/kg b.wt./day) had shown 83.90, 87.47 and 94.67% of chemo-suppression during Suppressive, Repository, and Curative tests respectively which is almost nearer to the standard drug Chloroquine (5 mg/kg b.wt./day). Thus, the study has revealed that the methanolic bark extract had shown promisingly high ((P < 0.05) and dose-dependent chemo-suppression. The phytochemical screening of the crude extracts had shown the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, triterpenes, tannins, carbohydrates, phenols, coumarins, saponins, phlobatannins and steroids. CONCLUSIONS: The present study is useful to develop new antimalarial drugs in the scenario of the growing resistance to the existing antimalarials. Thus, additional research is needed to characterize the bioactive molecules of the extracts of Pongamia pinnata that are responsible for inhibition of malaria parasite.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Antimalarials/pharmacology
Millettia/chemistry
Plant Extracts/pharmacology
Plasmodium berghei/drug effects
Plasmodium falciparum/drug effects
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Antimalarials/chemistry
Antimalarials/toxicity
Artemia/drug effects
Cell Line
Cell Survival/drug effects
Cells, Cultured
Erythrocytes/drug effects
Humans
Malaria/parasitology
Mice
Mice, Inbred BALB C
Parasitemia/parasitology
Plant Bark/chemistry
Plant Extracts/chemistry
Plant Extracts/toxicity
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Antimalarials); 0 (Plant Extracts)
[Em] Entry month:1709
[Cu] Class update date: 170918
[Lr] Last revision date:170918
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170913
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12906-017-1958-y

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[PMID]: 28878321
[Au] Autor:Chen G; Zhou D; Li XZ; Jiang Z; Tan C; Wei XY; Ling J; Jing J; Liu F; Li N
[Ad] Address:School of Traditional Chinese Materia Medica, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110016, China; State Key Laboratory for Chemistry and Molecular Engineering of Medicinal Resources, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin, China.
[Ti] Title:A natural chalcone induces apoptosis in lung cancer cells: 3D-QSAR, docking and an in vivo/vitro assay.
[So] Source:Sci Rep;7(1):10729, 2017 Sep 06.
[Is] ISSN:2045-2322
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:This study was to study the antitumor effect of lonchocarpin (34) from traditional herbal medicine Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre and to reveal the underlying mechanism. The cytotoxic activities of lonchocarpin were evaluated in 10 lung cancer cell lines and it exhibited 97.5% activity at a dose of 100 µM in the H292 cell line. A field-based quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) study of 37 flavonoids from P. pinnata was also performed, and the results obtained showed that the hydrophobic interaction could be the crucial factor for the antitumor activity of lonchocarpin. Molecular docking studies revealed that lonchocarpin bound stably to the BH3-binding groove of the Bcl-2 protein with hydrophobic interactions with ALA146. Also, lonchocarpin significantly reduced cell proliferation via modulating Bax/Caspase-9/Caspase-3 pathway. An apoptotic test using flow cytometry showed that lonchocarpin produced about 41.1% and 47.9% apoptosis after treatment for 24 h and 48 h, respectively. Moreover, lonchocarpin inhibited tumor growth in S180-bearing mice with an inhibition rate of 57.94, 63.40 and 72.51%, respectively at a dose of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg. These results suggest that lonchocarpin is a potentially useful natural agent for cancer treatment.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1709
[Cu] Class update date: 170914
[Lr] Last revision date:170914
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1038/s41598-017-11369-9

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[PMID]: 28866824
[Au] Autor:Song Y; Wang XD; Rose RJ
[Ad] Address:School of Agronomy, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei, 230036, People's Republic of China.
[Ti] Title:Oil body biogenesis and biotechnology in legume seeds.
[So] Source:Plant Cell Rep;36(10):1519-1532, 2017 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1432-203X
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The seeds of many legume species including soybean, Pongamia pinnata and the model legume Medicago truncatula store considerable oil, apart from protein, in their cotyledons. However, as a group, legume storage strategies are quite variable and provide opportunities for better understanding of carbon partitioning into different storage products. Legumes with their ability to fix nitrogen can also increase the sustainability of agricultural systems. This review integrates the cell biology, biochemistry and molecular biology of oil body biogenesis before considering biotechnology strategies to enhance oil body biosynthesis. Cellular aspects of packaging triacylglycerol (TAG) into oil bodies are emphasized. Enhancing seed oil content has successfully focused on the up-regulation of the TAG biosynthesis pathways using overexpression of enzymes such as diacylglycerol acyltransferase1 and transcription factors such as WRINKLE1 and LEAFY COTYLEDON1. While these strategies are central, decreasing carbon flow into other storage products and maximizing the packaging of oil bodies into the cytoplasm are other strategies that need further examination. Overall there is much potential for integrating carbon partitioning, up-regulation of fatty acid and TAG synthesis and oil body packaging, for enhancing oil levels. In addition to the potential for integrated strategies to improving oil yields, the capacity to modify fatty acid composition and use of oil bodies as platforms for the production of recombinant proteins in seed of transgenic legumes provide other opportunities for legume biotechnology.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1709
[Cu] Class update date: 171117
[Lr] Last revision date:171117
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00299-017-2201-5

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[PMID]: 28706329
[Au] Autor:Patel PP; Trivedi ND
[Ad] Address:Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, JJT University, Jhunjunu, Rajasthan, India.
[Ti] Title:Effect of karanjin on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced colitis in Balb/c mice.
[So] Source:Indian J Pharmacol;49(2):161-167, 2017 Mar-Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1998-3751
[Cp] Country of publication:India
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to evaluate the beneficial effect of karanjin for the treatment of experimental colitis. METHODS: Colitis was induced in the Balb/c mice by rectal administration of 2% solution of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) in 50% methanol. Karanjin (>98% pure) was administered in two different concentrations 100 and 200 mg/kg and sulfasalazine (100 mg/kg) as reference for 7 consecutive days to colitic mice. On the 8 day, mice were euthanized and degree of inflammation was assessed by macroscopic, microscopic, histology and biochemical estimation of myeloperoxidase (MPO), nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and reduced glutathione (GSH) level were measured. RESULTS: Karanjin significantly and dose dependently ameliorate the macroscopic damage, histological changes such as cellular infiltration, tissue necrosis, mucosal and submucosal damage as compared to the TNBS control group. Karanjin reduces the activity of MPO, depressed MDA, and NO level and helps in restoring the level of CAT, SOD, and GSH to normal when compared to the TNBS colitis group. CONCLUSION: Result of the present study indicates that karanjin has the potential to cure colitis induced by intracolonic administration of TNBS.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1707
[Cu] Class update date: 170717
[Lr] Last revision date:170717
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.4103/ijp.IJP_234_15

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[PMID]: 28665590
[Au] Autor:Deyou T; Marco M; Heydenreich M; Pan F; Gruhonjic A; Fitzpatrick PA; Koch A; Derese S; Pelletier J; Rissanen K; Yenesew A; Erdélyi M
[Ad] Address:Department of Chemistry, University of Nairobi , P.O. Box 30197-00100, Nairobi, Kenya.
[Ti] Title:Isoflavones and Rotenoids from the Leaves of Millettia oblata ssp. teitensis.
[So] Source:J Nat Prod;80(7):2060-2066, 2017 Jul 28.
[Is] ISSN:1520-6025
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:A new isoflavone, 8-prenylmilldrone (1), and four new rotenoids, oblarotenoids A-D (2-5), along with nine known compounds (6-14), were isolated from the CH Cl /CH OH (1:1) extract of the leaves of Millettia oblata ssp. teitensis by chromatographic separation. The purified compounds were identified by NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses, whereas the absolute configurations of the rotenoids were established on the basis of chiroptical data and in some cases by single-crystal X-ray crystallography. Maximaisoflavone J (11) and oblarotenoid C (4) showed weak activity against the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 with IC values of 33.3 and 93.8 µM, respectively.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Isoflavones/isolation & purification
Millettia/chemistry
Plant Leaves/chemistry
Rotenone/isolation & purification
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Crystallography, X-Ray
Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor
Humans
Inhibitory Concentration 50
Isoflavones/chemistry
Isoflavones/pharmacology
Kenya
Molecular Structure
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular
Rotenone/chemistry
Rotenone/pharmacology
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Isoflavones); 03L9OT429T (Rotenone)
[Em] Entry month:1709
[Cu] Class update date: 170915
[Lr] Last revision date:170915
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170701
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1021/acs.jnatprod.7b00255


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