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[PMID]: 29463909
[Au] Autor:Weinberg-Wolf H; Fagan NA; Anderson GM; Tringides M; Dal Monte O; Chang SWC
[Ad] Address:Department of Psychology, Yale University, New Haven, CT, 06520, USA. hannah.weinberg-wolf@yale.edu.
[Ti] Title:The effects of 5-hydroxytryptophan on attention and central serotonin neurochemistry in the rhesus macaque.
[So] Source:Neuropsychopharmacology;, 2018 Jan 30.
[Is] ISSN:1740-634X
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Psychiatric disorders, particularly depression and anxiety, are often associated with impaired serotonergic function. However, serotonergic interventions yield inconsistent effects on behavioral impairments. To better understand serotonin's role in these pathologies, we investigated the role of serotonin in a behavior frequently impaired in depression and anxiety, attention. In this study, we used a quantitative, repeated, within-subject, design to test how L-5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), the immediate serotonin precursor, modulates central serotoninergic function and attention in macaques. We observed that intramuscular 5-HTP administration increased cisternal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 5-HTP and serotonin. In addition, individuals' baseline looking duration, during saline sessions, predicted the direction and magnitude in which 5-HTP modulated attention. We found that 5-HTP decreased looking duration in animals with high baseline attention, but increased looking duration in low baseline attention animals. Furthermore, individual differences in 5-HTP's effects were also reflected in how engaged individuals were in the task and how they allocated attention to salient facial features-the eyes and mouth-of stimulus animals. However, 5-HTP constricted pupil size in all animals, suggesting that the bi-directional effects of 5-HTP cannot be explained by serotonin-mediated changes in autonomic arousal. Critically, high and low baseline attention animals exhibited different baseline CSF concentrations of 5-HTP and serotonin, an index of extracellular functionally active serotonin. Thus, our results suggest that baseline central serotonergic functioning may underlie and predict variation in serotonin's effects on cognitive operation. Our findings may help inform serotonin's role in psychopathology and help clinician's predict how serotonergic interventions will influence pathologies.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180228
[Lr] Last revision date:180228
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1038/s41386-017-0003-7

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[PMID]: 29439168
[Au] Autor:Lee S; Rony P; Galia A
[Ad] Address:Department of Psychology, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, 8410501, Israel.
[Ti] Title:Visual Aversive Learning Compromises Sensory Discrimination.
[So] Source:J Neurosci;, 2018 Feb 08.
[Is] ISSN:1529-2401
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Aversive learning is thought to modulate perceptual thresholds, which can lead to over-generalization. However, it remains undetermined if this modulation is domain specific or a general effect. Moreover, despite the unique role of the visual modality in human perception, it is unclear whether this aspect of aversive learning exists in this modality. The current study was designed to examine the effect of visual aversive outcomes on perception of basic visual and auditory features. We tested the ability of healthy participants, both males and females, to discriminate between neutral stimuli, before and after visual learning. In each experiment, neutral stimuli were associated with aversive images in an experimental group and with neutral images in a control group. Participants demonstrated a deterioration in discrimination (higher discrimination thresholds) only after aversive learning. This deterioration was measured for both auditory (tone frequency) and visual (orientation and contrast) features. The effect was replicated in five different experiments and lasted for at least 24 hours. fMRI neural responses and pupil size were also measured during learning. We showed an increase in neural activations in the anterior cingulate cortex, insula, and amygdala during aversive compared to neutral learning. Interestingly, the early visual cortex showed increased brain activity during aversive compared to neutral context trials, with identical visual information. Our findings imply the existence of a central multi-modal mechanism, which modulates early perceptual properties, following exposure to negative situations. Such a mechanism could contribute to abnormal responses that underlie anxiety states, even in new and safe environments. Using a visual aversive learning paradigm, we found deteriorated discrimination abilities for visual and auditory stimuli, associated with visual aversive stimuli. We showed increased neural activations in the anterior cingulate cortex, insula, and amygdala during aversive compared to neutral learning. Importantly, similar findings were also evident in the early visual cortex during trials with aversive/neutral context, but with identical visual information. The demonstration of this phenomena in the visual modality is important, as it provides support to the notion that aversive learning can influence perception via a central mechanism, independent of input modality. Given the dominance of the visual system in human perception, our findings hold relevance to daily life, as well as imply a potential etiology for anxiety-disorders.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180213
[Lr] Last revision date:180213
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 28743241
[Au] Autor:Herath HMMTB; Pahalagamage SP; Withana D; Senanayake S
[Ad] Address:National Hospital, Colombo, Sri Lanka. tharukaherath11@gmail.com.
[Ti] Title:Complete ophthalmoplegia, complete ptosis and dilated pupil due to internal carotid artery dissection: as the first manifestation of Takayasu arteritis.
[So] Source:BMC Cardiovasc Disord;17(1):201, 2017 07 25.
[Is] ISSN:1471-2261
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Takayasu arteritis is a rare, chronic large vessel vasculitis involving the aorta and its primary branches. As the disease progresses, the active inflammation of large vessels leads to dilation, narrowing and occlusion of the arteries. Arterial dissection is due to separation of the layers of the arterial wall resulting in a false lumen, where blood seeps into the vessel wall. Neurological sequelae of intracranial arterial dissection results from cerebral ischemia due to thromboembolism and hypo perfusion. Internal carotid artery dissection in Takayasu arteritis is very rare and complete ophthalmoplegia due to internal carotid artery dissection is also rare. This is the first case report of Takayasu arteritis presenting as complete ophthalmoplegia due to internal carotid artery dissection. CASE PRESENTATION: A 38-year-old Sri Lankan female presented with sudden onset severe headache, fixed dilated pupil, complete ptosis and ophthalmoplegia on the right side. On imaging, dissection and dilatation was evident in the right internal carotid artery from the origin up to the cavernous segment. She also had stenosis and aneurysmal dilatation of right subclavian artery. Takayasu arteritis was diagnosed subsequently. She was started on aspirin and high dose steroids. CONCLUSIONS: Internal carotid artery dissection within the cavernous sinus can lead to third, fourth and sixth nerve palsy due to compression, stretching and ischemia from occlusion of the nutritional arteries. This case report illustrates that internal carotid artery dissection should be a differential diagnosis in palsies of the third, fourth, or sixth cranial nerves, especially when associated with headache. In cases of internal carotid artery dissection, vasculitis such as Takayasu arteritis should also be considered.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Aneurysm, Dissecting/etiology
Blepharoptosis/etiology
Carotid Artery Diseases/etiology
Carotid Artery, Internal
Intracranial Aneurysm/etiology
Ophthalmoplegia/etiology
Pupil
Takayasu Arteritis/complications
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adult
Aneurysm, Dissecting/diagnostic imaging
Angiography, Digital Subtraction
Aspirin/administration & dosage
Blepharoptosis/diagnosis
Blepharoptosis/physiopathology
Carotid Artery Diseases/diagnostic imaging
Carotid Artery, Internal/diagnostic imaging
Cerebral Angiography/methods
Computed Tomography Angiography
Female
Humans
Intracranial Aneurysm/diagnostic imaging
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Ophthalmoplegia/diagnosis
Ophthalmoplegia/physiopathology
Steroids/administration & dosage
Takayasu Arteritis/diagnosis
Takayasu Arteritis/drug therapy
Treatment Outcome
[Pt] Publication type:CASE REPORTS; JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Steroids); R16CO5Y76E (Aspirin)
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180213
[Lr] Last revision date:180213
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170727
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12872-017-0638-7

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[PMID]: 29273687
[Au] Autor:Biousse V; Bruce BB; Newman NJ
[Ad] Address:From the Departments of Ophthalmology (V.B., B.B.B., N.J.N.), Neurology (V.B., B.B.B., N.J.N.), Epidemiology (B.B.B.), and Neurological Surgery (N.J.N.), Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA.
[Ti] Title:Ophthalmoscopy in the 21st century: The 2017 H. Houston Merritt Lecture.
[So] Source:Neurology;90(4):167-175, 2018 Jan 23.
[Is] ISSN:1526-632X
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Although the usefulness of viewing the ocular fundus is well-recognized, ophthalmoscopy is infrequently and poorly performed by most nonophthalmologist physicians, including neurologists. Barriers to the practice of ophthalmoscopy by nonophthalmologists include not only the technical difficulty related to direct ophthalmoscopy, but also lack of adequate training and discouragement by preceptors. Recent studies have shown that digital retinal fundus photographs with electronic transmission and remote interpretation of images by an ophthalmologist are an efficient and reliable way to allow examination of the ocular fundus in patients with systemic disorders such as diabetes mellitus. Ocular fundus photographs obtained without pharmacologic dilation of the pupil using nonmydriatic fundus cameras could be of great value in emergency departments (EDs) and neurologic settings. The Fundus Photography vs Ophthalmoscopy Trial Outcomes in the Emergency Department (FOTO-ED) study showed that ED providers consistently failed to correctly identify relevant ocular funduscopic findings using the direct ophthalmoscope, and that nonmydriatic fundus photography was an effective alternate way of providing access to the ocular fundus in the ED. Extrapolating these results to headache clinics, outpatient neurology clinics, and adult and pediatric primary care settings seems self-evident. As technology advances, nonmydriatic ocular fundus imaging systems will be of higher quality and more portable and affordable, thereby circumventing the need to master the use of the ophthalmoscope. Visualizing the ocular fundus is more important than the method used. Ocular fundus photography facilitates nonophthalmologists' performance of this essential part of the physical examination, thus helping to reestablish the value of doing so.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 180208
[Lr] Last revision date:180208
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1212/WNL.0000000000004868

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[PMID]: 29348683
[Au] Autor:García-Palacios A; Costa A; Castilla D; Del Río E; Casaponsa A; Duñabeitia JA
[Ad] Address:Department of Basic and Clinical Psychology and Psychobiology, Jaume I University, Castellón, Spain.
[Ti] Title:The effect of foreign language in fear acquisition.
[So] Source:Sci Rep;8(1):1157, 2018 Jan 18.
[Is] ISSN:2045-2322
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Emotions are at the core of human nature. There is evidence that emotional reactivity in foreign languages compared to native languages is reduced. We explore whether this emotional distance could modulate fear conditioning, an essential mechanism for the understanding and treatment of anxiety disorders. A group of participants was verbally informed (either in a foreign or in a native language) that two different stimuli could be either cueing the potential presence of a threat stimulus or its absence. We registered pupil size and electrodermal activity and calculated the difference in psychophysiological responses to conditioned and to unconditioned stimuli. Our findings provided evidence that verbal conditioning processes are affected by language context in this paradigm. We report the first experimental evidence regarding how the use of a foreign language may reduce fear conditioning. This observation opens the avenue to the potential use of a foreign language in clinical contexts.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180128
[Lr] Last revision date:180128
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1038/s41598-018-19352-8

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[PMID]: 29194558
[Au] Autor:Worley J
[Ti] Title:Nurses With Substance Use Disorders: Where We Are and What Needs To Be Done.
[So] Source:J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv;55(12):11-14, 2017 Dec 01.
[Is] ISSN:0279-3695
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Nurses have the same rate of substance use disorders (SUDs) as the general public. Management of nurses with SUDs is moving from being punitive, including public license suspension or revocation, to alternative-to-discipline (ATD) programs that focus on early intervention and non-punitive, confidential help, which often involve continued employment. These programs have good retention rates, and nurses who complete them have fewer criminal convictions and are able to retain their nursing licenses and maintain successful careers in nursing. Barriers to nurses receiving care for SUDs include wide variability in ATD programs, inconsistent funding for treatment, and lack of policies and support for nursing students. Recommendations include changes to nurse practice acts to make ATD programs more uniform, provide adequate funding for all nurses and nursing students, and allow nurses to seek and obtain care without disclosing directly to Boards of Nurses. Colleges of nursing should implement policies to encourage early identification and treatment in nursing students, including ATD and dismissal programs. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 55(12), 11-14.].
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Nurses/psychology
Students, Nursing/psychology
Substance-Related Disorders/rehabilitation
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Employment/psychology
Humans
Mental Health Services/utilization
Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology
Substance-Related Disorders/nursing
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180123
[Lr] Last revision date:180123
[Js] Journal subset:IM; N
[Da] Date of entry for processing:171202
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3928/02793695-20171113-02

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[PMID]: 29251889
[Au] Autor:Bosworth R; Moxham L; Brighton R
[Ti] Title:STUDENT KNOWLEDGE OF PROVIDING CARE FOR WOMEN WHO EXPERIENCE ALCOHOL-USE DISORDERS.
[So] Source:Aust Nurs Midwifery J;24(6):37, 2016 12.
[Is] ISSN:2202-7114
[Cp] Country of publication:Australia
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Harmful alcohol consumption is associated with detrimental health and social consequences, yet this modifiable and preventable risk factor for serious non-communicable diseases remains an unmet challenge (Spanagel et al. 2013; WHO, 2014, 2016).
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Alcohol-Related Disorders/nursing
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Students, Nursing
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Australia
Female
Humans
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180118
[Lr] Last revision date:180118
[Js] Journal subset:N
[Da] Date of entry for processing:171219
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 28452849
[Au] Autor:Kelly Wu W; Broman KK; Brownie ER; Kauffmann RM
[Ad] Address:*Vanderbilt University School of Medicine †Department of Surgery ‡Division of Surgical Oncology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN.
[Ti] Title:Ipilimumab-induced Guillain-Barré Syndrome Presenting as Dysautonomia: An Unusual Presentation of a Rare Complication of Immunotherapy.
[So] Source:J Immunother;40(5):196-199, 2017 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1537-4513
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Immune-related adverse events are common and well-documented in patients treated with ipilimumab, a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 monoclonal antibody approved for the treatment of metastatic and stage III melanoma. Neurological complications are rare, but widely variable and potentially devastating. Here, we discuss a case of a patient who was treated with a single dose of ipilimumab for resected stage III melanoma. She subsequently developed pandysautonomia that manifested as a tonically dilated pupil, gastrointestinal dysmotility, urinary retention, and profound orthostatic hypotension. Guillain-Barré syndrome was diagnosed on electromyography. She was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin, droxidopa, and supportive care, with prolonged but eventual recovery. Given the broadening use of ipilimumab in the treatment of advanced and metastatic melanoma, awareness and recognition of its profound immune-mediated adverse effects are essential.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use
Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/diagnosis
Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis
Immunotherapy/methods
Ipilimumab/therapeutic use
Melanoma/diagnosis
Primary Dysautonomias/diagnosis
Skin Neoplasms/diagnosis
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adult
Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects
CTLA-4 Antigen/immunology
Deglutition Disorders
Female
Guillain-Barre Syndrome/complications
Guillain-Barre Syndrome/therapy
Humans
Immunotherapy/adverse effects
Ipilimumab/adverse effects
Melanoma/complications
Melanoma/therapy
Primary Dysautonomias/etiology
Skin Neoplasms/complications
Skin Neoplasms/therapy
[Pt] Publication type:CASE REPORTS; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Antineoplastic Agents); 0 (CTLA-4 Antigen); 0 (CTLA4 protein, human); 0 (Ipilimumab)
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180116
[Lr] Last revision date:180116
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170429
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1097/CJI.0000000000000167

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[PMID]: 29187689
[Au] Autor:Hattori K; Matsuda N; Murakami T; Ito E; Ugawa Y
[Ad] Address:Department of Neurology, Fukushima Medical University.
[Ti] Title:[A case of leptomeningeal melanomatosis with acute paraplegia and multiple cranial nerve palsies].
[So] Source:Rinsho Shinkeigaku;57(12):769-774, 2017 Dec 27.
[Is] ISSN:1882-0654
[Cp] Country of publication:Japan
[La] Language:jpn
[Ab] Abstract:A 62-year-old man with acute paraplegia was transferred to our hospital. He had flaccid paraplegia and multiple cranial nerve palsies, such as mydriasis of the left pupil, abduction palsy of the left eye, hoarseness and dysphagia, but no meningeal irritation signs. MRI of the spinal canal showed swellings of the conus medullaris and the cauda equine, and also contrast enhancement of the spinal meninges. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) showed pleocytosis and protein increment. The lymph node was swollen in his right axilla. The biopsy specimen from the right axillary lymph node revealed metastasis of malignant melanoma histologically. Careful check-up of his whole body found a malignant melanoma in the subungual region of the right ring finger. Repeated cytological examination revealed melanoma cells in the CSF, confirming the diagnosis of leptomeningeal melanomatosis. His consciousness was gradually deteriorated. His family members chose supportive care instead of chemotherapy or surgical therapy after full information about his conditions. Finally, he died 60 days after transfer to our hospital. This is a rare case of leptomenigeal melanomatosis presenting with acute paraplegia and multiple cranial nerve palsies. Careful follow-up and repeated studies are vital for the early diagnosis of leptomenigeal melanomatosis in spite of atypical clinical presentation.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Cranial Nerve Diseases/etiology
Melanoma/complications
Meningeal Neoplasms/complications
Paraplegia/etiology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Acute Disease
Fatal Outcome
Humans
Lymph Nodes/pathology
Lymphatic Metastasis
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Male
Melanoma/diagnosis
Melanoma/pathology
Meningeal Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging
Meningeal Neoplasms/pathology
Middle Aged
[Pt] Publication type:CASE REPORTS; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180112
[Lr] Last revision date:180112
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:171201
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.5692/clinicalneurol.cn-001092

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[PMID]: 29116546
[Au] Autor:Sak JJ; Grzybowski A; Baj J
[Ad] Address:Department of Ethics and Human Philosophy, Medical University of Lublin, ul. Staszica 4/6 (Collegium Maximum), 20-081, Lublin, Poland. jareksak@tlen.pl.
[Ti] Title:Sir Gordon Morgan Holmes (1876-1965): one of the founders of modern neurology.
[So] Source:Neurol Sci;, 2017 Nov 07.
[Is] ISSN:1590-3478
[Cp] Country of publication:Italy
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Sir Gordon Morgan Holmes (1876-1965) was one of the most important founders of modern neurology and a great teacher and scientist. He was the first scientist to challenge the theory of the unitary function of the cerebellum and described cerebellar disorders. Holmes together with Thomas Grainger Stewart (1877-1957) described 40 cases of the rebound phenomenon in cerebellar disease (Stewart-Holmes maneuver or Stewart-Holmes test). He also described the symptoms of inherited neurodegenerative spinocerebellar ataxia involving the olivary nucleus (Gordon-Holmes syndrome). Independently from the Australian neurologist William John Adie (1886-1935), he described the partial iridoplegia (Holmes-Adie pupil or Holmes-Adie syndrome). His teaching skills became clearly visible in Goulstonian and Croonian lectures dedicated to spinal cord injuries.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1711
[Cu] Class update date: 171108
[Lr] Last revision date:171108
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1007/s10072-017-3180-6


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