Database : MEDLINE
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[PMID]: 29477551
[Au] Autor:Deviatkin AA; Lukashev AN
[Ad] Address:Institute of Molecular Medicine, Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russia; Chumakov Federal Scientific Center for Research and Development of Immune-and-Biological Preparations of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia. Electronic address: andreideviatkin@gmail.com.
[Ti] Title:Recombination in the rabies virus and other lyssaviruses.
[So] Source:Infect Genet Evol;60:97-102, 2018 Feb 22.
[Is] ISSN:1567-7257
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Recombination is a common event in RNA viruses; however, in the rabies virus there have been only a few reports of isolated recombination events. Comprehensive analysis found traces of recent recombination events within Arctic, Arctic-like and Africa 1b rabies virus groups, as well as recombination between distinct lyssaviruses. Recombination breakpoints were not linked to gene boundaries and could be detected all over the genome. However, there was no evidence that recombination is an important factor in the genetic variability of the rabies virus. It is therefore likely that recombination in the rabies virus is limited by ecological factors (e.g., rare co-circulation of distinguishable lineages and a narrow window for productive coinfection in most carnivore hosts), rather than molecular barriers (e.g., incompatibility of genome fragments).
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  2 / 12365 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29524317
[Au] Autor:Beyene TJ; Mourits MCM; Revie CW; Hogeveen H
[Ad] Address:Business Economics Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
[Ti] Title:Determinants of health seeking behaviour following rabies exposure in Ethiopia.
[So] Source:Zoonoses Public Health;, 2018 Mar 10.
[Is] ISSN:1863-2378
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The objective of this study was to identify factors that determine medical treatment seeking behaviour following potential rabies exposure after being bitten by a suspected dog and the likelihood of compliance to receive sufficient doses of post-exposure prophylaxis after the visit to a health centre visit. A detailed survey based on case investigation was conducted on suspected rabid dog bite cases in three areas of Ethiopia. Two multivariable logistic regression models were created with a set of putative variables to explain treatment seeking and compliance outcomes. Based on the registered bite cases at each health centre and the set of unregistered bite cases derived by contact tracing, 655 bite victim cases were identified to have occurred between September 2013 and August 2014. Of these evaluated bite incidences, 465 cases were considered to have been caused by a potentially rabid dog. About 77% of these suspected rabid dog bite victims visited a health centre, while 57% received sufficient doses of PEP. The overall likelihood of seeking medical services following rabies exposure was higher for people bitten by dogs of unknown ownership, where the bite was severe, being bitten on the leg, spend of more than 100 USD per month and where the victim lived close to the nearest health centre, while the likelihood of receiving sufficient doses of PEP was sensitive to monthly spending and distance to health centre. However, the evaluated factors did only explain a part of the variation among the three districts. The district in which victims lived appeared to have a relevant influence on the likelihood of seeking medical treatment but did not improve the prediction on the likelihood of treatment compliance. Given the insights obtained from this study, improvements in the rural districts with regard to accessibility of post-exposure prophylaxis delivering health centres in shorter distance could improve health seeking behaviour. In addition, in rural districts, majority of exposed persons who seek medical treatment tend to comply with treatment regimen, indicating that the promotion of medical treatment through awareness creation campaigns could be beneficial.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1111/zph.12458

  3 / 12365 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29523449
[Au] Autor:Phoolcharoen W; Banyard AC; Prehaud C; Selden D; Wu G; Birch CPD; Szeto TH; Lafon M; Fooks AR; Ma JK
[Ad] Address:Institute for Infection and Immunity, St. George's Hospital Medical School, University of London, London, UK; Pharmacognosy and Pharmaceutical Botany, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.
[Ti] Title:In vitro and in vivo evaluation of a single chain antibody fragment generated in planta with potent rabies neutralisation activity.
[So] Source:Vaccine;, 2018 Mar 06.
[Is] ISSN:1873-2518
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Rabies causes more than 60,000 human deaths annually in areas where the virus is endemic. Importantly, rabies is one of the few pathogens for which there is no treatment following the onset of clinical disease with the outcome of infection being death in almost 100% of cases. Whilst vaccination, and the combination of vaccine and rabies immunoglobulin treatment for post-exposure administration are available, no tools have been identified that can reduce or prevent rabies virus replication once clinical disease has initiated. The search for effective antiviral molecules to treat those that have already developed clinical disease associated with rabies virus infection is considered one of the most important goals in rabies research. The current study assesses a single chain antibody molecule (ScFv) based on a monoclonal antibody that potently neutralises rabies in vitro as a potential therapeutic candidate. The recombinant ScFv was generated in Nicotiana benthamiana by transient expression, and was chemically conjugated (ScFv/RVG) to a 29 amino acid peptide, specific for nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAchR) binding in the CNS. This conjugated molecule was able to bind nAchR in vitro and enter neuronal cells more efficiently than ScFv. The ability of the ScFv/RVG to neutralise virus in vivo was assessed using a staggered administration where the molecule was inoculated either four hours before, two days after or four days after infection. The ScFv/RVG conjugate was evaluated in direct comparison with HRIG and a potential antiviral molecule, Favipiravir (also known as T-705) to indicate whether there was greater bioavailability of the ScFv in the brains of treated mice. The study indicated that the approach taken with the ScFv/RVG conjugate may have utility in the design and implementation of novel tools targetting rabies virus infection in the brain.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  4 / 12365 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29522517
[Au] Autor:Burdon Bailey JL; Gamble L; Gibson AD; Bronsvoort BMD; Handel IG; Mellanby RJ; Mazeri S
[Ad] Address:Mission Rabies, Cranborne, Dorset, United Kingdom.
[Ti] Title:A rabies lesson improves rabies knowledge amongst primary school children in Zomba, Malawi.
[So] Source:PLoS Negl Trop Dis;12(3):e0006293, 2018 Mar 09.
[Is] ISSN:1935-2735
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Rabies is an important neglected disease, which kills around 59,000 people a year. Over a third of these deaths are in children less than 15 years of age. Almost all human rabies deaths in Africa and Asia are due to bites from infected dogs. Despite the high efficacy of current rabies vaccines, awareness about rabies preventive healthcare is often low in endemic areas. It is therefore common for educational initiatives to be conducted in conjunction with other rabies control activities such as mass dog vaccination, however there are few examples where the efficacy of education activities has been assessed. Here, primary school children in Zomba, Malawi, were given a lesson on rabies biology and preventive healthcare. Subsequently, a mass dog vaccination programme was delivered in the same region. Knowledge and attitudes towards rabies were assessed by a questionnaire before the lesson, immediately after the lesson and 9 weeks later to assess the impact the lesson had on school children's knowledge and attitudes. This assessment was also undertaken in children who were exposed to the mass dog vaccination programme but did not receive the lesson. Knowledge of rabies and how to be safe around dogs increased following the lesson (both p<0.001), and knowledge remained higher than baseline 9 weeks after the lesson (both p<0.001). Knowledge of rabies and how to be safe around dogs was greater amongst school children who had received the lesson compared to school children who had not received the lesson, but had been exposed to a rabies vaccination campaign in their community (both p<0.001) indicating that the lesson itself was critical in improving knowledge. In summary, we have shown that a short, focused classroom-based lesson on rabies can improve short and medium-term rabies knowledge and attitudes of Malawian schoolchildren.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0006293

  5 / 12365 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29521099
[Au] Autor:Al-Obaidi MMJ; Bahadoran A; Wang SM; Manikam R; Raju CS; Sekaran SD
[Ti] Title:Disruption of the blood brain barrier is vital property of neurotropic viral infection of the central nervous system.
[So] Source:Acta Virol;62(1):16-27, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:0001-723X
[Cp] Country of publication:Slovakia
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The blood brain barrier consisting of astrocytes, pericytes and brain microvascular endothelial cells plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of neurotropic viruses by controlling the access of circulating molecules, immune cells or viruses into the central nervous system (CNS). However, this barrier is not impenetrable and neuroviruses have evolved to disrupt and evade it. This review aims to describe the underlying entry mechanisms of several neuroviruses such as (Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), West Nile virus (WNV), Zika virus (ZIKV), Nipah virus (NiV), Rabies virus (RABV), Herpes simplex virus (HSV) and Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)) into the CNS through BBB disruption. The mechanisms, through which neurotropic viruses enter the BBB, are being studied and are becoming clearer, however, some aspects still remain unknown. Some of these viruses are able to invade the brain parenchyma by a 'Trojan horse' mechanism, through diapedesis of infected immune cells that either cross the BBB paracellularly or transcellularly. Important mechanisms of BBB disruption associated with paracellular entry of viruses include alterations in expression or phosphorylation of tight junction proteins, disruption of the basal lamina and disruption of the actin cytoskeleton. In the absence of such mechanisms, indirect effects of viruses on the immune system are likely causes of barrier disruption.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.4149/av_2018_102

  6 / 12365 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29519504
[Au] Autor:Papatheodorou DP; Tasioudi KE; Korou LM; Georgiou V; Iliadou P; Markantonatos G; Kirtzalidou A; Tzani M; Chondrokouki E; Mangana-Vougiouka O
[Ad] Address:Virology Laboratory-National Reference Laboratory for Rabies in Animals, Department of Molecular Diagnostics, FMD, Virological, Rickettsial & Exotic Diseases, Directorate of Veterinary Center of Athens, Directorate General of Veterinary Services, Ministry of Rural Development and Food, Athens, G
[Ti] Title:First four Oral Rabies Vaccination campaigns of the red foxes in Greece: Evaluating factors and assessment.
[So] Source:Vet Microbiol;216:107-118, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1873-2542
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Following the last animal rabies outbreak in Greece in 2012, Oral Rabies Vaccination (ORV) campaigns of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) were conducted in order to halt the spread of the disease, as widely and effectively have also been implemented in other countries. The present study aims to report the main outcomes following the first Greek ORV campaigns during autumn 2013, 2014, 2015 and spring 2016, to assess their effectiveness and to investigate factors potentially related to their success. Blood samples, mandible bones and teeth, derived by 452 foxes, were tested for rabies antibody titration, animal age determination and tetracycline (TTC) detection. The laboratory results obtained were statistically analyzed. High seroprevalence and TTC detection rates were obtained following the autumn campaigns studied, while these rates were significantly reduced following the spring campaign. The year or the season of the vaccination campaign, the estimated age group of the animal and the geographical Regional Unit (RU), where the animal was hunted, were identified as important factors. On the contrary, no significance could be ascertained for TTC detection based on exclusively previous uptake, use of filter paper, blood sample type and quality, as well as sex of animal. Based on the monitoring results achieved, the first ORV campaigns conducted in the country can be generally considered to be satisfactory. No positives cases were detected since May 2014. Seasonal, geographical parameters and factors related to fox ecology may interfere with monitoring results and should be always considered when planning future ORV programs.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:In-Process

  7 / 12365 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29502522
[Au] Autor:Kenu E; Ganu V; Noora CL; Adanu R; Lartey M
[Ad] Address:Department of Medicine, School of Medicine and Dentistry, College of Health Sciences, University of Ghana, Korle Bu, Accra, Ghana. ernest_kenu@yahoo.com.
[Ti] Title:Management of dog bites by frontline service providers in primary healthcare facilities in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana, 2014-2015.
[So] Source:Infect Dis Poverty;7(1):18, 2018 Feb 28.
[Is] ISSN:2049-9957
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Dog bites are common in developing countries including Ghana, with the victims often being children. Although some breeds of dogs have been identified as being more aggressive than others, all dog bites carry a risk of infection. Immediate and initial assessment of the risk for tetanus and rabies infection with appropriate interventions such as wound management and subsequent selection of prophylactic antibiotics are essential in the management of dog bites. This study examined the management of patients with dog bites by frontline service providers at primary healthcare facilities in the Greater Accra Region, Ghana. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in 66 public health facilities in the Greater Accra Region from July 2014 to April 2015. Up to four frontline service providers were randomly selected to participate from each facility. A structured questionnaire was administered to all consenting participants. Continuous variables were presented as means and standard deviations. The frontline service providers' knowledge was assessed as a discrete variable and values obtained presented as percentages and proportions. The chi-square test of proportions was used to determine any significant associations between the various categories of the frontline service providers and their knowledge about the management of rabies. RESULTS: Regarding the frontline service providers' knowledge about rabies, 57.8% (134/232) were correct in that the rabies virus is the causative agent of rabies, 39.2% (91/232) attributed it to a dog bite, 2.6% (6/232) did not know the cause, and one person (0.4%) attributed it to the herpes virus. Only 15.5% (36/232) knew the incubation period in dogs and the period required to observe for signs of a rabies infection. With respect to the administration of rabies immunoglobulin, 42.2% (98/232) of the frontline service providers did not know how to administer it. Of the facilities visited, 76% (50/66) did not have the rabies vaccines and 44% (102/232) of frontline service providers did not know where to get the rabies vaccines from. Most of the service providers (87.9%; 204/232) had never reported either a dog bite or a suspected case of rabies. Overall, there was gross underreporting of dog bites and suspected rabies cases at public healthcare facilities in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. CONCLUSIONS: In view of the high morbidity and mortality associated with bites from rabid dogs and the poor knowledge and practices of frontline service providers, there is an urgent need for capacity-building such as training in the management of dog bites and subsequent potential rabies infection.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1186/s40249-018-0398-3

  8 / 12365 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29471052
[Au] Autor:Qin Y; Smith TG; Jackson F; Gallardo-Romero NF; Morgan CN; Olson V; Hutson CL; Wu X
[Ad] Address:Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA; Chronic Viral Diseases Branch, Division of High-Consequence Pathogen
[Ti] Title:Revisiting rabies virus neutralizing antibodies through infecting BALB/c mice with live rabies virus.
[So] Source:Virus Res;248:39-43, 2018 Feb 19.
[Is] ISSN:1872-7492
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:This study investigates the production of rabies virus (RABV) neutralizing antibody after virus infection through a mouse model. The BALB/c mice from different age groups (three, five, seven week old) were intramuscularly inoculated with live rabies virus (TX coyote 323R). Without pre-exposure or post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), we found there is a decreased fatality with increased age of animals, the mortalities are 60%, 50%, and 30%, respectively. Interestingly, through assay of rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT), direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) and quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR), the results showed that all the animals that succumbed to rabies challenge, except one, developed circulating neutralizing antibodies, and all the healthy animals, except two, did not generate virus neutralizing antibodies (VNA). Our animal study suggests that the induction of VNA was an indicator of infection progression in the central nervous system (CNS) and speculate that RABV neutralizing antibodies did not cross the blood-brain barrier of the CNS for those diseased animals. We hypothesize that early release of viral antigens from damaged nerve tissue might potentially be a benefit for survivors, and we also discuss several other aspects of the interaction of RABV and its neutralizing antibodies.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:Publisher

  9 / 12365 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29441578
[Au] Autor:Lean GA; Liu YJ; Lyon DC
[Ad] Address:Department of Cognitive Sciences, School of Social Sciences, University of California, Irvine, California.
[Ti] Title:Cell type specific tracing of the subcortical input to primary visual cortex from the basal forebrain.
[So] Source:J Comp Neurol;, 2018 Feb 14.
[Is] ISSN:1096-9861
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The basal forebrain provides cholinergic inputs to primary visual cortex (V1) that play a key modulatory role on visual function. While basal forebrain afferents terminate in the infragranular layers of V1, acetylcholine is delivered to more superficial layers through volume transmission. Nevertheless, direct synaptic contact in deep layers 5 and 6 may provide a more immediate effect on V1 modulation. Using helper viruses with cell type specific promoters to target retrograde infection of pseudotyped and genetically modified rabies virus evidence was found for direct synaptic input onto V1 inhibitory neurons. These inputs were similar in number to geniculocortical inputs and, therefore, considered robust. In contrast, while clear evidence for dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus input to V1 excitatory neurons was found, there was no evidence of direct synaptic input from the basal forebrain. These results suggest a direct and more immediate influence of the basal forebrain on local V1 inhibition.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1002/cne.24412

  10 / 12365 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 27778378
[Au] Autor:Bragg EM; Fairless EA; Liu S; Briggs F
[Ad] Address:Physiology & Neurobiology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, New Hampshire.
[Ti] Title:Morphology of visual sector thalamic reticular neurons in the macaque monkey suggests retinotopically specialized, parallel stream-mixed input to the lateral geniculate nucleus.
[So] Source:J Comp Neurol;525(5):1273-1290, 2017 Apr 01.
[Is] ISSN:1096-9861
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) is a unique brain structure at the interface between the thalamus and the cortex. Because the TRN receives bottom-up sensory input and top-down cortical input, it could serve as an integration hub for sensory and cognitive signals. Functional evidence supports broad roles for the TRN in arousal, attention, and sensory selection. How specific circuits connecting the TRN with sensory thalamic structures implement these functions is not known. The structural organization and function of the TRN is particularly interesting in the context of highly organized sensory systems, such as the primate visual system, where neurons in the retina and dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus (dLGN) are morphologically and physiologically distinct and also specialized for processing particular features of the visual environment. To gain insight into the functional relationship between the visual sector of the TRN and the dLGN, we reconstructed a large number of TRN neurons that were retrogradely labeled following injections of rabies virus expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) into the dLGN. An independent cluster analysis, based on 10 morphological metrics measured for each reconstructed neuron, revealed three clusters of TRN neurons that differed in cell body shape and size, dendritic arborization patterns, and medial-lateral position within the TRN. TRN dendritic and axonal morphologies are inconsistent with visual stream-specific projections to the dLGN. Instead, TRN neuronal organization could facilitate transmission of global arousal and/or cognitive signals to the dLGN with retinotopic precision that preserves specialized processing of foveal versus peripheral visual information. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:1273-1290, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Geniculate Bodies/cytology
Neurons/cytology
Thalamic Nuclei/cytology
Visual Pathways/cytology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Imaging, Three-Dimensional
Macaca
Male
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1709
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:161026
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/cne.24134


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