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[PMID]: 29215360
[Au] Autor:Marie V; Lin J
[Ad] Address:Discipline of Microbiology, School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal (Westville), Private Bag X54001, Durban, South Africa E-mail: linj@ukzn.ac.za.
[Ti] Title:Viruses in the environment - presence and diversity of bacteriophage and enteric virus populations in the Umhlangane River, Durban, South Africa.
[So] Source:J Water Health;15(6):966-981, 2017 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1477-8920
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Due to the continued persistence of waterborne viral-associated infections, the presence of enteric viruses is a concern. Notwithstanding the health implications, viral diversity and abundance is an indicator of water quality declination in the environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of viruses (bacteriophage and enteric viruses) in a highly polluted, anthropogenic-influenced river system over a 6-month period at five sampling points. Cytopathic-based tissue culture assays revealed that the isolated viruses were infectious when tested on Hep-G2, HEK293 and Vero cells. While transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the majority of the viruses were bacteriophages, a number of presumptive enteric virus families were visualized, some of which include Picornaviridae, Adenoviridae, Polyomaviridae and Reoviridae. Finally, primer specific nested polymerase chain reaction (nested-PCR)/reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) coupled with BLAST analysis identified human adenovirus, polyomavirus and hepatitis A and C virus genomes in river water samples. Taken together, the complexity of both bacteriophage and enteric virus populations in the river has potential health implications. Finally, a systematic integrated risk assessment and management plan to identify and minimize sources of faecal contamination is the most effective way of ensuring water safety and should be established in all future guidelines.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 180227
[Lr] Last revision date:180227
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.2166/wh.2017.066

  2 / 2364 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29402305
[Au] Autor:D'arc M; Furtado C; Siqueira JD; Seuánez HN; Ayouba A; Peeters M; Soares MA
[Ad] Address:Instituto Nacional de Câncer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
[Ti] Title:Assessment of the gorilla gut virome in association with natural simian immunodeficiency virus infection.
[So] Source:Retrovirology;15(1):19, 2018 Feb 05.
[Is] ISSN:1742-4690
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) of chimpanzees and gorillas from Central Africa crossed the species barrier at least four times giving rise to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) groups M, N, O and P. The paradigm of non-pathogenic lentiviral infections has been challenged by observations of naturally infected chimpanzees with SIVcpz associated with a negative impact on their life span and reproduction, CD4 T-lymphocyte loss and lymphoid tissue destruction. With the advent and dissemination of new generation sequencing technologies, novel promising markers of immune deficiency have been explored in human and nonhuman primate species, showing changes in the microbiome (dysbiosis) that might be associated with pathogenic conditions. The aim of the present study was to identify and compare enteric viromes of SIVgor-infected and uninfected gorillas using noninvasive sampling and ultradeep sequencing, and to assess the association of virome composition with potential SIVgor pathogenesis in their natural hosts. RESULTS: We analyzed both RNA and DNA virus libraries of 23 fecal samples from 11 SIVgor-infected (two samples from one animal) and 11 uninfected western lowland gorillas from Campo-Ma'an National Park (CP), in southwestern Cameroon. Three bacteriophage families (Siphoviridae, Myoviridae and Podoviridae) represented 67.5 and 68% of the total annotated reads in SIVgor-infected and uninfected individuals, respectively. Conversely, mammalian viral families, such as Herpesviridae and Reoviridae, previously associated with gut- and several mammalian diseases were significantly more abundant (p < 0.003) in the SIVgor-infected group. In the present study, we analyzed, for the first time, the enteric virome of gorillas and their association with SIVgor status. This also provided the first evidence of association of specific mammalian viral families and SIVgor in a putative dysbiosis context. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that viromes might be potentially used as markers of lentiviral disease progression in wild gorilla populations. The diverse mammalian viral families, herein described in SIVgor-infected gorillas, may play a pivotal role in a disease progression still unclear in these animals but already well characterized in pathogenic lentiviral infections in other organisms. Larger sample sets should be further explored to reduce intrinsic sampling variation.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180216
[Lr] Last revision date:180216
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12977-018-0402-9

  3 / 2364 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29210509
[Au] Autor:Liang G; Li X; Gao X; Fu S; Wang H; Li M; Lu Z; Zhu W; Lu X; Wang L; Cao Y; He Y; Lei W
[Ad] Address:State Key Laboratory of Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.
[Ti] Title:Arboviruses and their related infections in China: A comprehensive field and laboratory investigation over the last 3 decades.
[So] Source:Rev Med Virol;28(1), 2018 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1099-1654
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Since the 1980s, a comprehensive field and laboratory investigation has been conducted throughout China, and a total of 29 virus species belonging to 7 families and 13 genera were identified through virological, morphological, and immunological methods, as well as whole-genome sequencing and molecular genetic analyses. Most of the virus isolates belong to 9 genera in the families Flaviviridae, Bunyaviridae, Togaviridae, and Reoviridae. Among them, 4 genera (Orthobunyavirus, Bunyavirus, Phlebovirus, and Nairovirus) belong to the family Bunyaviridae and 3 genera (Seadonavirus, Orbivirus, and Cypovirus) belong to the family Reoviridae. Analyses of the relationships between viruses and human/animal diseases indicated that Japanese encephalitis virus, dengue virus, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, West Nile virus, and Tahyna virus can cause human and animal infections and disease epidemics in China. This review systematically introduces the current status of the diversity and geographical distribution of arboviruses and vectors in China. In addition, our results provide strong technical support for the prevention and control of arboviral diseases, the treatment of epidemics, and the early warning and prediction of diseases, and so they are significant for the control and prevention of arboviral diseases in Asia and around the world.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 180112
[Lr] Last revision date:180112
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1002/rmv.1959

  4 / 2364 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29211815
[Au] Autor:Berger AK; Yi H; Kearns DB; Mainou BA
[Ad] Address:Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.
[Ti] Title:Bacteria and bacterial envelope components enhance mammalian reovirus thermostability.
[So] Source:PLoS Pathog;13(12):e1006768, 2017 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1553-7374
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Enteric viruses encounter diverse environments as they migrate through the gastrointestinal tract to infect their hosts. The interaction of eukaryotic viruses with members of the host microbiota can greatly impact various aspects of virus biology, including the efficiency with which viruses can infect their hosts. Mammalian orthoreovirus, a human enteric virus that infects most humans during childhood, is negatively affected by antibiotic treatment prior to infection. However, it is not known how components of the host microbiota affect reovirus infectivity. In this study, we show that reovirus virions directly interact with Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Reovirus interaction with bacterial cells conveys enhanced virion thermostability that translates into enhanced attachment and infection of cells following an environmental insult. Enhanced virion thermostability was also conveyed by bacterial envelope components lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and peptidoglycan (PG). Lipoteichoic acid and N-acetylglucosamine-containing polysaccharides enhanced virion stability in a serotype-dependent manner. LPS and PG also enhanced the thermostability of an intermediate reovirus particle (ISVP) that is associated with primary infection in the gut. Although LPS and PG alter reovirus thermostability, these bacterial envelope components did not affect reovirus utilization of its proteinaceous cellular receptor junctional adhesion molecule-A or cell entry kinetics. LPS and PG also did not affect the overall number of reovirus capsid proteins σ1 and σ3, suggesting their effect on virion thermostability is not mediated through altering the overall number of major capsid proteins on the virus. Incubation of reovirus with LPS and PG did not significantly affect the neutralizing efficiency of reovirus-specific antibodies. These data suggest that bacteria enhance reovirus infection of the intestinal tract by enhancing the thermal stability of the reovirus particle at a variety of temperatures through interactions between the viral particle and bacterial envelope components.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Bacillus subtilis/physiology
Enterocytes/virology
Escherichia coli K12/physiology
Reoviridae Infections/virology
Reoviridae/physiology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Acetylglucosamine/analogs & derivatives
Acetylglucosamine/metabolism
Acetylglucosamine/toxicity
Bacillus subtilis/metabolism
Bacillus subtilis/ultrastructure
Bacillus subtilis/virology
Caco-2 Cells
Endotoxins/metabolism
Endotoxins/toxicity
Enterocytes/drug effects
Enterocytes/microbiology
Enterocytes/pathology
Escherichia coli K12/metabolism
Escherichia coli K12/ultrastructure
Escherichia coli K12/virology
Gastrointestinal Microbiome
HeLa Cells
Hot Temperature
Humans
Lipopolysaccharides/metabolism
Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity
Luminescent Proteins/genetics
Luminescent Proteins/metabolism
Microscopy, Electron, Transmission
Peptidoglycan/metabolism
Peptidoglycan/toxicity
RNA/metabolism
RNA Stability/drug effects
Recombinant Proteins/metabolism
Reoviridae/chemistry
Reoviridae/drug effects
Reoviridae/pathogenicity
Reoviridae Infections/metabolism
Reoviridae Infections/microbiology
Reoviridae Infections/pathology
Teichoic Acids/metabolism
Teichoic Acids/toxicity
Virion/chemistry
Virion/pathogenicity
Virion/physiology
Virus Attachment/drug effects
Virus Internalization/drug effects
[Pt] Publication type:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Endotoxins); 0 (Lipopolysaccharides); 0 (Luminescent Proteins); 0 (Peptidoglycan); 0 (RNA, recombinant); 0 (Recombinant Proteins); 0 (Teichoic Acids); 0 (red fluorescent protein); 56411-57-5 (lipoteichoic acid); 63231-63-0 (RNA); 67924-63-4 (endotoxin, Escherichia coli); V956696549 (Acetylglucosamine)
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180109
[Lr] Last revision date:180109
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:171207
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.ppat.1006768

  5 / 2364 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29240753
[Au] Autor:Egawa K; Shimojima M; Taniguchi S; Nagata N; Tani H; Yoshikawa T; Kurosu T; Watanabe S; Fukushi S; Saijo M
[Ad] Address:United Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences, Gifu University, Gifu, Japan.
[Ti] Title:Virulence, pathology, and pathogenesis of Pteropine orthoreovirus (PRV) in BALB/c mice: Development of an animal infection model for PRV.
[So] Source:PLoS Negl Trop Dis;11(12):e0006076, 2017 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1935-2735
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Cases of acute respiratory tract infection caused by Pteropine orthoreovirus (PRV) of the genus Orthoreovirus (family: Reoviridae) have been reported in Southeast Asia, where it was isolated from humans and bats. It is possible that PRV-associated respiratory infections might be prevalent in Southeast Asia. The clinical course of PRV is not fully elucidated. METHODS: The virulence, pathology, and pathogenesis of two PRV strains, a human-borne PRV strain (isolated from a patient, who returned to Japan from Bali, Indonesia in 2007) and a bat-borne PRV (isolated from a bat [Eonycteris spelaea] in the Philippines in 2013) were investigated in BALB/c mice using virological, pathological, and immunological study methods. RESULTS: The intranasal inoculation of BALB/c mice with human-borne PRV caused respiratory infection. In addition, all mice with immunity induced by pre-inoculation with a non-lethal dose of PRV were completely protected against lethal PRV infection. Mice treated with antiserum with neutralizing antibody activity after inoculation with a lethal dose of PRV showed a reduced fatality rate. In this mouse model, bat-borne PRV caused respiratory infection similar to human-borne PRV. PRV caused lethal respiratory disease in an animal model of PRV infection, in which BALB/c mice were used. CONCLUSIONS: The BALB/c mouse model might help to accelerate research on the virulence of PRV and be useful for evaluating the efficacy of therapeutic agents and vaccines for the treatment and prevention of PRV infection. PRV was shown for the first time to be a causative virus of respiratory disease on the basis of Koch's postulations by the additional demonstration that PRV caused respiratory disease in mice through their intranasal inoculation with PRV.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Disease Models, Animal
Orthoreovirus/pathogenicity
Reoviridae Infections/pathology
Reoviridae Infections/virology
Virulence
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use
Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use
Asia, Southeastern
Body Weight
Bronchioles/pathology
Bronchioles/virology
Cercopithecus aethiops
Chiroptera/virology
Female
Genome, Viral
HEK293 Cells
Humans
Indonesia
Japan
Lung/pathology
Lung/virology
Mice
Mice, Inbred BALB C
Orthoreovirus/classification
Orthoreovirus/genetics
Orthoreovirus/isolation & purification
Philippines
RNA, Viral/analysis
Reoviridae Infections/drug therapy
Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy
Respiratory Tract Infections/pathology
Respiratory Tract Infections/virology
Survival Rate
Vaccines/pharmacology
Vero Cells
Viral Load
Viral Plaque Assay
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Antibodies, Neutralizing); 0 (Antibodies, Viral); 0 (RNA, Viral); 0 (Vaccines)
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 171224
[Lr] Last revision date:171224
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:171215
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0006076

  6 / 2364 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29176848
[Au] Autor:Mills MK; Ruder MG; Nayduch D; Michel K; Drolet BS
[Ad] Address:Division of Biology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, United States of America.
[Ti] Title:Dynamics of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus infection within the vector, Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(11):e0188865, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Culicoides sonorensis biting midges are confirmed vectors of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV), which causes mortality in white-tailed deer and ruminant populations. Currently, of the seven EHDV serotypes, only 1, 2, and 6 are detected in the USA, and very few studies have focused on the infection time course of these serotypes within the midge. The objective of this current research was to characterize EHDV-2 infection within the midge by measuring infection prevalence, virus dissemination, and viral load over the course of infection. Midges were fed a blood meal containing 106.9 PFU/ml EHDV-2, collected every 12 h from 0-2 days post feeding (dpf) and daily from 3-10 dpf, and cohorts of 20 C. sonorensis were processed using techniques that assessed EHDV infection and dissemination. Cytopathic effect assays and quantitative (q)PCR were used to determine infection prevalence, revealing a 50% infection rate by 10 dpf using both methods. Using immunohistochemistry, EHDV-2 infection was detectable at 5 dpf, and shown to disseminate from the midgut to other tissues, including fat body, eyes, and salivary glands by 5 dpf. Stain intensity increased from 5-8 dpf, indicating replication of EHDV-2 in secondary infection sites after dissemination. This finding is also supported by trends in viral load over time as determined by plaque assays and qPCR. An increase in titer between 4-5 dpf correlated with viral replication in the midgut as seen with staining at day 5, while the subsequent gradual increase in viral load from 8-10 dpf suggested viral replication in midges with disseminated infection. Overall, the data presented herein suggest that EHDV-2 disseminates via the hemolymph to secondary infection sites throughout the midge and demonstrate a high potential for transmission at five days at 25°C after an infective blood-meal.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Ceratopogonidae/virology
Hemorrhagic Disease Virus, Epizootic/physiology
Insect Vectors/virology
Reoviridae Infections/epidemiology
Reoviridae Infections/virology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Chironomidae/virology
Immunohistochemistry
Prevalence
Reoviridae Infections/pathology
Time Factors
Tropism
Viral Load
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 171219
[Lr] Last revision date:171219
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:171128
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0188865

  7 / 2364 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28461211
[Au] Autor:Luo K; Li Y; Xia L; Hu W; Gao W; Guo L; Tian G; Qi Z; Yuan H; Xu Q
[Ad] Address:Engineering Research Centre of Ecology and Agricultural Use of Wetland, Ministry of Education, Jingzhou 434020, China.
[Ti] Title:Analysis of the expression patterns of the novel large multigene TRIM gene family (finTRIM) in zebrafish.
[So] Source:Fish Shellfish Immunol;66:224-230, 2017 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1095-9947
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins are receiving increased research interest because of their roles in a wide range of cellular biological processes in innate immunity. In zebrafish (Danio rerio), the functions of the finTRIM (ftr) family are unclear. In the present study, we investigated the expression pattern of ftr12, ftr51, ftr67, ftr82, ftr83, and ftr84 in zebrafish for the first time. The results showed that ftr12, ftr67, and ftr84 are maternally expressed in the oocyte and highly expressed at the early stage (0-4 hpf) of embryo (P < 0.05), suggesting their involvement in the embryonic innate defense system. The ftr82 gene was highly expressed at 8 hpf (P < 0.05), which implied that the embryos could synthesize their own immunity-related mRNAs. However, ftr51 and ftr83 were highest at 8 hpf (2.33 and 51.53 relative to ß-actin respectively) and might mediate embryonic development. The expression levels of ftr12, ftr51, and ftr67 were highest in the gill, intestines, and liver, respectively. Ftr82, ftr83, and ftr84 were predominantly expressed in the kidney, suggesting that these finTRIMs might play roles in both immunity and non-immunity-related tissue compartments. Zebrafish embryonic fibroblast (ZF4) cells were infected with Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) and Spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV). During GCRV infection, the expression of ftr12 was significantly upregulated from 12 h to 24 h; and ftr51 and ftr67 increased from 3 h to 12 h. The expressions of ftr82, ftr83, and ftr84 were only upregulated at 12 h, 12 h, and 24 h, respectively. All of these genes were significantly downregulated at 48 h (P < 0.05). Challenge with SVCV upregulated the expressions of ftr12 and ftr51 at 12 h and 48 h (P < 0.05), respectively, and ftr67 reached its highest expression level at 3 h. ftr82 showed only a slight upregulation at 6 h and 48 h, and ftr83 and ftr84 were consecutively increased, reaching their highest levels at 12 h (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, ftr67 and ftr83 were significantly downregulated at 48 h (P < 0.05). Our research demonstrated that ftr12, ftr51, ftr67, ftr82, ftr83, and ftr84 probably have important roles in innate immune responses and in non-immunity-related tissues.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Fish Diseases/genetics
Gene Expression
Immunity, Innate/genetics
Multigene Family
Tripartite Motif Proteins/genetics
Zebrafish Proteins/genetics
Zebrafish
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Fish Diseases/immunology
Fish Diseases/virology
Gene Expression/immunology
Gene Expression Profiling/veterinary
Reoviridae/physiology
Reoviridae Infections/genetics
Reoviridae Infections/immunology
Reoviridae Infections/veterinary
Rhabdoviridae/physiology
Rhabdoviridae Infections/genetics
Rhabdoviridae Infections/immunology
Rhabdoviridae Infections/veterinary
Sequence Analysis, DNA/veterinary
Tripartite Motif Proteins/metabolism
Zebrafish Proteins/metabolism
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Tripartite Motif Proteins); 0 (Zebrafish Proteins)
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 171215
[Lr] Last revision date:171215
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170503
[St] Status:MEDLINE

  8 / 2364 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29153071
[Au] Autor:Keçeli SA
[Ad] Address:Kocaeli University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Microbiology, Kocaeli, Turkey.
[Ti] Title:Mikovirüsler ve mikolojideki önemi. [Mycoviruses and importance in mycology].
[So] Source:Mikrobiyol Bul;51(4):404-412, 2017 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:0374-9096
[Cp] Country of publication:Turkey
[La] Language:tur
[Ab] Abstract:Opportunistic fungal infections like invasive candidiasis and aspergillozis have high mortality rate particularly in immunosupressive patients. The rate of therapy success with antifungal agents is usually low. Although immunotherapy methods have been developed to increase the host response against antifungals, there has been a need for new antifungal therapeutic agents in the treatment of invasive aspergillozis and other opportunistic fungal infections. Mycoviruses are the viruses that specifically infect fungi. The use of mycoviruses in the treatment of invasive fungal infections has not been suggested yet. However, as mentioned in this review, the researches about the use of mycoviruses as a therapeutic agent have been still carried on. Mycoviruses have no infectivity as free particules. Many of them have RNA genome. They are classified as: Fungi containing "double stranded (ds) RNA, ds DNA or single stranded RNA". Although most of them are found in plant pathogenic fungi, they are also found in human pathogenic fungi. In most of the mycoviruses identified up to now, dsRNA genome are present. Mycoviruses that can be pathogenic for human and carrying dsRNA genome have been classified as Partitiviridae, Totiviridae, Chrysoviridae, Reoviridae and Hypoviridae. A part of mycoviruses may not cause any sign of infection in fungal host. The other part of mycoviruses causes hypovirulence or lethal effect. When hypovirulence occured in fungi, the observed effects are the decrease in pigmentation, mycelium formation, asexual sporulation, growing rate and the loss of fertility. The transfer of mycovirus to fungi may occur by intracellular or extracellular way. The transfer of genetic content to fungi occurs in two way: transformation and transfection. In both ways, there is a need for a spheroblast that has no cell wall. There are various scenarios about mycoviruses for the their use in the treatment. In the first scenario, the transfer of selective mycovirus is ensured by extracellular way, and then the binding of mycovirus to target fungus by genetic modifications is aimed. The second scenario is about the use of mycovirus as a vector for genetic transformation. In fact, this method is applied by using toxins in fungal diseases of plants. In addition, the production of lethal antibodies or peptides derived from antibodies obtained from toxin-coding cytoplasmic dsRNA mycovirus toxins may be a new therapeutic approach. It has been claimed that these derivatives may be used as parentheral therapeutic agents against human pathogenic fungi including Candida albicans. In this review article, the importance of mycoviruses in mycology has been discussed.
[Pt] Publication type:ENGLISH ABSTRACT; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1711
[Cu] Class update date: 171120
[Lr] Last revision date:171120
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.5578/mb.54128

  9 / 2364 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29107849
[Au] Autor:Maclachlan NJ; Osburn BI
[Ad] Address:School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA. Electronic address: njmaclachlan@ucdavis.edu.
[Ti] Title:Teratogenic bluetongue and related orbivirus infections in pregnant ruminant livestock: timing and pathogen genetics are critical.
[So] Source:Curr Opin Virol;27:31-35, 2017 Nov 03.
[Is] ISSN:1879-6265
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Congenital infections of domestic animals with viruses in several families, including Bunyaviridae, Flaviridae, Parvoviridae, and Reoviridae, are the cause of naturally occurring teratogenic central nervous system and/or musculoskeletal defects (arthrogryposis) in domestic animals. Congenital infections of ruminant livestock with bluetongue virus (BTV) and some related members of the genus Orbivirus (family Reoviridae) have clearly shown the critical role of gestational age at infection in determining outcome. Specifically, fetuses infected prior to mid-gestation that survive congenital BTV infection are born with cavitating central nervous system defects that range from severe hydranencephaly to cerebral cysts (porencephaly). Generally, the younger the fetus (in terms of gestational age) at infection, the more severe the teratogenic lesion at birth. Age-dependent virus infection and destruction of neuronal and/or glial cell precursors that populate the developing central nervous system are responsible for these naturally occurring virus-induced congenital defects of animals, thus lesions are most severe when progenitor cells are infected prior to their normal migration during embryogenesis. Whereas congenital infection is characteristic of certain BTV strains, notably live-attenuated (modified-live) vaccine viruses that have been passaged in embryonating eggs, transplacental transmission is not characteristic of many field strains of the virus and much remains to be determined regarding the genetic determinants of transplacental transmission of individual virus strains.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1711
[Cu] Class update date: 171106
[Lr] Last revision date:171106
[St] Status:Publisher

  10 / 2364 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29039048
[Au] Autor:Harada K
[Ad] Address:Department of Human Pathology, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medicine, Kanazawa, 920-8640, Japan. kenichih@med.kanazawa-u.ac.jp.
[Ti] Title:Sclerosing and obstructive cholangiopathy in biliary atresia: mechanisms and association with biliary innate immunity.
[So] Source:Pediatr Surg Int;33(12):1243-1248, 2017 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1437-9813
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Biliary atresia (BA) is histologically characterized by a progressive, sclerosing cholangitis and the obstruction of extrahepatic bile ducts. In terms of the etiology and pathogenesis of BA, several viral infections consisting of dsRNA, including Reoviridae, have been implicated. Human biliary epithelial cells (BECs) possess an innate immune system consisting of Toll-like receptors (TLRs). BECs have negative regulatory mechanisms of TLR tolerance to avoid an excessive inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a TLR4 ligand; however, they lack the tolerance to poly(I:C) (a synthetic analog of viral dsRNA), a TLR3 ligand. Treatment with poly(I:C) induces the expression of the apoptosis-inducer TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), along with the antiviral molecule IFN-ß1, and reduces the viability of BECs by enhancing apoptosis. In response, surviving BECs increase their expression of various markers, including basic FGF [an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-inducer], S100A4 (a mesenchymal marker), and Snail (a transcriptional factor), and decrease that of epithelial markers such as CK19 and E-cadherin before undergoing EMT. Extrahepatic bile ducts in BA infants frequently show a lack of epithelial markers and an aberrant expression of vimentin, in addition to the enhancement of TRAIL and apoptosis. dsRNA viruses may directly induce apoptosis and EMT in human BECs as a result of the biliary innate immune response, supporting the notion that Reoviridae infections may be directly associated with the pathogenesis of cholangiopathies in BA.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171108
[Lr] Last revision date:171108
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00383-017-4154-8


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