Database : MEDLINE
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[PMID]: 29524921
[Au] Autor:Reis H; Reis C; Sharip A; Reis W; Zhao Y; Sinclair R; Beeson L
[Ad] Address:Loma Linda University School of Medicine, 11175 Campus Street, Loma Linda, CA 92350, USA.
[Ti] Title:Diesel exhaust exposure, its multi-system effects, and the effect of new technology diesel exhaust.
[So] Source:Environ Int;114:252-265, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1873-6750
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) from vehicles and industry is hazardous and affects proper function of organ systems. DE can interfere with normal physiology after acute and chronic exposure to particulate matter (PM). Exposure leads to potential systemic disease processes in the central nervous, visual, hematopoietic, respiratory, cardiovascular, and renal systems. In this review, we give an overview of the epidemiological evidence supporting the harmful effects of diesel exhaust, and the numerous animal studies conducted to investigate the specific pathophysiological mechanisms behind DE exposure. Additionally, this review includes a summary of studies that used biomarkers as an indication of biological plausibility, and also studies evaluating new technology diesel exhaust (NTDE) and its systemic effects. Lastly, this review includes new approaches to improving DE emissions, and emphasizes the importance of ongoing study in this field of environmental health.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  2 / 96682 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29524562
[Au] Autor:Zera T; Przybylski J; Grygorowicz T; Kasarello K; Podobinska M; Mirowska-Guzel D; Cudnoch-Jedrzejewska A
[Ad] Address:Department of Experimental and Clinical Physiology, Laboratory of Centre for Preclinical Research, the Medical University of Warsaw, Banacha 1B, 02-097 Warsaw, Poland. Electronic address: tzera@wum.edu.pl.
[Ti] Title:Vasopressin V1a receptors are present in the carotid body and contribute to the control of breathing in male Sprague-Dawley rats.
[So] Source:Peptides;, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1873-5169
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Vasopressin (AVP) maintains body homeostasis by regulating water balance, cardiovascular system and stress response. AVP inhibits breathing through central vasopressin 1a receptors (V1aRs). Chemoreceptors within carotid bodies (CBs) detect chemical and hormonal signals in the bloodstream and provide sensory input to respiratory and cardiovascular centers of the brainstem. In the study we investigated if CBs contain V1aRs and how the receptors are involved in the regulation of ventilation by AVP. We first immunostained CBs for V1aRs and tyrosine hydroxylase, a marker of chemoreceptor type I (glomus) cells. In urethane-anesthetized adult Sprague-Dawley male rats, we then measured hemodynamic and respiratory responses to systemic (intravenous) or local (carotid artery) administration of AVP prior and after systemic blockade of V1aRs. Immunostaining of CBs showed colocalization of V1aRs and tyrosine hydroxylase within glomus cells. Systemic administration of AVP increased mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) and decreased respiratory rate (RR) and minute ventilation (MV). Local administration of AVP increased MV and RR without significant changes in MABP or heart rate. Pretreatment with V1aR antagonist abolished responses to local and intravenous AVP administration. Our findings show that chemosensory cells within CBs express V1aRs and that local stimulation of the CB with AVP increases ventilation, which is contrary to systemic effects of AVP manifested by decreased ventilation. The responses are mediated by V1aRs, as blockade of the receptors prevents changes in ventilation. We hypothesize that excitatory effects of AVP within the CB provide a counterbalancing mechanism for the inhibitory effects of systemically acting AVP on the respiration.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  3 / 96682 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29511690
[Au] Autor:Tu CS; Chang CH; Chang SC; Lee CS; Chang CT
[Ad] Address:Department of Information Management, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan City, Taiwan.
[Ti] Title:A Decision for Predicting Successful Extubation of Patients in Intensive Care Unit.
[So] Source:Biomed Res Int;2018:6820975, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:2314-6141
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Approximately 40% of patients admitted to the medical intensive care unit (ICU) require mechanical ventilation. An accurate prediction of successful extubation in patients is a key clinical problem in ICU due to the fact that the successful extubation is highly associated with prolonged ICU stay. The prolonged ICU stay is also associated with increasing cost and mortality rate in healthcare system. This study is retrospective in the aspect of ICU. Hence, a total of 41 patients were selected from the largest academic medical center in Taiwan. Our experimental results show that predicting successful rate of 87.8% is obtained from the proposed predicting function. Based on several types of statistics analysis, including logistic regression analysis, discriminant analysis, and bootstrap method, three major successful extubation predictors, namely, rapid shallow breathing index, respiratory rate, and minute ventilation, are revealed. The prediction of successful extubation function is proposed for patients, ICU, physicians, and hospital for reference.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1155/2018/6820975

  4 / 96682 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29496577
[Au] Autor:Zhao YL; Yang ZF; Shang JH; Huang WY; Wang B; Wei X; Khan A; Yuan ZW; Liu YP; Wang YF; Wang XH; Luo XD
[Ad] Address:State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650201, China.
[Ti] Title:Effects of indole alkaloids from leaf of Alstonia scholaris on post-infectious cough in mice.
[So] Source:J Ethnopharmacol;218:69-75, 2018 Feb 26.
[Is] ISSN:1872-7573
[Cp] Country of publication:Ireland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Leaf of Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br. (Apocynaceae), a wide used ethic-medicine in many Asia and Africa counties, has also been recorded as the common traditional Chinese medicine for treatment of illnesses in respiratory system by Dai people. AIM OF THE STUDY: To provide experimental data of clinical adaption of total indole alkaloids (TA) from leaf of A. scholaris for treating post-infectious cough in phase II clinical trial. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To model post-infectious cough, all animals except control group were instilled intra-tracheal with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (80 µg/50 µL/mouse), followed by subsequent exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) for 30 min per day for a total of 30 days. Mice were orally given TA at dose of 10, 25, 50 mg/kg, and four main alkaloids (Sch: scholaricine, Epi: 19-epischolaricine, Val: vallesamine, Pic: picrinine) once daily. Cellular infiltration was assessed in the broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in the serum was determined, the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the serum and homogenate were examined. Finally, histopathological examination in the lungs was assessed by H. E. staining. RESULTS: After administration of TA and four major alkaloids respectively, the symptoms of cough in mice were obviously attenuated. Total white blood cells (WBC) and neutrophils (NEU) amounts in BALF were reduced obviously and the pathological damage of lung was also attenuated. There was also significant reduction in IL-6, CRP, MDA and a marked improvement in SOD. CONCLUSIONS: The efficacy of indole alkaloids against post-infectious cough (PIC) was shown in the down-regulation of inflammatory cells, cytokines, and the balance of antioxidants. What's more, the pharmacological effects of TA were better than single indole alkaloid, which might be related to the synergic effect of four major alkaloids.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  5 / 96682 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29448087
[Au] Autor:Malinska D; Szymanski J; Patalas-Krawczyk P; Michalska B; Wojtala A; Prill M; Partyka M; Drabik K; Walczak J; Sewer A; Johne S; Luettich K; Peitsch MC; Hoeng J; Duszynski J; Szczepanowska J; van der Toorn M; Wieckowski MR
[Ad] Address:Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Polish Academy of Sciences, 3 Pasteur Street, 02-093 Warsaw, Poland.
[Ti] Title:Assessment of mitochondrial function following short- and long-term exposure of human bronchial epithelial cells to total particulate matter from a candidate modified-risk tobacco product and reference cigarettes.
[So] Source:Food Chem Toxicol;115:1-12, 2018 Feb 13.
[Is] ISSN:1873-6351
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Mitochondrial dysfunction caused by cigarette smoke is involved in the oxidative stress-induced pathology of airway diseases. Reducing the levels of harmful and potentially harmful constituents by heating rather than combusting tobacco may reduce mitochondrial changes that contribute to oxidative stress and cell damage. We evaluated mitochondrial function and oxidative stress in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS 2B) following 1- and 12-week exposures to total particulate matter (TPM) from the aerosol of a candidate modified-risk tobacco product, the Tobacco Heating System 2.2 (THS2.2), in comparison with TPM from the 3R4F reference cigarette. After 1-week exposure, 3R4F TPM had a strong inhibitory effect on mitochondrial basal and maximal oxygen consumption rates compared to TPM from THS2.2. Alterations in oxidative phosphorylation were accompanied by increased mitochondrial superoxide levels and increased levels of oxidatively damaged proteins in cells exposed to 7.5 µg/mL of 3R4F TPM or 150 µg/mL of THS2.2 TPM, while cytosolic levels of reactive oxygen species were not affected. In contrast, the 12-week exposure indicated adaptation of BEAS-2B cells to long-term stress. Together, the findings indicate that 3R4F TPM had a stronger effect on oxidative phosphorylation, gene expression and proteins involved in oxidative stress than TPM from the candidate modified-risk tobacco product THS2.2.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  6 / 96682 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29247296
[Au] Autor:Staats R; Rodrigues R; Barros A; Bacelar-Nicolau L; Aguiar M; Fernandes D; Moreira S; Simões A; Silva-Santos B; Rodrigues JV; Barbara C; de Almeida AB; Moita LF
[Ad] Address:Departamento de Pneumologia, Hospital de Santa Maria, 1649-035, Lisbon, Portugal.
[Ti] Title:Decrease of perforin positive CD3 γδ-T cells in patients with obstructive sleep disordered breathing.
[So] Source:Sleep Breath;22(1):211-221, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1522-1709
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:INTRODUCTION: Sleep related breathing disorders (SRBD) cause sleep fragmentation, intermittent hypoxia or a combination of both leading to homeostasis perturbations, including in the immune system. We investigated whether SRBD patients with or without intermittent hypoxia show substantial differences in perforin and granzyme-B positive peripheral blood lymphocytes. METHODS: A total of 87 subjects were included and distributed as follows: 24 controls (C), 19 patients with respiratory effort related arousals due to increased upper airway resistance (UAR) without hypoxic events, 24 obese patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) (oOSA), and 20 without obesity (noOSA). After polysomnographic recording, we analyzed in fasting blood samples routine hematologic and biochemical parameters and the percentage of lymphocytes containing the proteins perforin and granzyme-B (GrB). Kruskal-Wallis tests and a posteriori multiple comparisons were applied for statistical analysis of results. RESULTS: Perforin-positive γδ-cells revealed significant differences between groups (p = 0.017), especially between the Control group and the oOSA (p-value = 0.04); the remaining SRBD groups also showed differences from the control (C vs UAR: p = 0.08; C vs noOSA = 0.09), but they did not raise to statistical significance. There were no differences among the SRBD groups. Granzyme-B cells were decreased in SRBD patients, but the differences were not statistically significant. No additional statistical significant result was found in the other investigated lymphocyte subsets. CONCLUSIONS: Obstructive sleep-disordered breathing is associated with a decrease in perforin-positive CD3 γδ-T cells. Although this finding was detected in lean patients without intermittent hypoxia, the reduction was only statistically significant in obese patients with severe OSA. Because CD3 γδ-T cells play an important role in the control of tumor cells, our findings are directly relevant for the study of the association of OSA and cancer.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1007/s11325-017-1602-6

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[PMID]: 29225322
[Au] Autor:Masuda N; Mantani Y; Yoshitomi C; Yuasa H; Nishida M; Arai M; Kawano J; Yokoyama T; Hoshi N; Kitagawa H
[Ad] Address:Laboratory of Histophysiology, Department of Bioresource Science, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 657-8501, Japan.
[Ti] Title:Immunohistochemical study on the secretory host defense system with lysozyme and secretory phospholipase A2 throughout rat respiratory tract.
[So] Source:J Vet Med Sci;80(2):323-332, 2018 Mar 02.
[Is] ISSN:1347-7439
[Cp] Country of publication:Japan
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The host defense system with lysozyme and secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) was immunohistochemically investigated in rat respiratory tract under healthy conditions. In the nasal epithelium, a large number of non-ciliated and non-microvillous cells (NC) and a small number of goblet cells (GC) were immunopositive for lysozyme and sPLA2. A few acinar cells and almost all epithelial cells of intercalated ducts were immunopositive for both bactericidal substances in the nasal glands. In the laryngeal and tracheal epithelia, few NC and GC were immunopositive for both bactericidal substances. In the laryngeal and tracheal glands, a few acinar cells and most ductal epithelial cells were immunopositive for both bactericidal substances. In extra-pulmonary bronchus, small numbers of NC and GC were immunopositive for lysozyme and sPLA2, whereas few NC and no GC were immunopositive in the intra-pulmonary bronchus. No secretory source of either bactericidal substance was located in the bronchioles. In the alveolus, many glandular epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages were immunopositive for lysozyme but immunonegative for sPLA2. Moreover, lysozyme and sPLA2 were detected in the mucus layer and in the periciliary layer from the nose to the extra-pulmonary bronchus. These findings suggest that secretory sources of lysozyme and sPLA2 are distributed in almost all the respiratory tract. Their secretory products are probably transported to the pharynx and contribute to form the first line of defense against inhaled bacteria throughout the respiratory tract.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1292/jvms.17-0503

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[PMID]: 29523532
[Au] Autor:Amin AN; Bollu V; Stensland MD; Netzer L; Ganapathy V
[Ad] Address:Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA anamin@uci.edu.
[Ti] Title:Treatment patterns for patients hospitalized with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
[So] Source:Am J Health Syst Pharm;75(6):359-366, 2018 Mar 15.
[Is] ISSN:1535-2900
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:PURPOSE: Medication treatment patterns for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in inpatient settings were examined, as were the characteristics of patients treated with long-acting bronchodilators (LABDs) during hospitalization. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted using inpatient administrative data from hospitals and medical centers nationwide. All patients discharged from the hospital from January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2012, who were at least 40 years of age, had a primary discharge diagnosis of COPD or a secondary diagnosis of COPD with a primary diagnosis of a respiratory condition, and treatment with a bronchodilator were included. Treatment patterns were described for inpatient use of medications, including short-acting ß-agonists (SABAs), long-acting ß-agonists (LABAs), short-acting muscarinic antagonists (SAMAs), and long-acting muscarinic antagonists. Logistic regression predicted characteristics of patients receiving LABDs. RESULTS: Only 5.5% of patients did not receive an SABA during the hospitalization: 71.7% received a single-product SABA, and 46.4% received an SABA-SAMA combination product, with some patients switching between or using SABA and SABA-SAMA combinations concurrently. Most patients (80.9%) received systemic corticosteroids, and nearly all (91.6%) were treated with antibiotics. Only 52.2% of patients received LABDs (39.3% LABAs). Patients treated with LABDs were more likely to have a primary COPD diagnosis, prior hospitalizations, spirometry use, and fewer comorbidities. CONCLUSION: A review of COPD-related inpatient admissions found that the majority of patients received the primary recommended treatments for acute exacerbations of COPD (SABAs, systemic corticosteroids, and antibiotics). However, maintenance therapy had been initiated for only about half of patients before discharge.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.2146/ajhp160979

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[PMID]: 29523516
[Au] Autor:Abid H; Khan J; Lone N
[Ad] Address:Internal Medicine, Bassett Healthcare, Cooperstown, New York, USA.
[Ti] Title:Hodgkin's Lymphoma presenting as an obstructing endobronchial mass-A rare presentation.
[So] Source:BMJ Case Rep;2018, 2018 Mar 09.
[Is] ISSN:1757-790X
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:We report a case of Hodgkin's lymphoma presenting as an endobronchial mass in a 40-year-old man with history of 8 months of non-specific symptoms like cough, fatigue and weight loss. Initially he was treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics for suspicion of pneumonia without recovery. Radiographic work-up showed cavitary consolidation of the upper lobe of the left lung, followed by bronchoscopy which showed obstructing mass of the upper lobe of the left lung mimicking primary lung carcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining of the specimen was suggestive of Hodgkin's lymphoma. The patient responded well to the chemotherapy regimen.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:In-Process

  10 / 96682 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29522373
[Au] Autor:Elstad M; O'Callaghan EL; Smith AJ; Ben-Tal A; Ramchandra R
[Ad] Address:Division of Physiology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, Norway.
[Ti] Title:Cardiorespiratory interactions in humans and animals: Rhythms for life.
[So] Source:Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol;, 2018 Mar 09.
[Is] ISSN:1522-1539
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The cardiorespiratory system exhibits oscillations from a range of sources. One of the most studied oscillations is heart rate variability, which is thought to be beneficial and can serve as an index of a healthy cardiovascular system. Heart rate variability is dampened in many diseases including depression, autoimmune diseases, hypertension and heart failure. Thus, understanding the interactions that lead to heart rate variability, and its physiological role, could help with prevention, diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. In this review we consider three types of cardiorespiratory interactions; Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia - variability in heart rate at the frequency of breathing, Cardioventilatory Coupling - synchronization between the heart beat and the onset of inspiration, and Respiratory Stroke Volume Synchronization - constant phase difference between the right and the left stroke volumes over one respiratory cycle. While the exact physiological role of these oscillations continues to be debated, the redundancies in the mechanisms responsible for its generation and its strong evolutionary conservation point to the importance of cardiorespiratory interactions. The putative mechanisms driving cardiorespiratory oscillations as well as the physiological significance of these oscillations will be reviewed. We suggest that cardiorespiratory interactions have the capacity to both dampen the variability in systemic blood flow as well as improve the efficiency of work done by the heart while maintaining physiological levels of arterial CO . Given that reduction in variability is a prognostic indicator of disease, we argue that restoration of this variability via pharmaceutical or device-based approaches may be beneficial in prolonging life.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1152/ajpheart.00701.2017


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