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[PMID]: 29520136
[Au] Autor:Savran O; Ulrik CS
[Ad] Address:Department of Respiratory Medicine, Hvidovre Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark.
[Ti] Title:Early life insults as determinants of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adult life.
[So] Source:Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis;13:683-693, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1178-2005
[Cp] Country of publication:New Zealand
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Background: Early life events may predispose to the development of chronic lung disease in adulthood. Aim: To provide an update on current knowledge of early nongenetic origins of COPD. Materials and methods: Systematic literature review was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Results: A total of 16 studies, comprising 69,365 individuals, met the predefined criteria and were included in the present review. Studies have shown that in utero tobacco exposure, low birth weight, preterm birth, and respiratory diseases, primarily asthma and pneumonia, in early childhood are associated with lung function impairment later in childhood, and by that predispose to subsequent development of COPD, although the causal association between childhood respiratory diseases and COPD has been questioned in one study. Environmental tobacco exposure has also been shown to have negative impact on lung function in childhood possibly leading to COPD in adulthood, although it is at present not possible to clearly distinguish between the impact of active and the environmental tobacco exposure on subsequent development of COPD. Conclusion: Tobacco exposure in utero and early life is a risk factor for subsequent development of COPD. Furthermore, low birth weight, lower respiratory tract infections and asthma, including wheezy bronchitis, in childhood also seem to be important determinants for later development of COPD. Early life insults may, therefore, be crucial to COPD development.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.2147/COPD.S153555

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[PMID]: 29515974
[Au] Autor:Ewan VC; Reid WDK; Shirley M; Simpson AJ; Rushton SP; Wade WG
[Ad] Address:South Tees Hospital, NHS Foundation Trust, Middlesbrough, United Kingdom.
[Ti] Title:Oropharyngeal Microbiota in Frail Older Patients Unaffected by Time in Hospital.
[So] Source:Front Cell Infect Microbiol;8:42, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:2235-2988
[Cp] Country of publication:Switzerland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Respiratory tract infections are the commonest nosocomial infections, and occur predominantly in frailer, older patients with multiple comorbidities. The oropharyngeal microbiota is the major reservoir of infection. This study explored the relative contributions of time in hospital and patient demographics to the community structure of the oropharyngeal microbiota in older patients with lower limb fracture. We collected 167 throat swabs from 53 patients (mean age 83) over 14 days after hospitalization, and analyzed these using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We calculated frailty/comorbidity indices, undertook dental examinations and collected data on respiratory tract infections. We analyzed microbial community composition using correspondence (CA) and canonical correspondence analysis. Ten patients were treated for respiratory tract infection. Microbial community structure was related to frailty, number of teeth and comorbidity on admission, with comorbidity exerting the largest effect. Time in hospital neither significantly changed alpha ( = -0.910, = 0.365) nor beta diversity (CA1 = 0.022, = 0.982; CA2 = -0.513, = 0.609) of microbial communities in patient samples. Incidence of respiratory pathogens were not associated with time in hospital ( = -0.207, = 0.837), nor with alpha diversity of the oral microbiota ( = -1.599, = 0.113). Patient characteristics at admission, rather than time in hospital, influenced the community structure of the oral microbiota.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.3389/fcimb.2018.00042

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[PMID]: 29506511
[Au] Autor:Seibt S; Gilchrist CA; Reed PW; Best EJ; Harnden A; Camargo CA; Grant CC
[Ad] Address:Paediatrics, Taranaki Base Hospital, New Plymouth, New Zealand.
[Ti] Title:Hospital readmissions with acute infectious diseases in New Zealand children < 2 years of age.
[So] Source:BMC Pediatr;18(1):98, 2018 Mar 05.
[Is] ISSN:1471-2431
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases are the leading cause of hospital admissions in young children. Hospitalisation with an infectious disease is a recurrent event for some children. Our objective was to describe risk factors for infectious disease readmission following hospital admission with an infectious disease in the first two years of life. METHODS: We performed a national cohort study of New Zealand children, born 2005-2009, with an infectious disease admission before age 24 months. Children readmitted with an infectious disease within 12 months of the first infectious disease admission were identified. Every infectious disease admission was categorised as a respiratory, enteric, skin and soft tissue, urinary or other infection. Independent associations of demographic and child health factors with infectious disease readmission were determined using multiple variable logistic regression. RESULTS: From 2005 to 2011, there were 69,902 infectious disease admissions for 46,657 children less than two years old. Of these 46,657 children, 10,205 (22%) had at least one infectious disease readmission within 12 months of their first admission. The first infectious disease admission was respiratory (54%), enteric (15%), skin or soft tissue (7%), urinary (4%) or other (20%). Risk of infectious disease readmission was increased if the first infectious disease admission was respiratory (OR = 1.87, 95% CI 1.78-1.95) but not if it was in any other infectious disease category. Risk factors for respiratory infectious disease readmission were male gender, Pacific or Maori ethnicity, greater household deprivation, presence of a complex chronic condition, or a first respiratory infectious disease admission during autumn or of ≥3 days duration. Fewer factors (younger age, male gender, presence of a complex chronic condition) were associated with enteric infection readmission. The presence of a complex chronic condition was the only factor associated with urinary tract infection readmission and none of the factors were associated with skin or soft tissue infection readmission. CONCLUSIONS: In children less than two years old, infectious disease readmission risk is increased if the first infectious disease admission is a respiratory infectious disease but not if it is another infectious disease category. Risk factors for respiratory infectious disease readmission are different from those for other infectious disease readmissions.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12887-018-1079-x

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[PMID]: 29444768
[Au] Autor:Shen X; Lu M; Feng R; Cheng J; Chai J; Xie M; Dong X; Jiang T; Wang D
[Ad] Address:School of Health Service Management, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China.
[Ti] Title:Web-Based Just-in-Time Information and Feedback on Antibiotic Use for Village Doctors in Rural Anhui, China: Randomized Controlled Trial.
[So] Source:J Med Internet Res;20(2):e53, 2018 Feb 14.
[Is] ISSN:1438-8871
[Cp] Country of publication:Canada
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Excessive use of antibiotics is very common worldwide, especially in rural China; various measures that have been used in curbing the problem have shown only marginal effects. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to test an innovative intervention that provided just-in-time information and feedback (JITIF) to village doctors on care of common infectious diseases. METHODS: The information component of JITIF consisted of a set of theory or evidence-based ingredients, including operation guideline, public commitment, and takeaway information, whereas the feedback component tells each participating doctor about his or her performance scores and percentages of antibiotic prescriptions. These ingredients were incorporated together in a synergetic way via a Web-based aid. Evaluation of JITIF adopted a randomized controlled trial design involving 24 village clinics randomized into equal control and intervention arms. Measures used included changes between baseline and endpoint (1 year after baseline) in terms of: percentages of patients with symptomatic respiratory or gastrointestinal tract infections (RTIs or GTIs) being prescribed antibiotics, delivery of essential service procedures, and patients' beliefs and knowledge about antibiotics and infection prevention. Two researchers worked as a group in collecting the data at each site clinic. One performed nonparticipative observation of the service process, while the other performed structured exit interviews about patients' beliefs and knowledge. Data analysis comprised mainly of: (1) descriptive estimations of beliefs or knowledge, practice of indicative procedures, and use of antibiotics at baseline and endpoint for intervention and control groups and (2) chi-square tests for the differences between these groups. RESULTS: A total of 1048 patients completed the evaluation, including 532 at baseline (intervention=269, control=263) and 516 at endpoint (intervention=262, control=254). Patients diagnosed with RTIs and GTIs accounted for 76.5% (407/532) and 23.5% (125/352), respectively, at baseline and 80.8% (417/532) and 19.2% (99/532) at endpoint. JITIF resulted in substantial improvement in delivery of essential service procedures (2.6%-24.8% at baseline on both arms and at endpoint on the control arm vs 88.5%-95.0% at endpoint on the intervention arm, P<.001), beliefs favoring rational antibiotics use (11.5%-39.8% at baseline on both arms and at endpoint on the control arm vs 19.8%-62.6% at endpoint on the intervention arm, P<.001) and knowledge about side effects of antibiotics (35.7% on the control arm vs 73.7% on the intervention arm, P<.001), measures for managing or preventing RTIs (39.1% vs 66.7%, P=.02), and measures for managing or preventing GTIs (46.8% vs 69.2%, P<.001). It also reduced antibiotics prescription (from 88.8%-62.3%, P<.001), and this decrease was consistent for RTIs (87.1% vs 64.3%, P<.001) and GTIs (94.7% vs 52.4%, P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: JITIF is effective in controlling antibiotics prescription at least in the short term and may provide a low-cost and sustainable solution to the widespread excessive use of antibiotics in rural China.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.2196/jmir.8922

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[PMID]: 29427710
[Au] Autor:Khan A; Saleemi MK; Ali F; Abubakar M; Hussain R; Abbas RZ; Khan IA
[Ad] Address:Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-38040, Pakistan. Electronic address: ahrar1122@uaf.edu.pk.
[Ti] Title:Pathophysiology of peste des petits ruminants in sheep (Dorper & Kajli) and goats (Boer & Beetal).
[So] Source:Microb Pathog;117:139-147, 2018 Feb 07.
[Is] ISSN:1096-1208
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Peste des petits ruminants (PPR), an economically important viral transboundary disease of small ruminants is not only prevalent in Pakistan but also in other countries where people rely on agriculture and animal products. The present study was aimed at describing the pathology and antigen localization in natural PPR infections in local (Kajli sheep; Beetal goats) as well as imported small ruminant breeds (Dorper sheep; Australian Boer goat). Morbidity and mortality rates were significantly (P < 0.001) higher in indigenous Kajli sheep (75.37 and 32.80%) and Beetal goats (81.10 and 37.24%) as compared to Dorper sheep (6.99 and 1.48%) and Australian Boer goat (5.01 and 2.23%). Affected animals exhibited high fever, severe diarrhea, abdominal pain, respiratory distress and nodular lesions on lips and nostrils. Thick mucous discharge was oozing out from nostrils. On necropsy, lungs were congested and pneumonic, with nodular and cystic appearance. Intestines were hemorrhagic with zebra stripping. Characteristic histopathological lesions of PPR were noted in intestines, lymphoid organs and lungs. In GI tract, stunting and blunting of villi, necrotic enteritis, and infiltration of mononuclear cells in duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Small intestines exhibited diffuse edema of the submucosa along with proliferation of fibrocytes leading to thickened submucosa which has not been reported previously. Lymphoid organs showed partial to complete destruction of lymphoid follicles. Lesions of the respiratory tract included depictive of bronchopneumonia, severe congestion of trachea and apical lobe of lungs with deposition of fibrinous materials. Histopathological lesions of respiratory tract were severe and characteristic of broncho-interstitial pneumonia, bronchopneumonia, interstitial pneumonia and fibrinous pneumonia. The alveoli were filled with edematous fluid mixed with fibrinous exudate, numerous alveolar macrophages, mononuclear cells along with thickened interalveolar septa and presence of intranuclear eosinophilic inclusion bodies. One-Step RT-PCR using NP3 and NP4 primers confirmed a PPR virus of 352 bp size in spleen, lungs and mesenteric and brachial lymph node samples. It was concluded that morbidity and mortality due to PPR were significantly higher in indigenous breeds of sheep and goat as compared to imported sheep and goat breeds. PPR has rendered various lesions in GI and respiratory tract which are characteristic in nature for the diagnosis of the disease under field condition.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  6 / 52393 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29402475
[Au] Autor:Vandroux D; Allou N; Jabot J; Li Pat Yuen G; Brottet E; Roquebert B; Martinet O
[Ad] Address:Service de réanimation polyvalente, hôpital Félix-Guyon, CHU La-Réunion, allée des topazes, CS11021, 97400 Saint-Denis-de-La-Réunion, France; CHU La-Réunion, Inserm, CIC 1410, 97410 Saint-Pierre, France. Electronic address: vandroux.david@gmail.com.
[Ti] Title:Intensive care admission for Coronavirus OC43 respiratory tract infections.
[So] Source:Med Mal Infect;48(2):141-144, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1769-6690
[Cp] Country of publication:France
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Coronavirus OC43 infection causes severe pneumonia in patients presenting with comorbidities, but clinical signs alone do not allow for viral identification. OBJECTIVES: To analyze acute manifestations of Coronavirus OC43 infections and outcomes of patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective and monocentric study performed during a Coronavirus OC43 outbreak. We used multiplex PCR to detect an OC43 outbreak in Reunion Island during the 2016 Southern Hemisphere's winter: seven admissions to the ICU. RESULTS: Mean age of patients was 71 [67;76] years, SAPS II was 42 [28;53], pneumonia severity index 159 [139;182] vs 73 [40.5;107] for patients in medical wards, and 43% required mechanical ventilation. Comorbidities were diabetes mellitus (87%), chronic respiratory failure (57%), and chronic renal failure (29%). One patient died from Haemophilus influenzae co-infection. CONCLUSION: As for MERS Co-V infections, underlying comorbidities impacted the clinical outcomes of OC43 infections.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:In-Process

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[PMID]: 29377913
[Au] Autor:Zhang SF; Tuo JL; Huang XB; Zhu X; Zhang DM; Zhou K; Yuan L; Luo HJ; Zheng BJ; Yuen KY; Li MF; Cao KY; Xu L
[Ad] Address:Department of Microbiology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China.
[Ti] Title:Epidemiology characteristics of human coronaviruses in patients with respiratory infection symptoms and phylogenetic analysis of HCoV-OC43 during 2010-2015 in Guangzhou.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0191789, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Human coronavirus (HCoV) is one of the most common causes of respiratory tract infection throughout the world. To investigate the epidemiological and genetic variation of HCoV in Guangzhou, south China, we collected totally 13048 throat and nasal swab specimens from adults and children with fever and acute upper respiratory infection symptoms in Gunazhou, south China between July 2010 and June 2015, and the epidemiological features of HCoV and its species were studied. Specimens were screened for HCoV by real-time RT-PCR, and 7 other common respiratory viruses were tested simultaneously by PCR or real-time PCR. HCoV was detected in 294 cases (2.25%) of the 13048 samples, with most of them inpatients (251 cases, 85.4% of HCoV positive cases) and young children not in nursery (53.06%, 156 out of 294 HCoV positive cases). Four HCoVs, as OC43, 229E, NL63 and HKU1 were detected prevalent during 2010-2015 in Guangzhou, and among the HCoV positive cases, 60.20% were OC43, 16.67% were 229E, 14.97% were NL63 and 7.82% were HKU1. The month distribution showed that totally HCoV was prevalent in winter, but differences existed in different species. The 5 year distribution of HCoV showed a peak-valley distribution trend, with the detection rate higher in 2011 and 2013 whereas lower in 2010, 2012 and 2014. The age distribution revealed that children (especially those <3 years old) and old people (>50 years) were both high risk groups to be infected by HCoV. Of the 294 HCoV positive patients, 34.69% (101 cases) were co-infected by other common respiratory viruses, and influenza virus was the most common co-infecting virus (30/101, 29.70%). Fifteen HCoV-OC43 positive samples of 2013-2014 were selected for S gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, and the results showed that the 15 strains could be divided into 2 clusters in the phylogenetic tree, 12 strains of which formed a separate cluster that was closer to genotype G found in Malaysia. It was revealed for the first time that genotype B and genotype G of HCoV-OC43 co-circulated and the newly defined genotype G was epidemic as a dominant genotype during 2013-2014 in Guanzhou, south China.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Coronavirus/isolation & purification
Phylogeny
Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: China/epidemiology
Coronavirus/classification
Coronavirus/pathogenicity
Humans
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:180130
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0191789

  8 / 52393 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29521617
[Au] Autor:Mohapatra DP; Singh SK; Sahoo M; Patole S; Mishra M; Debata NK; Mohapatra H
[Ad] Address:1​Department of Microbiology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Kalinga Nagar, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.
[Ti] Title:Retrospective study on clonal relationship of multidrug-resistant Klebsiella spp. indicates closed circulation and initiation of clonal divergence.
[So] Source:J Med Microbiol;, 2018 Mar 09.
[Is] ISSN:1473-5644
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:PURPOSE: Antibiotic resistance patterns often exhibit geographical variations. Periodic analyses of resistance spectra and phylogenetic trends are important guides for facilitating judicious use of therapeutic interventions. The present study retrospectively analysed the infection trends, resistance patterns, and clonal relationships between isolates of Klebsiella spp. from a tertiary care hospital. METHODOLOGY: Bacterial isolates were collected from January 2013 to June 2014 and their resistance profiles were identified using an automated bacterial identification system. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using housekeeping genes with Molecular Evolutionary Genetic Analysis software. The dN/dS ratio was determined by the Synonymous Non-synonymous Analysis Program while polymorphic sites, and the difference per site was calculated using DNA Sequence Polymorphism software. Statistical Package for Social Science software was used to perform all statistical analyses. KEY FINDINGS: The results of this study indicated the prevalence of community-acquired urinary tract and lower respiratory tract infections caused by Klebsiella spp. among geriatric patients. The occurrence of new allelic profiles, a low dN/dS ratio and the lack of strong evolutionary descent between isolates indicated that mutations play a major role in the evolution of the organism. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study highlight the consequences of antimicrobial agents exerting a silent and strong selective force on the evolution of Klebsiella spp. The expansion of such analyses is of great importance for addressing rapidly emerging antibiotic-resistant opportunistic pathogens.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1099/jmm.0.000715

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[PMID]: 29519906
[Au] Autor:Bos LD
[Ad] Address:Dept of Respiratory Medicine, Academic Medical Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands l.d.bos@amc.uva.nl.
[Ti] Title:Contrary to popular belief, ventilator-associated lower respiratory tract infections are less common in immunocompromised patients.
[So] Source:Eur Respir J;51(3), 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1399-3003
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Pt] Publication type:EDITORIAL
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  10 / 52393 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29518828
[Au] Autor:Yu G; Wang WJ; Liu DR; Tao ZF; Hui XY; Hou J; Sun JQ; Wang XC
[Ad] Address:Department of Clinical Immunology, Children's Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai 201102, China.
[Ti] Title:[Clinical characteristics of human recombination activating gene 1 mutations in 8 immunodeficiency patients with diverse phenotypes].
[So] Source:Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi;56(3):186-191, 2018 Mar 02.
[Is] ISSN:0578-1310
[Cp] Country of publication:China
[La] Language:chi
[Ab] Abstract:To investigate the clinical characteristics of 8 immunodeficiency cases caused by human recombination activating gene 1 (RAG1) mutations, and to explore the relationship among genotypes, clinical manifestations and immunophenotypes. Clinical data were collected and analyzed from patients with RAG1 mutations who visited the Department of Clinical Immunology, Children's Hospital of Fudan University between October 2013 and June 2017. The data included clinical manifestations, immunophenotypes and genotypes. A total of 8 patients were diagnosed with RAG1 deficiency (6 boys and 2 girls). The minimum age of onset was 2 months, and the maximum age was 4 months. The minimum age of diagnosis was 2 months, and the maximum age was 13 years. Four patients had a family history of infant death due to severe infections. Two cases were born to the same consanguineous parents. All cases had recurrent infections, including involvement of respiratory tract (8 cases), digestive tract (6 cases), urinary tract (1 case), and central nervous system (1 case). The pathogens of infection included bacteria, viruses and fungi. Rotavirus was found in 3 cases, cytomegalovirus (CMV) in 5 cases, bacillus Calmette-Guérin adverse reaction in 2 cases (1 of whom had a positive acid-fast smear from lymph node puncture fluid), fungal infection in 3 cases. One case had multiple nodular space-occupying lesions in lungs and abdominal cavity complicated with multiple bone destruction. The peripheral blood lymphocyte counts of all patients ranged between 0.1 ×10(9)/L and 3.3×10(9)/L (median, 0.65×10(9)/L). Eosinophilia was found in 3 cases (range, (0.48-1.69) ×10(9)/L). The patients were classified according to immunophenotype as severe combined immunodeficiency phenotype (4 cases), leaky severe combined immunodeficiency (2 cases), Omenn syndrome (1 case) and combined immunodeficiency (1 case) . Decreased serum IgG levels were found in 3 cases, increased serum IgM levels in 3 cases, increased serum IgE levels in 5 cases. RAG1 homozygous mutations were detected in 5 cases and RAG1 compound heterozygous mutations in 3 cases. Two novel mutations and six previously reported mutations were identified. Three cases were successfully treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Four cases died due to infections, and the 13 year-old patient was still under follow-up in the outpatient clinic. Different RAG1 gene mutations can lead to diverse clinical presentations and immune phenotypes. Clinicians should pay attention to the family history of infant death with severe infection. In that situation, immunological evaluation and gene detection should be performed as early as possible.
[Pt] Publication type:ENGLISH ABSTRACT; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.3760/cma.j.issn.0578-1310.2018.03.007


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