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[PMID]: 26033580
[Au] Autor:Bushmanova GM; Zorina IG; Nikityuk DB; Nepomnyashchikh RD; Lapii GA; Postnikova OA; Semenov DE
[Ad] Address:Research Institute of Regional Pathology and Pathomorphology, Siberian Division of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia, pathol@inbox.ru.
[Ti] Title:Mitral and Aortic Valvulitis in Primary Chronic Septic Endocarditis.
[So] Source:Bull Exp Biol Med;159(1):16-9, 2015 May.
[Is] ISSN:1573-8221
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Results of long-term prospective follow-up of patients with early stages of mitral and aortic valvulitis and primary chronic septic endocarditic are presented. Clinical diagnostics of the diseases is described and the key role is assigned to pathognomic (absolute) clinical symptoms. The tendency to progressive fibrosis of endocardial structures with subsequent gradual development of valve dysfunction and stenosis (especially for the mitral valve) is revealed. It is shown that early treatment increases the effective valve area and promotes reversion of mitral stenosis. The possibility of early diagnostics of primary chronic septic endocarditis in combination with adequate etiopathogenetic therapy provide the basis for prevention of acquired valvular disease.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Aortic Valve Stenosis/etiology
Aortic Valve/pathology
Endocarditis/complications
Mitral Valve Stenosis/etiology
Mitral Valve/pathology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adult
Aortic Valve Stenosis/pathology
Babesiosis/complications
Bacterial Infections/complications
Chronic Disease
Disease Progression
Endocarditis/diagnosis
Endocarditis/microbiology
Female
Fibrosis
Follow-Up Studies
Herpesviridae Infections/complications
Humans
Male
Mitral Valve Stenosis/pathology
Physical Examination
Prospective Studies
Rubivirus Infections/complications
Rubivirus Infections/epidemiology
Symptom Assessment
Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency/etiology
Tricuspid Valve Insufficiency/pathology
Young Adult
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1603
[Cu] Class update date: 150609
[Lr] Last revision date:150609
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:150603
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s10517-015-2878-9

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[PMID]: 22332308
[Au] Autor:Stock I
[Ad] Address:Institut für Medizinische Mikrobiologie, Immunologie. und Parasitologie, Abteilung Pharmazeutische Mikrobiologie, Universität Bonn, Meckenheimer Allee 168, 53115 Bonn. Ingo_Stock@web.de
[Ti] Title:Röteln (Rubella). Noch immer eine bedeutende Infektionskrankheit. [Rubella (German measles)--still a major infectious disease].
[So] Source:Med Monatsschr Pharm;35(1):14-22; quiz 23-4, 2012 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:0342-9601
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:ger
[Ab] Abstract:Rubella viruses are single-stranded ribonucleic acid viruses, which are surrounded by a lipid-containing membrane. From the taxonomic point of view, these serologically uniform viruses belong to the family of Togaviridae, and to the genus Rubivirus. After birth, infection with rubella virus occurs through inhalation of contaminated droplets. In children infected after birth, rubella viruses usually cause uncomplicated diseases that are associated with an unspecific rash (postnatal rubella). Rubella virus infections in adults might be more severe and can be accompanied by complications such as joint pain and inflammation in the joints. Rubella virus infection during pregnancy can lead to the infection of the fetus. In the first and second trimester of pregnancy, fetal rubella infection often lead to severe abnormalities of the newborn, which are summarized as rubella embryopathy or congenital rubella syndrome. One of these disorders, the Gregg syndrome, is associated with serious damage to heart, ears and eyes of the newborn. Therefore, in suspected cases of rubella virus infection during pregnancy, or after contact of a pregnant woman with an infected person, a serological diagnosis must be performed. The diagnosis of an acute rubella virus infection usually consists of the detection of rubella-specific IgM. Critical to avoiding a rubella virus infection is the immune prophylaxis, for which a live attenuated vaccine, usually given as trivalent vaccine against measles, mumps and rubella (MMR vaccine), is available. Since the introduction of the rubella vaccination in the 1970s, in many areas of the world the number of rubella diseases has declined dramatically. Nevertheless, rubella is still widespread in some countries, and still occurs in Germany. Postnatal rubella virus infections can be treated symptomatically. A specific (antiviral) therapy is not available.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Rubella/prevention & control
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adult
Child
Female
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications, Infectious
Rubella/epidemiology
Rubella/virology
Rubella Syndrome, Congenital
Rubella Vaccine/therapeutic use
Rubella virus
[Pt] Publication type:ENGLISH ABSTRACT; JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Rubella Vaccine)
[Em] Entry month:1203
[Cu] Class update date: 120215
[Lr] Last revision date:120215
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:120216
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 22916568
[Au] Autor:Mori Y; Otsuki N; Sakata M; Okamoto K
[Ad] Address:Department of Virology III, National Institute of Infectious Diseases. yoshiom@nih.go.jp
[Ti] Title:[Virology of the family Togaviridae].
[So] Source:Uirusu;61(2):211-9, 2011 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:0042-6857
[Cp] Country of publication:Japan
[La] Language:jpn
[Ab] Abstract:Many pathogens important for medicine, veterinary medicine or public health belong to the genera alphavirus and rubivirus within the family Togaviridae. 29 species of alphaviruses have been reported, and most of them are arboviruses. Chikungnya virus re-emerged in Kenya in 2004 and the epidemics spread to the Indian Ocean islands and many countries in South Asia, South-East Asia and Europe. On the other hand, rubella virus, a sole member of the genus rubivirus, is the causative agent of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Because human is only a natural host of the virus and effective live attenuated vaccines are available, immunization activities are strengthened globally to eliminate rubella and CRS, together with measles.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Togaviridae Infections/virology
Togaviridae
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Alphavirus/genetics
Alphavirus/pathogenicity
Alphavirus/physiology
Alphavirus Infections/epidemiology
Alphavirus Infections/virology
Chikungunya Fever
Chikungunya virus/pathogenicity
Disease Outbreaks
Genome, Viral
Humans
Rubella/prevention & control
Rubella/virology
Rubella Syndrome, Congenital/prevention & control
Rubella Syndrome, Congenital/virology
Rubella Vaccine
Rubella virus/genetics
Rubella virus/pathogenicity
Togaviridae/genetics
Togaviridae/pathogenicity
Togaviridae/physiology
Virus Release
[Pt] Publication type:ENGLISH ABSTRACT; JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Rubella Vaccine)
[Em] Entry month:1211
[Cu] Class update date: 141120
[Lr] Last revision date:141120
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:120825
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 22019669
[Au] Autor:Chaari A; Berrajah L; Bahloul M; Bouaziz M
[Ti] Title:Rubella encephalitis.
[So] Source:Neurol India;59(5):766-7, 2011 Sep-Oct.
[Is] ISSN:0028-3886
[Cp] Country of publication:India
[La] Language:eng
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Rubella virus/pathogenicity
Rubivirus Infections/physiopathology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adult
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Humans
Immunoglobulin M/blood
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Male
Rubivirus Infections/blood
Rubivirus Infections/diagnosis
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Viral Proteins/blood
Viral Proteins/immunology
[Pt] Publication type:CASE REPORTS; LETTER
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Immunoglobulin M); 0 (Viral Proteins)
[Em] Entry month:1201
[Cu] Class update date: 111024
[Lr] Last revision date:111024
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:111025
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.86559

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[PMID]: 16022642
[Au] Autor:Edlich RF; Winters KL; Long WB; Gubler KD
[Ad] Address:Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Plastic Surgery and Biomedical Engineering, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA. richardedlichmd@gmail.com
[Ti] Title:Rubella and congenital rubella (German measles).
[So] Source:J Long Term Eff Med Implants;15(3):319-28, 2005.
[Is] ISSN:1050-6934
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Rubella, also known as German measles, is usually a very mild infection that can have devastating effects in certain instances. It is a pleomorphic RNA virus in the Togaviridae family of the genus Rubivirus. It typically causes a scarletiniform rash, cervical lymphadenopathy, and mild constitutional symptoms, but in older children and adults, especially women, it may be more severe, with joint involvement and purpuric rash. Infection during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy results in congenital infection and/or miscarriage in 80-90% of cases. The congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) involves multiple organ systems and has a long period of active infection and virus shedding in the postnatal period. For these reasons, the rubella vaccine program was instituted in 1969, and the incidence of rubella infection in the United States has since declined by 99%. Rubella has been recognized as a disease for approximately 200 years, and it has since been found that humans are the only natural reservoir for the rubella virus. Virus is present in nasopharyngeal secretions, blood, feces, and urine during the clinical illness, although patients with subclinical disease are also infectious. The virus is spread via oral droplets and is shed in the nasopharynx for approximately 7 days before and after the rash is visible. CRS includes a configuration of anomalies, including nerve deafness, cataracts, cardiac anomalies (usually pulmonary artery and valvular stenosis, and patent ductus arteriosis), and mental retardation, with late complications including diabetes, thyroid disease, growth hormone deficiency, and progressive panencephalitis. In 1969, the first rubella vaccine was licensed for use, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) began its National Congenital Rubella Syndrome Registry. As required under the National Childhood Injury Act, all healthcare providers in the United States who administer any vaccine shall, prior to administration of the vaccine, provide a copy of the Vaccine Information Statements (VIS) produced by the CDC to the parent or legal representative of any child to whom the provider intends to administer such vaccine, or to any adult to whom the provider intends to administer such vaccine. Despite efforts to vaccinate children, CRS continues to occur in the United States. Hispanic infants have an increased risk of CRS. HIV-1infected children with a preserved immune system and MMR immunization had a good response to rubella vaccine. In contrast, those in more advanced categories for HIV infection responded poorly. Issues of risk, choice, and chance are central to the controversy over the MMR vaccine that erupted in the UK in 1998, and has continued into the new millennium. An important contribution to the MMR controversy has come from the parents of autistic children, some of whom reject the notion that this disorder is a random genetic misfortune and insist that it is, at least in part, the result of some environmental insult, such as MMR vaccinations.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Rubella Syndrome, Congenital
Rubella Vaccine
Rubella virus
Rubella
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Child
Child, Preschool
Female
HIV Infections/complications
Humans
Immunization
Infant, Newborn
Male
Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine
Pregnancy
Risk
Rubella/epidemiology
Rubella/prevention & control
Rubella Syndrome, Congenital/epidemiology
Rubella Syndrome, Congenital/prevention & control
United States/epidemiology
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine); 0 (Rubella Vaccine)
[Em] Entry month:0509
[Cu] Class update date: 051116
[Lr] Last revision date:051116
[Js] Journal subset:T
[Da] Date of entry for processing:050719
[St] Status:MEDLINE

  6 / 8 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 12569781
[Au] Autor:Gong Z; Luo L; Xiao H
[Ad] Address:Institute of Virology, Hubei Academy of Medical Sciences, Wuhan 430079.
[Ti] Title:[Preliminary study on ToRCH epidemic laws in Wuhan region].
[So] Source:Zhonghua Shi Yan He Lin Chuang Bing Du Xue Za Zhi;13(2):139-41, 1999 Jun 30.
[Is] ISSN:1003-9279
[Cp] Country of publication:China
[La] Language:chi
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE: To investigate the ToRCH epidemic law in Wuhan region. METHODS: The ToRCH infection in the normal populations of Wuhan region was inspected through a whole year (from Mar. 1997 to Feb. 1998) by detecting the specific IgM antibodies to ToRCH in sera. RESULTS: The results showed that in the whole year, the average positive rates of IgM aitibodies to Toxo, RuV, CMV and HSV were 5.8%, 7.5%, 4.2% and 4.9% respectively. Three characteristics of the ToRCH epidemic in the region were concluded: (1) The epidemic of RuV obviously changed with seasons. Its infection rates were the highest (8.5%, 19.5%, 14.0%) during spring (March, April and May). However, the changes of Toxo, CMV and HSV were not obvious with seasons; (2). The adult infections were mainly recessive, which had no apparent clinical symptoms; (3) The cross infections of the four pathogens were common, the cross-reaction rate of the surveyed year was 2.6%. CONCLUSIONS: RuV infection of pregnant woman may result in congenital malformation of the emlbryo. Accoroding to the seasonal epidemic characteristics of RuV, women in pregnancy had better not to go to the public places during the sping seasons (March, April, May) as far as possible.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Cytomegalovirus Infections/epidemiology
Herpes Simplex/epidemiology
Rubella/epidemiology
Toxoplasmosis/epidemiology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adult
Animals
Antibodies, Protozoan/blood
Antibodies, Viral/blood
China/epidemiology
Cytomegalovirus/immunology
Female
Humans
Immunoglobulin M/blood
Male
Rubivirus/immunology
Seroepidemiologic Studies
Simplexvirus/immunology
Toxoplasma/immunology
[Pt] Publication type:ENGLISH ABSTRACT; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Antibodies, Protozoan); 0 (Antibodies, Viral); 0 (Immunoglobulin M)
[Em] Entry month:0304
[Cu] Class update date: 061115
[Lr] Last revision date:061115
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:030207
[St] Status:MEDLINE

  7 / 8 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 1616976
[Au] Autor:Benfield DA; Nelson E; Collins JE; Harris L; Goyal SM; Robison D; Christianson WT; Morrison RB; Gorcyca D; Chladek D
[Ad] Address:Department of Veterinary Science, South Dakota State University, Brookings 57007.
[Ti] Title:Characterization of swine infertility and respiratory syndrome (SIRS) virus (isolate ATCC VR-2332).
[So] Source:J Vet Diagn Invest;4(2):127-33, 1992 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1040-6387
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The characterization of an isolate of swine infertility and respiratory syndrome (SIRS) virus (ATCC VR-2332) is reported. A commercial cell line (CL2621) was used for the propagation of the virus for all assays. Laboratory studies indicate that this isolate is a fastidious, nonhemagglutinating, enveloped RNA virus. Cesium chloride-purified virions visualized by electron microscopy were spherical particles with an average diameter of 62 nm (range: 48-83 nm) and a 25-30 nm core surrounded by an envelope. Virus replication was restricted to the cytoplasm, as demonstrated by immunofluorescence. The virus did not react serologically with antisera to several common porcine viruses or with antisera to known viruses in the alphavirus, rubivirus, pestivirus, and ungrouped lactic dehydrogenase virus genera of the Togaviridae. However, convalescent sow sera and rabbit hyperimmune sera neutralized the SIRS virus at titers of 1:256 and 1:512, respectively. The virus was stable at 4 and -70 C, but was labile at 37 and 56 C. The properties of this isolate of SIRS virus resemble those of the family Togaviridae but do not match the described genera.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Infertility, Female/veterinary
RNA Viruses/physiology
Respiratory Tract Infections/veterinary
Swine Diseases/microbiology
Virus Diseases/veterinary
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral
Female
Fluorescent Antibody Technique
Hemagglutination, Viral
Infertility, Female/microbiology
Microscopy, Electron
RNA Viruses/classification
RNA Viruses/ultrastructure
Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology
Swine
Syndrome
Temperature
Virus Diseases/microbiology
Virus Replication
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Entry month:9207
[Cu] Class update date: 170214
[Lr] Last revision date:170214
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:920401
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 2999027
[Au] Autor:Westaway EG; Brinton MA; Gaidamovich SYa; Horzinek MC; Igarashi A; Kääriäinen L; Lvov DK; Porterfield JS; Russell PK; Trent DW
[Ti] Title:Togaviridae.
[So] Source:Intervirology;24(3):125-39, 1985.
[Is] ISSN:0300-5526
[Cp] Country of publication:Switzerland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The family Togaviridae comprises four genera: Alphavirus (with 26 species), Rubivirus (one species), Pestivirus (three species), and Arterivirus (one species). The main characteristics of the member viruses are: (i) the virus particles are spherical, 50-70 nm in diameter, including an envelope with surface projections that incorporate two or three polypeptides, usually glycosylated; (ii) the nucleocapsid comprises a core protein and a single strand of positive-sense RNA, molecular weight about 4 X 10(6); where characterized, the RNA has an m7G 'cap' at the 5' end and is polyadenylated at the 3' end; (iii) maturation occurs by budding of spherical nucleocapsids 30-35 nm in diameter, with proven or presumed icosahedral symmetry, through cytoplasmic membranes. Where characterized, translation of structural proteins occurs on subgenomic messenger RNA(s); these appear to represent the 3' end of the genome. Nearly all alphavirus species are transmitted by mosquitoes. Transmission also occurs transovarially (Alphavirus) or transplacentally (Rubivirus and Pestivirus). Members of a genus are serologically related, but are not related to members of other genera.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Togaviridae/classification
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Alphavirus/classification
Animals
Antigens, Viral
Flavivirus/classification
Genes, Viral
Pestivirus/classification
Species Specificity
Togaviridae/metabolism
Togaviridae/ultrastructure
Togaviridae Infections/transmission
Viral Proteins/metabolism
Virus Replication
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Antigens, Viral); 0 (Viral Proteins)
[Em] Entry month:8601
[Cu] Class update date: 031114
[Lr] Last revision date:031114
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:850101
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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