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[PMID]: 29478125
[Au] Autor:Ferreira PG; Ferraz AC; Figueiredo JE; Lima CF; Rodrigues VG; Taranto AG; Ferreira JMS; Brandão GC; Vieira-Filho SA; Duarte LP; de Brito Magalhães CL; de Magalhães JC
[Ad] Address:Departamento de Química, Biotecnologia e Engenharia de Bioprocessos, Universidade Federal de São João del-Rei, Campus Alto Paraopeba, Rodovia MG 443, Km7, Ouro Branco, MG, 36420-000, Brazil.
[Ti] Title:Detection of the antiviral activity of epicatechin isolated from Salacia crassifolia (Celastraceae) against Mayaro virus based on protein C homology modelling and virtual screening.
[So] Source:Arch Virol;, 2018 Feb 24.
[Is] ISSN:1432-8798
[Cp] Country of publication:Austria
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Mayaro fever, caused by Mayaro virus (MAYV) is a sub-lethal disease with symptoms that are easily confused with those of dengue fever, except for polyarthralgia, which may culminate in physical incapacitation. Recently, outbreaks of MAYV have been documented in metropolitan areas, and to date, there is no therapy or vaccine available. Moreover, there is no information regarding the three-dimensional structure of the viral proteins of MAYV, which is important in the search for antivirals. In this work, we constructed a three-dimensional model of protein C of MAYV by homology modelling, and this was employed in a manner similar to that of receptors in virtual screening studies to evaluate 590 molecules as prospective antiviral agents. In vitro bioassays were utilized to confirm the potential antiviral activity of the flavonoid epicatechin isolated from Salacia crassifolia (Celastraceae). The virtual screening showed that six flavonoids were promising ligands for protein C. The bioassays showed potent antiviral action of epicatechin, which protected the cells from almost all of the effects of viral infection. An effective concentration (EC ) of 0.247 µmol/mL was observed with a selectivity index (SI) of 7. The cytotoxicity assay showed that epicatechin has low toxicity, with a 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC ) greater than 1.723 µmol/mL. Epicatechin was found to be twice as potent as the reference antiviral ribavirin. Furthermore, a replication kinetics assay showed a strong inhibitory effect of epicatechin on MAYV growth, with a reduction of at least four logs in virus production. Our results indicate that epicatechin is a promising candidate for further testing as an antiviral agent against Mayaro virus and other alphaviruses.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180225
[Lr] Last revision date:180225
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00705-018-3774-1

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[PMID]: 29223569
[Au] Autor:Singh AK; Raj V; Keshari AK; Rai A; Kumar P; Rawat A; Maity B; Kumar D; Prakash A; De A; Samanta A; Bhattacharya B; Saha S
[Ad] Address:Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Vidya Vihar, Raebareli Road, Lucknow 226025, Uttar Pradesh, India.
[Ti] Title:Isolated mangiferin and naringenin exert antidiabetic effect via PPAR /GLUT4 dual agonistic action with strong metabolic regulation.
[So] Source:Chem Biol Interact;280:33-44, 2018 Jan 25.
[Is] ISSN:1872-7786
[Cp] Country of publication:Ireland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:In this study, we isolated two compounds from the leaves of Salacia oblonga (SA1, mangiferin and SA2, naringenin), and their structures were confirmed by infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. SA1 and SA2 were orally administered to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats at 50 and 100 mg/kg daily for 15 days. Blood glucose level, serum lipid profile, oxidative stress parameters, histopathology, docking, molecular parameters, and NMR-based metabolic perturbation studies were performed to investigate the pharmacological activities of SA1 and SA2. Results suggested that both compounds reduced blood glucose level, restored body weight, and normalized lipid concentrations in the serum and oxidative stress biomarkers in the liver and pancreas. In addition, the docking study on several diabetes-associated targets revealed that both compounds had a strong binding affinity towards peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR ) and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4). Further real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses were performed to confirm the gene and protein expression levels of PPAR and GLUT4 in the pancreatic tissues. Data obtained from the molecular studies showed that both compounds exhibited antidiabetic effects through dual activation of PPAR /GLUT4 signaling pathways. Finally, the NMR-based metabolic studies showed that both compounds normalized the diabetogenic metabolites in the serum. Altogether, we concluded that SA1 and SA2 might be potential antidiabetic lead compounds for future drug development.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Flavanones/pharmacology
Glucose Transporter Type 4/metabolism
Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology
PPAR gamma/metabolism
Xanthones/pharmacology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Blood Glucose/analysis
Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/chemically induced
Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy
Flavanones/isolation & purification
Flavanones/therapeutic use
Glucose Transporter Type 4/agonists
Glucose Transporter Type 4/genetics
Glycogen/metabolism
Hypoglycemic Agents/isolation & purification
Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use
Insulin/blood
Lipids/blood
Liver/drug effects
Liver/metabolism
Liver/pathology
Male
Molecular Docking Simulation
Oxidative Stress/drug effects
PPAR gamma/agonists
PPAR gamma/genetics
Pancreas/drug effects
Pancreas/metabolism
Pancreas/pathology
Protein Structure, Tertiary
Rats
Salacia/chemistry
Salacia/metabolism
Signal Transduction/drug effects
Streptozocin/toxicity
Xanthones/isolation & purification
Xanthones/therapeutic use
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Blood Glucose); 0 (Flavanones); 0 (Glucose Transporter Type 4); 0 (Hypoglycemic Agents); 0 (Insulin); 0 (Lipids); 0 (PPAR gamma); 0 (Xanthones); 1M84LD0UMD (mangiferin); 5W494URQ81 (Streptozocin); 9005-79-2 (Glycogen); HN5425SBF2 (naringenin)
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180129
[Lr] Last revision date:180129
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:171211
[St] Status:MEDLINE

  3 / 176 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29189010
[Au] Autor:Ishikawa F; Jinno K; Kinouchi E; Ninomiya K; Marumoto S; Xie W; Muraoka O; Morikawa T; Tanabe G
[Ti] Title:Diastereoselective Synthesis of Salacinol-Type α-Glucosidase Inhibitors.
[So] Source:J Org Chem;83(1):185-193, 2018 Jan 05.
[Is] ISSN:1520-6904
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:A facile and highly diastereoselective approach toward the synthesis of potent salacinol-type α-glucosidase inhibitors, originally isolated from plants of the genus "Salacia", was developed using the S-alkylation of thiosugars with epoxides in HFIP (∼90%, dr, α/ß = ∼ 26/1). The dr ratio of the product was significantly improved by the protocol as compared to that of the conventional S-alkylation of thiosugars (dr, α/ß = ∼ 8/1). The protocol could be used for gram scale synthesis of the desired compounds. The 3'-O-benzylated salacinol analogs, which are the most potent in vitro inhibitors to date, were synthesized and evaluated in vivo; all analogs suppressed blood glucose levels in maltose-loaded mice, at levels comparable to those of the antidiabetic agent, voglibose.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 180105
[Lr] Last revision date:180105
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1021/acs.joc.7b02566

  4 / 176 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28955795
[Au] Autor:Ghadage DM; Kshirsagar PR; Pai SR; Chavan JJ
[Ad] Address:Department of Botany, Yashavantrao Chavan Institute of Science, Satara 415001, India.
[Ti] Title:Extraction efficiency, phytochemical profiles and antioxidative properties of different parts of Saptarangi ( L.) - An important underutilized plant.
[So] Source:Biochem Biophys Rep;12:79-90, 2017 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:2405-5808
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The study aimed to evaluate extraction efficiency, detection and quantification of phytochemicals, minerals and antioxidative capacity of different parts of L. Continuous shaking extraction, steam bath assisted extraction, ultrasonic extraction and microwave assisted extraction with varied time intervals were employed for extraction of phenolics, flavonoids, and antioxidants. Preliminary screening revealed the presence of wide array of metabolites along with carbohydrates and starch. Steam bath assisted extraction for 10 min exposure was found most suitable for extraction phenolics (46.02 ± 2.30 mg of gallic acid equivalent per gram of dry weight and 48.57 ± 2.42 mg of tannic acid equivalent per gram of dry weight) and flavonoids (35.26 ± 1.61 mg of quercetin equivalent per gram of dry weight and 51.60 ± 2.58 mg of ellagic acid equivalent per gram of dry weight). In support, reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography- diode array detector confirmed the presence of seven pharmaceutically important phenolic acids. Antioxidant capacity was measured by 1, 1- diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2, 2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) scavenging (ABTS) and N, N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DMPD) assays and represented as trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant capacity (AEAC). Antioxidant capacity ranged from 121.02 ± 6.05 to 1567.28 ± 78.36 µM trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and 56.62 ± 2.83 to 972.48 ± 48.62 µM ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant capacity. Roots showed higher yields of illustrated biochemical parameters, however fresh fruit pulp was found a chief source of minerals. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopic analysis revealed the presence of a vast array of phytoconstituents associated with different plant parts. The present study revealed the amounts of minerals and diverse phytoconstituents in various parts of and confirmed its medicinal and nutritional implications.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1709
[Cu] Class update date: 171001
[Lr] Last revision date:171001
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1016/j.bbrep.2017.08.012

  5 / 176 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28954013
[Au] Autor:Carneiro CC; Véras JH; Góes BRL; Pérez CN; Chen-Chen L
[Ad] Address:Departamento de Genética, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Goiás - UFG, Campus Samambaia, CEP 74001-970, Goiânia, GO, Brazil.
[Ti] Title:Mutagenicity and antimutagenicity of Salacia crassifolia (mart. Ex. Schult.) G. Don. evaluated by Ames test.
[So] Source:Braz J Biol;:0, 2017 Sep 21.
[Is] ISSN:1678-4375
[Cp] Country of publication:Brazil
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Salacia crassifolia (Mart. Ex. Schult.) G. Don. is a bush which belongs to Celastraceae family and occurs specially in Brazilian Cerrado. Its leaves, stem, seeds and fruits are popularly used for several medicinal purposes, such as antitumoral, antirheumatic, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial. In this study, the mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of S. crassifolia stem bark fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate and hydroalcoholic) were evaluated by the Ames mutagenicity assay in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains. By the obtained results, all S. crassifolia fractions did not significantly increase the number of prototrophic revertants for histidine (His+) in both S. typhimurium strains tested (p > 0.05), suggesting absence of mutagenicity. Regarding antimutagenicity, the fractions ethyl acetate and hydroalcoholic significantly decreased the number of His+ revertants colonies induced by positive control for strain TA98 (p < 0.05), demonstrating protection against mutagenicity induced by 4-nitroquinolile1-oxide, whereas the hexane fraction did not show antimutagenic effect in this strain. In the TA100 strain, all fractions of S. crassifolia protected DNA against the harmful action of sodium azide, and the hexane fraction exhibited the greatest protection in this work. Thus, it's possible conclude that the fractions of S. crassifolia tested in this study could be used in chemoprevention.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1709
[Cu] Class update date: 170927
[Lr] Last revision date:170927
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 28805670
[Au] Autor:Hao L; Schlussel Y; Fieselmann K; Schneider SH; Shapses SA
[Ad] Address:Department of Nutritional Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA. lilyhlh@gmail.com.
[Ti] Title:Appetite and Gut Hormones Response to a Putative α-Glucosidase Inhibitor, Salacia Chinensis, in Overweight/Obese Adults: A Double Blind Randomized Controlled Trial.
[So] Source:Nutrients;9(8), 2017 Aug 12.
[Is] ISSN:2072-6643
[Cp] Country of publication:Switzerland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Animal studies indicate reduces body weight, possibly due to its α-glucosidase inhibitor (α-GI) properties, but this has not been examined previously. In this study, a randomized, placebo-controlled, three-way cross-over design was used to evaluate whether (SC) reduces appetite in healthy overweight/obese individuals (body mass index 28.8 ±3.6 kg/m²; 32 ± 12 years). Forty-eight participants were fasted overnight and consumed a dose of SC (300 or 500 mg) or placebo with a fixed breakfast meal at each visit. Appetite sensations, glycemic indices and gastrointestinal peptides were measured. Results indicated that SC had no effect on postprandial appetite. However, in women, hunger was reduced by SC compared to placebo at multiple time points (300 mg; < 0.05), but not in men. Area under the curve (AUC) for serum glucose, insulin and amylin was attenuated with SC compared to placebo ( < 0.05). Glucagon like peptide-1 had two peaks after the meal, but the AUC did not differ between groups. The AUC of peak areas for peptide YY and ghrelin were greater for SC than placebo ( < 0.05). These findings indicate that decreases glycemic indices supporting its role as an α-GI, and affects certain gastrointestinal peptides suggesting it may be an appetite modulator.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1708
[Cu] Class update date: 170907
[Lr] Last revision date:170907
[St] Status:In-Process

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[PMID]: 28627701
[Au] Autor:Sekiguchi Y; Mano H; Nakatani S; Shimizu J; Kataoka A; Ogura K; Kimira Y; Ebata M; Wada M
[Ad] Address:Department of Clinical Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Josai University, Sakado, Saitama 350­0295, Japan.
[Ti] Title:Mangiferin positively regulates osteoblast differentiation and suppresses osteoclast differentiation.
[So] Source:Mol Med Rep;16(2):1328-1332, 2017 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1791-3004
[Cp] Country of publication:Greece
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Mangiferin is a polyphenolic compound present in Salacia reticulata. It has been reported to reduce bone destruction and inhibit osteoclastic differentiation. This study aimed to determine whether mangiferin directly affects osteoblast and osteoclast proliferation and differentiation, and gene expression in MC3T3­E1 osteoblastic cells and osteoclast­like cells derived from primary mouse bone marrow macrophage cells. Mangiferin induced significantly greater WST­1 activity, indicating increased cell proliferation. Mangiferin induced significantly increased alkaline phosphatase staining, indicating greater cell differentiation. Reverse transcription­polymerase chain reaction (RT­PCR) demonstrated that mangiferin significantly increased the mRNA level of runt­related transcription factor 2 (RunX2), but did not affect RunX1 mRNA expression. Mangiferin significantly reduced the formation of tartrate­resistant acid phosphatase­positive multinuclear cells. RT­PCR demonstrated that mangiferin significantly increased the mRNA level of estrogen receptor ß (ERß), but did not affect the expression of other osteoclast­associated genes. Mangiferin may inhibit osteoclastic bone resorption by suppressing differentiation of osteoclasts and promoting expression of ERß mRNA in mouse bone marrow macrophage cells. It also has potential to promote osteoblastic bone formation by promoting cell proliferation and inducing cell differentiation in preosteoblast MC3T3­E1 cells via RunX2. Mangiferin may therefore be useful in improving bone disease outcomes.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1706
[Cu] Class update date: 171024
[Lr] Last revision date:171024
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.3892/mmr.2017.6752

  8 / 176 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28132032
[Au] Autor:Rajashree R; Patil R; Khlokute SD; Goudar SS
[Ti] Title:Effect of Salacia reticulata W. and Clitoria ternatea L. on the cognitive and behavioral changes in the streptozotocin-induced young diabetic rats.
[So] Source:J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol;28(2):107-114, 2017 Mar 01.
[Is] ISSN:2191-0286
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) of juvenile onset affects both the peripheral and central nervous systems (CNS). However, central effects are less documented and studied than peripheral deficits. Currently, the only feasible treatment available for type 1 DM (T1DM) is insulin which has its own limitations. Hence, an alternative therapy, especially a newer herbal formulation is very much the need of the time. The present study aimed to determine the effects of the alcoholic extracts of roots of the Salacia reticulata W. (SR) and Clitoria ternatea L. (CT) on cognitive and behavioral changes in juvenile diabetic rats. METHODS: Diabetes was induced in 25-day-old Wistar rats by streptozotocin (50 mg/kg bw, IP). Animals were divided into seven groups (n=6). Rats were treated with root extracts of SR and CT (100 mg/kg BW each) for 30 days, from day 1 and day 20 of diabetes confirmation. Then, rats were tested in elevated plus maze (EPM) and Morris water maze (MWM). RESULTS: A statistically significant (p<0.05) difference was observed between the SRCT group and diabetic groups of rats. Apart from decreasing FBS, the combined therapy also proved beneficial as nootropic agent in rats with early-onset diabetes. However, significant improvement is observed only in the learning and memory among preventive group, but not in the curative group. CONCLUSIONS: SRCT, a herbal formula, when used in combination, has a more potent effect in preventing the deleterious effects of juvenile diabetes on cognitive and behavioral changes.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Clitoria
Cognition Disorders/drug therapy
Cognition Disorders/psychology
Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy
Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/psychology
Plant Extracts/administration & dosage
Salacia
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Cognition Disorders/etiology
Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/complications
Drug Therapy, Combination
Female
Male
Maze Learning/drug effects
Maze Learning/physiology
Plant Extracts/isolation & purification
Plant Roots
Rats
Rats, Wistar
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Plant Extracts)
[Em] Entry month:1707
[Cu] Class update date: 170707
[Lr] Last revision date:170707
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170130
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 28082793
[Au] Autor:Kushwaha PS; Singh AK; Keshari AK; Maity S; Saha S
[Ad] Address:Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.
[Ti] Title:An Updated Review on the Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, and Clinical Trials of .
[So] Source:Pharmacogn Rev;10(20):109-114, 2016 Jul-Dec.
[Is] ISSN:0973-7847
[Cp] Country of publication:India
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:( ), a perennial herb, has been used for thousands of years in ayurvedic medicine and is closely associated with prevention, treatment, and cure of various human ailments such as obesity and diabetes. A vast and wide range of chemical compounds such as polyphenols, friedelane-type triterpenes, norfriedelane-type triterpenes, eudesmane-type sesquiterpenes including various glycosides had been isolated from this plant. This review is aimed to survey the literature covering the phytochemistry and pharmacology of and to review the scientific data including active components and their multi-targeted mechanisms of action against various metabolic syndromes. We also included clinical trials related to this plant in this review. The overview would assist researchers to gather scientific information related to in future.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1701
[Cu] Class update date: 170816
[Lr] Last revision date:170816
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.4103/0973-7847.194046

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[PMID]: 27803937
[Au] Autor:Jeykodi S; Deshpande J; Juturu V
[Ad] Address:Research and Development, OmniActive Health Technologies Ltd., Mumbai, India.
[Ti] Title: Extract Improves Postprandial Glucose and Insulin Response: A Randomized Double-Blind, Placebo Controlled, Crossover Study in Healthy Volunteers.
[So] Source:J Diabetes Res;2016:7971831, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:2314-6753
[Cp] Country of publication:Egypt
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Thirty-five healthy subjects were randomly assigned to different doses of extract (200 mg, 300 mg, and 500 mg SCE) capsules and compared with placebo. It is a placebo controlled randomized crossover design study. Subjects were given oral sucrose solution along with capsules and plasma glucose and insulin responses were analyzed. Blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 180 minutes after administration. AUC insulin significantly lowered after ingestion of SCE. No significant adverse events were observed. Reducing glucose and insulin is very important in reducing postprandial hyperglycemia.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Blood Glucose/drug effects
Insulin/metabolism
Plant Extracts/pharmacology
Salacia
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adult
Blood Glucose/metabolism
Cross-Over Studies
Double-Blind Method
Healthy Volunteers
Humans
Male
Postprandial Period/drug effects
Young Adult
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Blood Glucose); 0 (Insulin); 0 (Plant Extracts)
[Em] Entry month:1706
[Cu] Class update date: 170606
[Lr] Last revision date:170606
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:161103
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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