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[PMID]: 29240773
[Au] Autor:Sundaraneedi MK; Tedla BA; Eichenberger RM; Becker L; Pickering D; Smout MJ; Rajan S; Wangchuk P; Keene FR; Loukas A; Collins JG; Pearson MS
[Ad] Address:School of Physical, Environmental and Mathematical Sciences, UNSW Canberra, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia.
[Ti] Title:Polypyridylruthenium(II) complexes exert anti-schistosome activity and inhibit parasite acetylcholinesterases.
[So] Source:PLoS Negl Trop Dis;11(12):e0006134, 2017 12.
[Is] ISSN:1935-2735
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis affects over 200 million people and there are concerns whether the current chemotherapeutic control strategy (periodic mass drug administration with praziquantel (PZQ)-the only licenced anti-schistosome compound) is sustainable, necessitating the development of new drugs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the anti-schistosome efficacy of polypyridylruthenium(II) complexes and showed they were active against all intra-mammalian stages of S. mansoni. Two compounds, Rubb12-tri and Rubb7-tnl, which were among the most potent in their ability to kill schistosomula and adult worms and inhibit egg hatching in vitro, were assessed for their efficacy in a mouse model of schistosomiasis using 5 consecutive daily i.v. doses of 2 mg/kg (Rubb12-tri) and 10 mg/kg (Rubb7-tnl). Mice treated with Rubb12-tri showed an average 42% reduction (P = 0.009), over two independent trials, in adult worm burden. Liver egg burdens were not significantly decreased in either drug-treated group but ova from both of these groups showed significant decreases in hatching ability (Rubb12-tri-68%, Rubb7-tnl-56%) and were significantly morphologically altered (Rubb12-tri-62% abnormal, Rubb7-tnl-35% abnormal). We hypothesize that the drugs exerted their activity, at least partially, through inhibition of both neuronal and tegumental acetylcholinesterases (AChEs), as worms treated in vitro showed significant decreases in activity of these enzymes. Further, treated parasites exhibited a significantly decreased ability to uptake glucose, significantly depleted glycogen stores and withered tubercules (a site of glycogen storage), implying drug-mediated interference in this nutrient acquisition pathway. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data provide compelling evidence that ruthenium complexes are effective against all intra-mammalian stages of schistosomes, including schistosomula (refractory to PZQ) and eggs (agents of disease transmissibility). Further, the results of this study suggest that schistosome AChE is a target of ruthenium drugs, a finding that can inform modification of current compounds to identify analogues which are even more effective and selective against schistosomes.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Acetylcholinesterase/drug effects
Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology
Organometallic Compounds/pharmacology
Ruthenium/pharmacology
Schistosoma haematobium/drug effects
Schistosoma mansoni/drug effects
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Biological Transport/drug effects
Disease Models, Animal
Female
Glucose/metabolism
Larva
Male
Mice
Praziquantel/therapeutic use
Schistosoma haematobium/enzymology
Schistosoma mansoni/enzymology
Schistosomiasis haematobia/drug therapy
Schistosomiasis haematobia/parasitology
Schistosomiasis mansoni/drug therapy
Schistosomiasis mansoni/parasitology
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Cholinesterase Inhibitors); 0 (Organometallic Compounds); 6490C9U457 (Praziquantel); 7UI0TKC3U5 (Ruthenium); EC 3.1.1.7 (Acetylcholinesterase); IY9XDZ35W2 (Glucose)
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180212
[Lr] Last revision date:180212
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:171215
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0006134

  2 / 2051 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29220347
[Au] Autor:Phillips AE; Gazzinelli-Guimaraes PH; Aurelio HO; Ferro J; Nala R; Clements M; King CH; Fenwick A; Fleming FM; Dhanani N
[Ad] Address:Schistosomiasis Control Initiative, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.
[Ti] Title:Assessing the benefits of five years of different approaches to treatment of urogenital schistosomiasis: A SCORE project in Northern Mozambique.
[So] Source:PLoS Negl Trop Dis;11(12):e0006061, 2017 12.
[Is] ISSN:1935-2735
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: In Mozambique, schistosomiasis is highly endemic across the whole country. The Schistosomiasis Consortium for Operational Research and Evaluation (SCORE) coordinates a five-year study that has been implemented in various African countries, including Mozambique. The overall goal of SCORE was to better understand how to best apply preventive chemotherapy with praziquantel (PZQ) for schistosomiasis control by evaluating the impact of alternative treatment approaches. METHODS: This was a cluster-randomised trial that compared the impact of different treatment strategies in study areas with prevalence among school children of ≥21% S. haematobium infection by urine dipstick. Each village was randomly allocated to one of six possible combinations of community-wide treatment (CWT), school-based treatment (SBT), and/or drug holidays over a period of four years, followed by final data collection in the fifth year. The most intense intervention arm involved four years of CWT, while the least intensive arm involved two years of SBT followed by two consecutive years of PZQ holiday. Each study arm included 25 villages randomly assigned to one of the six treatment arms. The primary outcome of interest was change in prevalence and intensity of S. haematobium among 100 children aged 9-to-12-years that were sampled each year in every village. In addition to children aged 9-to-12 years, 100 children aged 5-8 years in their first-year of school and 50 adults (aged 20-55 years) were tested in the first and final fifth year of the study. Prevalence and intensity of S. haematobium infection was evaluated by two filtrations, each of 10mL, from a single urine specimen. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In total, data was collected from 81,167 individuals across 149 villages in ten districts of Cabo Delgado province, Northern Mozambique. Overall PZQ treatment resulted in a significant reduction in the prevalence of S. haematobium infection from Year 1 to Year 5, where the average prevalence went from 60.5% to 38.8%, across all age groups and treatment arms. The proportion of those heavily infected also reduced from 17.6% to 11.9% over five years. There was a significantly higher likelihood of males being infected than females at baseline, but no significant difference between the sexes in their response to treatment. The only significant response based on a study arm was seen in both the 9-to-12-year-old and first-year cross sections, where two consecutive treatment holidays resulted in a significantly higher final prevalence of S. haematobium than no treatment holidays. When the arms were grouped together, four rounds of treatment (regardless of whether it was CWT or SBT), however, did result in a significantly greater reduction in S. haematobium prevalence than two rounds of treatment (i.e. with two intermittent or consecutive holiday years) over a five-year period. CONCLUSIONS: Although PC was successful in reducing the burden of active infection, even among those heavily infected, annual CWT did not have a significantly greater impact on disease prevalence or intensity than less intense treatment arms. This may be due to extremely high starting prevalence and intensity in the study area, with frequent exposure to reinfection, or related to challenges in achieving high treatment coverage More frequent treatment had a greater impact on prevalence and intensity of infection when arms were grouped by number of treatments, however, cost efficiency was greater in arms only receiving two treatments. Finally, a significant reduction in prevalence of S. haematobium was seen in adults even in the SBT arms implying the rate of transmission in the community had been decreased, even where only school children have been treated, which has significant logistical and cost-saving implications for a national control programme in justifying CWT.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Anthelmintics/therapeutic use
Praziquantel/therapeutic use
Schistosoma haematobium/drug effects
Schistosomiasis haematobia/prevention & control
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adult
Animals
Chemoprevention
Child
Child, Preschool
Cross-Sectional Studies
Endemic Diseases
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Mozambique/epidemiology
Operations Research
Prevalence
Research Design
Schistosomiasis haematobia/drug therapy
Schistosomiasis haematobia/epidemiology
Schools
Young Adult
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Anthelmintics); 6490C9U457 (Praziquantel)
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180212
[Lr] Last revision date:180212
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:171209
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0006061

  3 / 2051 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29303718
[Au] Autor:Savioli L; Daumerie D
[Ad] Address:Former Director, Department of Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. Electronic address: docsavioli@gmail.com.
[Ti] Title:WHO leadership is essential for the elimination of NTDs.
[So] Source:Lancet;390(10114):2765, 2018 12 23.
[Is] ISSN:1474-547X
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Leadership
Neglected Diseases/prevention & control
World Health Organization
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Disease Eradication
Dracunculiasis/prevention & control
Hookworm Infections/prevention & control
Humans
International Cooperation
Schistosomiasis haematobia/prevention & control
Tropical Medicine
[Pt] Publication type:LETTER
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180117
[Lr] Last revision date:180117
[Js] Journal subset:AIM; IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:180106
[St] Status:MEDLINE

  4 / 2051 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29267282
[Au] Autor:Hotez PJ
[Ad] Address:Texas Children's Center for Vaccine Development, National School of Tropical Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, United States of America.
[Ti] Title:Ten failings in global neglected tropical diseases control.
[So] Source:PLoS Negl Trop Dis;11(12):e0005896, 2017 12.
[Is] ISSN:1935-2735
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Global Health
Neglected Diseases/prevention & control
Tropical Medicine
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Chagas Disease/drug therapy
Climate Change
Humans
Leprosy/prevention & control
Schistosomiasis haematobia/drug therapy
[Pt] Publication type:EDITORIAL
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180111
[Lr] Last revision date:180111
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:171222
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0005896

  5 / 2051 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29176778
[Au] Autor:Miller-Fellows SC; Howard L; Kramer R; Hildebrand V; Furin J; Mutuku FM; Mukoko D; Ivy JA; King CH
[Ad] Address:Department of Anthropology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America.
[Ti] Title:Cross-sectional interview study of fertility, pregnancy, and urogenital schistosomiasis in coastal Kenya: Documented treatment in childhood is associated with reduced odds of subfertility among adult women.
[So] Source:PLoS Negl Trop Dis;11(11):e0006101, 2017 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1935-2735
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Previous research has documented an increased risk of subfertility in areas of sub-Saharan Africa, as well as an ecological association between urogenital schistosomiasis prevalence and decreased fertility. This pilot project examined reproductive patterns and the potential effects of childhood urogenital Schistosoma haematobium infection and individual treatment experience on adult subfertility among women who were long-term residents in an S. haematobium-endemic region of coastal Kenya. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed findings from 162 in-depth interviews with women of childbearing age in a rural, coastal community, linking them, if possible, to their individual treatment records from previous multi-year longitudinal studies of parasitic infections. Reproductive histories indicated a much local higher local rate of subfertility (44%) than worldwide averages (8-12%). Although, due to the very high regional prevalence of schistosomiasis, a clear relationship could not be demonstrated between a history of S. haematobium infection and adult subfertility, among a convenience sub-sample of 61 women who had received documented treatment during previous interventional trials, a significant association was found between age at first anti-schistosomal treatment and later fertility in adulthood, with those women treated before age 21 significantly less likely to have subfertility (P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The high subfertility rate documented in this pilot study suggests the importance of programs to prevent and treat pelvic infections in their early stages to preclude reproductive tract damage. The available documented treatment data also suggest that early anti-schistosomal treatment may prevent the fertility-damaging effects of urogenital schistosomiasis, and lend support for programs that provide universal treatment of children in S. haematobium-endemic regions.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Anthelmintics/therapeutic use
Infertility, Female/epidemiology
Infertility, Female/parasitology
Schistosomiasis haematobia/drug therapy
Schistosomiasis haematobia/epidemiology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Animals
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Kenya/epidemiology
Logistic Models
Middle Aged
Pilot Projects
Pregnancy
Risk Factors
Rural Population
Schistosoma haematobium
Self Report
Young Adult
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Anthelmintics)
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 171219
[Lr] Last revision date:171219
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:171128
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0006101

  6 / 2051 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28953954
[Au] Autor:Roure S; Valerio L; Pérez-Quílez O; Fernández-Rivas G; Martínez-Cuevas O; Alcántara-Román A; Viasus D; Pedro-Botet ML; Sabrià M; Clotet B
[Ad] Address:North Metropolitan International Health Unit PROSICS, Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Badalona, Barcelona, Spain.
[Ti] Title:Epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic and economic features of an immigrant population of chronic schistosomiasis sufferers with long-term residence in a non-endemic country (North Metropolitan area of Barcelona, 2002-2016).
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(9):e0185245, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis, one of the neglected tropical diseases (NTD) listed by the WHO, is an acute and chronic parasitic disease caused by blood flukes (trematode worms) of the genus Schistosoma. Complications of long-term infestation include liver cirrhosis, bladder tumors and kidney failure. The objective of this study was to carry out a clinical and epidemiological characterization of a schistosomiasis-diagnosed immigrant population with long-term residencein the EU as well as to evaluate the diagnostic methods available to date. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 61 individuals with Schistosoma infection who received medical attention between June 2002 and June 2016 at the North Metropolitan International Health Unit in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain), were included in the study. All patients were sub-Saharan African immigrants. The majority were male (91.8%) with a median age of 34 years. Symptoms attributable to infection such as haematuria, abdominal pain and dysuria were recorded in up to 90% of patients. The percentage of eosinophils decreased amongst older patients (p = 0.002) and those with symptoms associated with urinary tract infections (p = 0.017). Serology was used for diagnosis in 80.3% of the cases, with microscopic examination showing the remaining 9.8% positive for parasite eggs. Direct microbiological diagnosis was more useful in patients with less than 5 years of residence in the EU (p = 0.05). Chronic complications were present in 22 (36%) of the patients, with renal failure affecting 20 (33%). Of these 20, 6(10%) developed terminal renal failure and required hemodialysis, while 3 (5%) received a renal transplantation. CONCLUSION: Morbidity associated with chronic long-term schistosomiasis is frequent among African immigrants in non-endemic countries. Better diagnostic tools and appropriate early treatment would prevent the development of visceral damage. Thorough screening in selected patients would also be useful to avoid chronic complications.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Emigrants and Immigrants/statistics & numerical data
Residence Characteristics
Schistosomiasis haematobia/diagnosis
Schistosomiasis haematobia/epidemiology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adult
Chronic Disease
Demography
Eosinophils
Female
Humans
Leukocyte Count
Male
Schistosomiasis haematobia/blood
Schistosomiasis haematobia/economics
Spain/epidemiology
Time Factors
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171016
[Lr] Last revision date:171016
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170928
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0185245

  7 / 2051 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28911129
[Au] Autor:Ben SA; Useh MF
[Ad] Address:Medical Microbiology/Parasitology Unit, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, University of Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria.
[Ti] Title:A comparative study on the efficacy of praziquantel and albendazole in the treatment of urinary schistosomiasis in Adim, Cross River State, Nigeria.
[So] Source:Int Health;9(5):288-293, 2017 Sep 01.
[Is] ISSN:1876-3405
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Background: Praziquantel (PZQ) is the current drug of choice for the treatment of urinary schistosomiasis in endemic areas. It is very efficacious, although the potential for the development of resistance has been reported in some endemic areas among human subjects and in animal studies. Its' limitation include high cost and administration of multiple numbers of tablets. Albendazole (ALB) is used in the treatment of intestinal helminths infection. It is a broad-spectrum single-dose antihelminthic with an excellent cure rate and safety criteria. Currently, it is not routinely used for the treatment of urinary schistosomiasis. Methods: Urine samples collected from 596 pupils aged between 2 and 16 years were processed and examined for the presence of ova of Schistosoma haematobium using a standard filtration technique. A total of 100 infected subjects were treated with a standard dose of PZQ (40 mg/kg body weight), while another group of 96 infected subjects were treated with ALB (400 mg for individuals above 3 years). A post-treatment study was conducted 1 month after treatment to assess their cure rate. Results: The prevalence of S. haematobium infection in the study area was 32.8% (196/596). More males were infected (44.2%) (122/276) than females (23.1%) (74/320). The difference in the prevalence rate of infection by gender was statistically significant (X2=15.7>3.841, p<0.05). The highest prevalence of infection was observed among subjects aged 14-16 years (42.1%) (32/76), while those aged 5-7 years had the least prevalence (23.7%) (38/160). There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis by age of the subjects (X2=5.99<9.5, p>0.05). PZQ gave a higher cure rate of 78.0% (78/100) compared with ALB (68.7%) (66/96). There was no statistically significant difference in the cure rate obtained with both drugs (X2=0.355>0.282, p>0.05). The intensity of egg excretion was greatly reduced in subjects who were not cured by the two drugs. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest the use of ALB for the treatment of urinary schistosomiasis. We recommend further assessment of the efficacy of the drug in an area with higher morbidity of urinary schistosomiasis than the present study area.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Albendazole/therapeutic use
Anthelmintics/therapeutic use
Praziquantel/therapeutic use
Schistosomiasis haematobia/drug therapy
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adolescent
Animals
Child
Child, Preschool
Female
Humans
Male
Nigeria/epidemiology
Prevalence
Schistosoma haematobium/isolation & purification
Schistosomiasis haematobia/epidemiology
Treatment Outcome
[Pt] Publication type:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Anthelmintics); 6490C9U457 (Praziquantel); F4216019LN (Albendazole)
[Em] Entry month:1709
[Cu] Class update date: 170925
[Lr] Last revision date:170925
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170916
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1093/inthealth/ihx031

  8 / 2051 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28863133
[Au] Autor:Chadeka EA; Nagi S; Sunahara T; Cheruiyot NB; Bahati F; Ozeki Y; Inoue M; Osada-Oka M; Okabe M; Hirayama Y; Changoma M; Adachi K; Mwende F; Kikuchi M; Nakamura R; Kalenda YDJ; Kaneko S; Hirayama K; Shimada M; Ichinose Y; Njenga SM; Matsumoto S; Hamano S
[Ad] Address:Leading Program, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan.
[Ti] Title:Spatial distribution and risk factors of Schistosoma haematobium and hookworm infections among schoolchildren in Kwale, Kenya.
[So] Source:PLoS Negl Trop Dis;11(9):e0005872, 2017 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1935-2735
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Large-scale schistosomiasis control programs are implemented in regions with diverse social and economic environments. A key epidemiological feature of schistosomiasis is its small-scale heterogeneity. Locally profiling disease dynamics including risk factors associated with its transmission is essential for designing appropriate control programs. To determine spatial distribution of schistosomiasis and its drivers, we examined schoolchildren in Kwale, Kenya. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 368 schoolchildren from six primary schools. Soil-transmitted helminths and Schistosoma mansoni eggs in stool were evaluated by the Kato-Katz method. We measured the intensity of Schistosoma haematobium infection by urine filtration. The geometrical mean intensity of S. haematobium was 3.1 eggs/10 ml urine (school range, 1.4-9.2). The hookworm geometric mean intensity was 3.2 eggs/g feces (school range, 0-17.4). Heterogeneity in the intensity of S. haematobium and hookworm infections was evident in the study area. To identify factors associated with the intensity of helminth infections, we utilized negative binomial generalized linear mixed models. The intensity of S. haematobium infection was associated with religion and socioeconomic status (SES), while that of hookworm infection was related to SES, sex, distance to river and history of anthelmintic treatment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Both S. haematobium and hookworm infections showed micro-geographical heterogeneities in this Kwale community. To confirm and explain our observation of high S. haematobium risk among Muslims, further extensive investigations are necessary. The observed small scale clustering of the S. haematobium and hookworm infections might imply less uniform strategies even at finer scale for efficient utilization of limited resources.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Ancylostomatoidea/isolation & purification
Hookworm Infections/epidemiology
Schistosoma haematobium/isolation & purification
Schistosomiasis haematobia/epidemiology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adolescent
Animals
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Demography
Feces/parasitology
Female
Humans
Islam
Kenya
Linear Models
Male
Parasite Egg Count
Risk Factors
Schools
Social Class
Soil/parasitology
Students/statistics & numerical data
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Soil)
[Em] Entry month:1709
[Cu] Class update date: 171116
[Lr] Last revision date:171116
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170902
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0005872

  9 / 2051 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28853206
[Au] Autor:Inocencio da Luz R; Linsuke S; Lutumba P; Hasker E; Boelaert M
[Ad] Address:Department of Public Health, Institute of Tropical Medicine Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.
[Ti] Title:Assessment of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths prevalence in school-aged children and opportunities for integration of control in local health services in Kwilu Province, the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
[So] Source:Trop Med Int Health;22(11):1442-1450, 2017 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1365-3156
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of schistosomiasis (SCH) and soil-transmitted helminths (STH) in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and to assess the capacity of the local health centres for diagnosis and treatment. METHODS: Cross-sectional school-based survey in two health districts in the Province of Kwilu. We collected a stool and a urine sample for parasitological examination. Urine filtration and duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears were used for the diagnosis of SCH. Health centres were evaluated using a structured questionnaire. RESULTS: In total, 526 children participated in the study and the overall prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection was 8.9% (95% CI: 3.5-13.2) in both districts. The prevalence was higher in Mosango (11.7%; 95% CI: 8.9-14.8) than Yasa Bonga district (6.2%; 95% CI: 1.1-11.4). Urine filtration showed that Schistosoma haematobium infection was not present. The combined STH infection prevalence was 58.1% in both districts; hookworm infection was the most common STH found in 52.9% (95% CI: 29.3-62.4) of subjects, followed by Ascaris lumbricoides 9.3% (95% CI: 5.8-15.5) and Trichuris trichiura 2.1% (95% CI: 0.9-4.9). Mixed STH infections were observed as well as SCH-STH coinfection. CONCLUSION: Further mapping of both SCH and STH burden is needed, and coverage of preventive chemotherapy in school-aged children should be increased.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Coinfection/prevention & control
Health Services
Helminthiasis/prevention & control
Helminths/growth & development
Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/prevention & control
Soil/parasitology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Ascariasis/epidemiology
Ascariasis/prevention & control
Ascaris lumbricoides
Child
Coinfection/epidemiology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Democratic Republic of the Congo/epidemiology
Female
Helminthiasis/epidemiology
Humans
Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology
Male
Prevalence
Schistosoma haematobium
Schistosoma mansoni
Schistosomiasis haematobia/epidemiology
Schistosomiasis haematobia/prevention & control
Schistosomiasis mansoni/epidemiology
Schistosomiasis mansoni/prevention & control
Schools
Trichuriasis/epidemiology
Trichuriasis/prevention & control
Trichuris
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Soil)
[Em] Entry month:1711
[Cu] Class update date: 171116
[Lr] Last revision date:171116
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170831
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/tmi.12965

  10 / 2051 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28822206
[Au] Autor:Umar S; Shinkafi SH; Hudu SA; Neela V; Suresh K; Nordin SA; Malina O
[Ad] Address:Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital Sokoto, 80002 Sokoto State, Nigeria
[Ti] Title:Prevalence and molecular characterisation of Schistosoma haematobium among primary school children in Kebbi State, Nigeria
[So] Source:Ann Parasitol;63(2):133-139, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:2299-0631
[Cp] Country of publication:Poland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Schistosomiasis is the major source of morbidity in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. It is estimated that 207 million people are infected, of which 97% are in Africa. The aim of this study was the determining of prevalence as well as the phylogeny of S. haematobium among school children in Argungu Emirate, Kebbi State Nigeria. A total of 325 urine samples was collected from school children between 7 to 14 years. S. heamatobium eggs was examined under dissecting microscope and DNA was extracted from urine sample and COX1 gene was amplified by nested PCR. The PCR products were purified, sequenced and analysed. This study showed a prevalence of 32.09%, with male pupils having the highest prevalence. S. haematobium infections in children who fetch water in the river have 24 times higher risk of being infected while those who bath in the river have 158 times higher risk of being infected. Our sequences were phylogenetically related to S. haematobium isolate U82266 from Kenya and consistence with the predominant species in Africa. This was the first S. haematobium and S. mansoni co-infection reported in Nigeria. S. haematobium infection is prevalent among school age and significantly associated with water contact.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Schistosoma haematobium/genetics
Schistosomiasis haematobia/epidemiology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Child
DNA, Helminth/genetics
Humans
Nigeria/epidemiology
Phylogeny
Prevalence
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (DNA, Helminth)
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171017
[Lr] Last revision date:171017
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170820
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.17420/ap6302.97


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