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[PMID]: 29498425
[Au] Autor:Kaurin A; Sauerberger K; Funder DC
[Ad] Address:Johannes Gutenberg-University, Germany.
[Ti] Title:Associations between Informant Ratings of Personality Disorder Traits, Self-reports of Personality and Directly Observed Behavior.
[So] Source:J Pers;, 2018 Mar 02.
[Is] ISSN:1467-6494
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Diagnoses of personality disorders (PD) must rely on judgments of observers - either clinicians or acquaintances - because personality disorders are primarily defined in terms of maladaptive interpersonal behavior. Little is known, however, about how closely acquaintances' judgments of PD traits relate to self-reports of theoretically relevant Big Five traits or directly observed behavioral outcomes in interpersonal situations. OBJECTIVE: The present study examines associations between judgments of the 10 PD traits provided by close acquaintances, self-reports PD-relevant Big Five personality traits, and observed interpersonal behaviors across three different, three-person laboratory interactions (i.e., unstructured chat, cooperative task, competitive game). METHOD: The sample consisted of 256 undergraduate students (130 females; age: M = 19.83, SD = 1.25). Four unacquainted observers independently rated participants' behaviors from video recordings. RESULTS: In line with previous work, informant-reports of PD traits demonstrate strong convergent validity with relevant self-reported Big Five traits (as identified by Lynam and Widiger, 2001). Directly observed behavior is meaningfully associated with acquaintances' judgments and self-reports of PD relevant traits, and the associations between these judgments and behavior are strongest for traits associated with histrionic and schizoid PD. Vector correlations between behavioral profiles associated with informant and self-reports show that both assessments have similar behavioral correlates. Associations between PD trait ratings and behavior appeared to differ as a function of gender, with males showing more and stronger correlations. CONCLUSION: Informants' ratings of PD traits are impressively accurate, converging both with self-reports of relevant traits and directly observed interpersonal behavior. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of PDs and associated traits can be augmented by information from multiple acquaintances who have the opportunity to observe how an individual interacts with others on a daily basis across diverse contexts. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180302
[Lr] Last revision date:180302
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1111/jopy.12376

  2 / 1104 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29490716
[Au] Autor:Ayerbe L; Forgnone I; Foguet-Boreu Q; González E; Addo J; Ayis S
[Ad] Address:Centre of Primary Care and Public Health,Queen Mary University of London,London,UK.
[Ti] Title:Disparities in the management of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with psychiatric disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
[So] Source:Psychol Med;:1-9, 2018 Mar 01.
[Is] ISSN:1469-8978
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: The high cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality reported for patients with psychiatric disorders may possibly be due to a poorer management of CV risk factors (CVRFs). However, these healthcare disparities remain poorly understood. In this paper, studies comparing the management of smoking, diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidaemia, in patients with and without depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, bipolar or personality disorder, were reviewed. METHODS: Prospective studies comparing rates of screening, diagnosis, treatment and control of CVRFs were searched in PubMed, Embase, PsychInfo, Scopus and Web of Science (inception to January 2017). The Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) criteria were used. Studies were assessed for quality. Wherever possible, meta-analyses were conducted to summarize the findings. RESULTS: Twenty studies, out of the 18 333 references initially identified, were included. Most studies were heterogeneous in design. Two areas permitted meta-analyses: the pooled odds ratio for quitting smoking for those with depression was 0.64 (0.49-0.80) p < 0.001; the pooled difference of glycated haemoglobin for patients with type 2 diabetes and depression was 0.18 (0.06-0.31) p = 0.005. Individual studies showed associations between: schizophrenia and lower probability of having smoking habit recorded; schizoid personality disorder and higher probability of remaining non-smokers after quitting; anxiety and poorer control of type I diabetes; depression, anxiety or schizophrenia and lower probability of having a diagnosis of hypertension; schizophrenia or bipolar disorder and lower use of antihypertensive and lipid-lowering drugs. CONCLUSIONS: A proactive clinical management, together with further studies, are needed to reduce the CV morbidity and mortality of patients with psychiatric disorders.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180301
[Lr] Last revision date:180301
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1017/S0033291718000302

  3 / 1104 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29276043
[Au] Autor:Grauvogl A; Pelzer B; Radder V; van Lankveld J
[Ad] Address:Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Open University of the Netherlands, Heerlen, the Netherlands. Electronic address: Andrea.Grauvogl@ou.nl.
[Ti] Title:Associations Between Personality Disorder Characteristics, Psychological Symptoms, and Sexual Functioning in Young Women.
[So] Source:J Sex Med;15(2):192-200, 2018 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1743-6109
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Recently, the etiology of sexual dysfunctions in women has been approached from different angles. In clinical practice and in previous studies, it has been observed that women with sexual problems experience anxiety problems and express more rigid and perfectionistic personality traits than women without these problems. AIM: To investigate whether personality disorder characteristics according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) and psychological symptoms are associated with sexual problems in women. METHODS: 188 women 18 to 25 years old participated in this cross-sectional study. Questionnaires measuring sexual functioning (Female Sexual Function Index), personality disorder characteristics (Assessment of DSM-IV-TR Personality Disorders Questionnaire), and psychological symptoms (Brief Symptom Inventory and Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale) were used. OUTCOME: The main outcome measure used was sexual functioning assessed by self-report. RESULTS: Results, using analysis of variance, indicated that women with sexual problems report significantly more cluster A (specifically schizoid) and C (specifically avoidant and obsessive-compulsive) personality disorder characteristics than women without sexual problems. Furthermore, using multiple regression analyses, higher cluster A (specifically schizoid) and lower cluster B (specifically borderline and antisocial) personality disorder characteristics indicated lower levels of sexual functioning. Psychological symptoms partly mediated the effect of cluster A personality disorder characteristics on sexual functioning. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: The results of this study indicate that clinical practice should extend its scope by focusing more on improving adaptive personality characteristics, such as extraversion and individualism seen in cluster B personality characteristics, and decreasing the perfectionistic, introvert, and self-doubting characteristics seen in cluster C personality characteristics. STRENGTHS AND LIMITATIONS: Because of the correlational design and use of self-report measures, causal relations cannot be established between personality disorder characteristics and sexual functioning. CONCLUSION: Overall, the results indicate that personality disorder characteristics can play an important associative role in the development and maintenance of sexual functioning problems in women. Grauvogl A, Pelzer B, Radder V, van Lankveld J. Associations Between Personality Disorder Characteristics, Psychological Symptoms, and Sexual Functioning in Young Women. J Sex Med 2018;15:192-200.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 180209
[Lr] Last revision date:180209
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  4 / 1104 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28745673
[Au] Autor:Pyatnitskyi NY
[Ad] Address:Mental Health Research Center, Moscow, Russia.
[Ti] Title:Uchenie o tipologii psikhopatii: kontseptsiia É. Krechmera 'kliuchevogo perezhivaniia' i vrozhdennogo defekta. [Doctrine of psychopathy typology: E. Kretschmer's concept of 'key experience' and inherited defect].
[So] Source:Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova;117(6):59-65, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1997-7298
[Cp] Country of publication:Russia (Federation)
[La] Language:rus
[Ab] Abstract:The author analyzes the first concept of E. Kretschmer which preceded his famous concept of cycloid and schizoid temperaments: specific 'root' or 'key' experience characteristic of the personality type. This concept was built on the clinical data of patients with delusions but E. Kretschmer assumed that the difference in the degree of disease was not essential ('neurosis of reference' and 'sensitive delusion of reference' were more close than 'sensitive delusion of reference' and 'expansive delusion'). For a sensitive psychopath, the key and specific experience is 'shameful defeat', for expansive psychopath - 'the violence over will by the common will'. Explanations of the phenomenon of psychopathic personalities made by E. Kraepelin and E. Kretschmer are compared as well as the relationship of psychopathic types determined by E. Kretschmer to 'the general psychopathic constitution'.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Antisocial Personality Disorder/history
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Antisocial Personality Disorder/classification
Antisocial Personality Disorder/diagnosis
Delusions/diagnosis
Delusions/history
History, 20th Century
Humans
[Pt] Publication type:HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1711
[Cu] Class update date: 171128
[Lr] Last revision date:171128
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170727
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.17116/jnevro20171176159-65

  5 / 1104 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28776654
[Au] Autor:Proner BD
[Ad] Address:London.
[Ti] Title:The latency complex: the dead hand of anti-development.
[So] Source:J Anal Psychol;62(4):567-584, 2017 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1468-5922
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:It is common knowledge that the same phenomena can be viewed in a variety of ways. This paper considers the implications of a constellation observed in some adult patients who have increasingly reminded the author of some of the children of latency age with whom he has also worked. In the literature these patients may also have been thought about in terms of 'defences of the self' (Fordham), patients who are 'difficult to reach' (Joseph), 'psychic retreats' (Steiner), and those who make 'attacks on linking' (Bion). They may equally be considered in terms of schizoid, narcissistic or borderline personalities, or as showing features on the autistic spectrum, such as mindlessness and extreme obsessionality. Writers such as Helene Deutsch with her concept of an 'as-if personality', Winnicott with his 'false self', and Rosenfeld, discussing the split-off parts of the personality in narcissistic patients, have also offered much to think about in their consideration of some of these phenomena. This paper proposes yet another vertex - the author's own imaginative conjecture - that is by no means mutually exclusive of any of these others.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1708
[Cu] Class update date: 170804
[Lr] Last revision date:170804
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1111/1468-5922.12337

  6 / 1104 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28699102
[Au] Autor:Kapfhammer HP
[Ad] Address:Klinik für Psychiatrie und Psychotherapeutische Medizin, Medizinische Universität Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 31, 8036, Graz, Österreich. hans-peter.kapfhammer@klinikum-graz.at.
[Ti] Title:Das Schizoidie-Konzept in der Psychiatrie : Von der Schizoidie über die Schizotypie zu den Cluster­A­Persönlichkeitsstörungen. [The concept of schizoidia in psychiatry : From schizoidia to schizotypy and cluster A personality disorders].
[So] Source:Neuropsychiatr;, 2017 Jul 11.
[Is] ISSN:0948-6259
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:ger
[Ab] Abstract:From a perspective of conceptual evolution schizoidia was initially considered to describe features both of the premorbid personality of schizophrenic patients and of the personalities of non-psychotic family members (Bleuler, Kahlbaum, Kraepelin). On a psychopatholocial level a close link to the complex basic symptom of autism was stressed. From the very beginnings of modern psychiatry schizoidia was discussed within a conceptual frame of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (Kretschmer, Hoch, Polatin). Approaches to operationalize these conceptual works laid the basis for the cluster A personalities in DSM-III. Due to the prominent concept of schizotypy (Kety, Rado, Meehl) three split up diagnostic categories of schizotypal, schizoid and paranoid personality disorders resulted. Cluster A personality disorders are frequent in community-based epidemiological studies. Health-care seeking behaviour due to primary personality-related problems, however, seems to be less paramount compared to cluster B and C personality disorders. Many family- and twin-based genetic studies convincingly stress a close link between schizotypal personality disorder and schizophrenia. This link is less pronounced for paranoid personality disorder, and even vanishingly low for schizoid personality disorder. From a perspective of schizophrenia spectrum disorders a vast amount of data from molecular genetic, neurobiological, neuropsychological and psychosocial research has impressingly confirmed this link for schizotypal personality disorder. Major research deficits, however, have to be noticed for paranoid and schizoid personality disorder.
[Pt] Publication type:ENGLISH ABSTRACT; JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1707
[Cu] Class update date: 170712
[Lr] Last revision date:170712
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1007/s40211-017-0237-y

  7 / 1104 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28631974
[Au] Autor:Muñoz-Champel A; Gutiérrez F; Peri JM; Torrubia R
[Ad] Address:a Department of Psychiatry and Forensic Medicine , Autonomous University of Barcelona , Spain.
[Ti] Title:Personality Disorders Are Not as We Thought: Hierarchical Factor Structure at the Criterion Level.
[So] Source:J Pers Assess;:1-14, 2017 Feb 22.
[Is] ISSN:1532-7752
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The use of personality disorder (PD) categories persists, despite the evidence against them. An often overlooked reason for this is the fact that the true structure underlying the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) taxonomy is still unknown: We cannot be certain which disorders are valid, and which ones are arbitrary mixtures of heterogeneous traits. To address this gap, we factor analyzed the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire (PDQ-4+; Hyler, 1994 ) at the criterion level in a mixed clinical and nonclinical sample of 2,519 individuals. The resulting structure was more similar to current dimensional taxonomies than to the DSM classification at all hierarchical levels. Whereas paranoid and antisocial PDs-and to a lesser extent avoidant, dependent, depressive, and schizoid PDs-were fairly homogeneous, all other disorders turned out to be combinations of 2 or 3 unrelated dimensions. Our results strongly support the structure of empirically based dimensional taxonomies and relocate DSM criteria within this emerging framework, thus contributing to preserving much of the knowledge accumulated to date.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1706
[Cu] Class update date: 170620
[Lr] Last revision date:170620
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1080/00223891.2017.1278700

  8 / 1104 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28526631
[Au] Autor:Collazzoni A; Ciocca G; Limoncin E; Marucci C; Mollaioli D; Di Sante S; Di Lorenzo G; Niolu C; Siracusano A; Maggi M; Castellini G; Rossi A; Jannini EA
[Ad] Address:Department of Biotechnological and Applied Clinical Sciences, University of L'Aquila, L'Aquila, Italy.
[Ti] Title:Mating Strategies and Sexual Functioning in Personality Disorders: A Comprehensive Review of Literature.
[So] Source:Sex Med Rev;5(4):414-428, 2017 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:2050-0521
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:INTRODUCTION: Personality disorders impair several aspects of intrapsychic and interpersonal life. In particular, mating strategies and sexual functioning could manifest in different and/or dysfunctional ways in people with personality disorders. AIM: To describe, through a comprehensive review of the literature, the mating strategies and sexual functioning in patients with personality disorders. METHODS: We listed and discussed the principal studies on the relation between mating strategies and sexual functioning in personality disorders. The search strategy used search terms in PubMed for the main studies published from January 2000 to December 2016. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We considered two main sections for our selection according to the aim of the present review: mating and sexuality. RESULTS: Interesting evidence on mating strategies in personality disorders was found. In particular, the major items were found in the dramatic-unpredictable cluster, with borderline personality disorder being the most studied. In contrast, the bizarre-eccentric cluster had fewer items, with the schizoid personality disorder being the least studied. For sexual behavior, borderline personality seems to be the unique disorder sufficiently studied, with evidence of major histories of child sexual abuse, the presence of sexual dysfunctions, and paraphilic interests. CONCLUSION: A large spectrum of mating strategies characterizes different personality disorders, although an inconsistent knowledge about the relation between sexual function and personality disorders emerged from our analysis of the literature. Hence, we invite clinicians and researchers to integrate psychodiagnostic and sexual assessments in psychiatric disciplines for people with personality disorders. Collazzoni A, Ciocca G, Limoncin E, et al. Mating Strategies and Sexual Functioning in Personality Disorders: A Comprehensive Review of Literature. Sex Med Rev 2017;5:414-428.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1705
[Cu] Class update date: 170926
[Lr] Last revision date:170926
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  9 / 1104 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28513342
[Au] Autor:Haliburn J; Stevenson J; Halovic S
[Ad] Address:Division of Psychiatry, Sydney Medical School, Parramatta, Australia.
[Ti] Title:Integration in the Psychodynamic Psychotherapy of Severe Personality Disorders: The Conversational Model.
[So] Source:J Pers Disord;:1-17, 2017 May 17.
[Is] ISSN:1943-2763
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The psychotherapy of commonly occurring severe personality disorders-borderline, narcissistic, avoidant, dependent, obsessive compulsive, and schizoid-presents the therapist with a unique therapeutic challenge, as each personality disorder rarely occurs alone. Integration of what is most useful and what works in each model is being proposed to enable a more successful approach to the diversity of presentations. We describe the conversational model, some outcome research, and descriptive studies to illustrate this. Based in psychoanalytic theory, the conversational model is integrated with trauma theory, findings in memory research, linguistics, neurophysiological data, and, above all, on the observations of clinical experiences. Our emphasis in this article is on the treatment principles, methods, and techniques, along with case examples to illustrate what we mean. Case material is taken from audio recordings for which written informed consent was obtained for presentations and journal articles. Some changes have been made to maintain confidentiality.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1705
[Cu] Class update date: 170517
[Lr] Last revision date:170517
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1521/pedi_2017_31_290

  10 / 1104 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28424380
[Au] Autor:Kállai J; Simon M; Hartung I; Birkás B; Herold R
[Ad] Address:Pecsi Tudomanyegyetem, Altalanos Orvostudomanyi Kar, Magatartastudomanyi Intezet, Pecs, Hungary, E-mail: janos.kallai@aok.pte.hu.
[Ti] Title:[Schizotypy: detachment or magical fusion].
[So] Source:Psychiatr Hung;32(1):54-64, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:0237-7896
[Cp] Country of publication:Hungary
[La] Language:hun
[Ab] Abstract:Nowadays, both in the clinical population, and in general communities, we tend to encounter an increasing number of personality disorder patients, whose social adjustment, partnerships and efficient life management is made difficult by the disorder. The ideas of borderline personality disorder patients, who fluctuate between farfetched expectations and fears of their selves being demolished, schizoid patients, who close their selves in their own alienating prison, avoidant patients, who try to escape difficulties, which would enhance their self-esteem, OCD patients, who build their own mythic superstitious world, and antisocial patients who tend to ignore and aggressively override others' interests are all important in the development of cultures with insecure identities. Taking into consideration the symptoms enlisted in the diagnostic system of DSM-5, it is the task of experts of cultural anthropology, psychology, psychopathology and cognitive neuroscience to explore the referring ways of personality development, relationships and of conflict management. Notwithstanding, avoiding the psychopathological terminology, rather pointing at population characteristics, we need to identify personal functionings of the general features of perception, cognition and world views, which in the long run, may modify personal developmental possibilities, individual approaches to information technology, and emotional, family or professional motivations. Based on the respective literature and clinical experience, below we intend to explore the different aspects of schizotypy, which contribute to the formation of schizoid personality disorder. We analyze the interrelations of avoiding relationships and empathy toward relationship building.
[Pt] Publication type:ENGLISH ABSTRACT; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1704
[Cu] Class update date: 170420
[Lr] Last revision date:170420
[St] Status:In-Data-Review


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