Database : MEDLINE
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[PMID]: 25019438
[Au] Autor:Murphey MD; Foreman KL; Klassen-Fischer MK; Fox MG; Chung EM; Kransdorf MJ
[Ad] Address:From the Departments of Musculoskeletal Imaging (M.D.M., K.L.F., E.M.C.) and Pediatric Imaging (E.M.C.), American Institute for Radiologic Pathology, 1010 Wayne Ave, Suite 320, Silver Spring, MD 20910; Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Md (M.D.M., E.M.C.); Department of Radiology, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, Md (M.D.M., K.L.F., E.M.C.); Joint Pathology Center, Silver Spring, Md (M.K.K.F.); Department of Radiology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va (M.G.F.); and Mayo Clinic Hospital, Phoenix, Ariz (M.J.K.).
[Ti] Title:From the radiologic pathology archives imaging of osteonecrosis: radiologic-pathologic correlation.
[So] Source:Radiographics;34(4):1003-28, 2014 Jul-Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1527-1323
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Osteonecrosis is common and represents loss of blood supply to a region of bone. Common sites affected include the femoral head, humeral head, knee, femoral/tibial metadiaphysis, scaphoid, lunate, and talus. Symptomatic femoral head osteonecrosis accounts for 10,000-20,000 new cases annually in the United States. In contradistinction, metadiaphyseal osteonecrosis is often occult and asymptomatic. There are numerous causes of osteonecrosis most commonly related to trauma, corticosteroids, and idiopathic. Imaging of osteonecrosis is frequently diagnostic with a serpentine rim of sclerosis on radiographs, photopenia in early disease at bone scintigraphy, and maintained yellow marrow at MR imaging with a serpentine rim of high signal intensity (double-line sign) on images obtained with long repetition time sequences. These radiologic features correspond to the underlying pathology of osseous response to wall off the osteonecrotic process and attempts at repair with vascularized granulation tissue at the reactive interface. The long-term clinical importance of epiphyseal osteonecrosis is almost exclusively based on the likelihood of overlying articular collapse. MR imaging is generally considered the most sensitive and specific imaging modality both for early diagnosis and identifying features that increase the possibility of this complication. Treatment subsequent to articular collapse and development of secondary osteoarthritis typically requires reconstructive surgery. Malignant transformation of osteonecrosis is rare and almost exclusively associated with metadiaphyseal lesions. Imaging features of this dire sequela include aggressive bone destruction about the lesion margin, cortical involvement, and an associated soft-tissue mass. Recognizing the appearance of osteonecrosis, which reflects the underlying pathology, improves radiologic assessment and is important to guide optimal patient management. ©RSNA, 2014.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1148/rg.344140019

  2 / 176134 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25019319
[Au] Autor:Hyde GD; Taylor RF; Ashton N; Borland SJ; Wu HS; Gilmore AP; Canfield AE
[Ad] Address:Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences, Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom; Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell-Matrix Research, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom....
[Ti] Title:Axl Tyrosine Kinase Protects against Tubulo-Interstitial Apoptosis and Progression of Renal Failure in a Murine Model of Chronic Kidney Disease and Hyperphosphataemia.
[So] Source:PLoS One;9(7):e102096, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined as the progressive loss of renal function often involving glomerular, tubulo-interstitial and vascular pathology. CKD is associated with vascular calcification; the extent of which predicts morbidity and mortality. However, the molecular regulation of these events and the progression of chronic kidney disease are not fully elucidated. To investigate the function of Axl receptor tyrosine kinase in CKD we performed a sub-total nephrectomy and fed high phosphate (1%) diet to Axl+/+ and Axl-/- mice. Plasma Gas6 (Axl' ligand), renal Axl expression and downstream Akt signalling were all significantly up-regulated in Axl+/+ mice following renal mass reduction and high phosphate diet, compared to age-matched controls. Axl-/- mice had significantly enhanced uraemia, reduced bodyweight and significantly reduced survival following sub-total nephrectomy and high phosphate diet compared to Axl+/+ mice; only 45% of Axl-/- mice survived to 14 weeks post-surgery compared to 87% of Axl+/+ mice. Histological analysis of kidney remnants revealed no effect of loss of Axl on glomerular hypertrophy, calcification or renal sclerosis but identified significantly increased tubulo-interstitial apoptosis in Axl-/- mice. Vascular calcification was not induced in Axl+/+ or Axl-/- mice in the time frame we were able to examine. In conclusion, we identify the up-regulation of Gas6/Axl signalling as a protective mechanism which reduces tubulo-interstitial apoptosis and slows progression to end-stage renal failure in the murine nephrectomy and high phosphate diet model of CKD.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0102096

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[PMID]: 25019165
[Au] Autor:Hofstra JM; Coenen MJ; Schijvenaars MM; Berden JH; van der Vlag J; Hoefsloot LH; Knoers NV; Wetzels JF; Nijenhuis T
[Ad] Address:Department of Nephrology, Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands....
[Ti] Title:TRPC6 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Progression of Idiopathic Membranous Nephropathy.
[So] Source:PLoS One;9(7):e102065, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Activating mutations in the Transient Receptor Potential channel C6 (TRPC6) cause autosomal dominant focal segmental glomerular sclerosis (FSGS). TRPC6 expression is upregulated in renal biopsies of patients with idiopathic membranous glomerulopathy (iMN) and animal models thereof. In iMN, disease progression is characterized by glomerulosclerosis. In addition, a context-dependent TRPC6 overexpression was recently suggested in complement-mediated podocyte injury in e.g. iMN. Hence, we hypothesized that genetic variants in TRPC6 might affect susceptibility to development or progression of iMN. METHODS & RESULTS: Genomic DNA was isolated from blood samples of 101 iMN patients and 292 controls. By direct sequencing of the entire TRPC6 gene, 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in the iMN cohort, two of which were causing an amino acid substitution (rs3802829; Pro15Ser and rs36111323, Ala404Val). No statistically significant differences in genotypes or allele frequencies between patients and controls were observed. Clinical outcome in patients was determined (remission n = 26, renal failure n = 46, persistent proteinuria n = 29, follow-up median 80 months {range 51-166}). The 13 identified SNPs showed no association with remission or renal failure. There were no differences in genotypes or allele frequencies between patients in remission and progressors. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that TRPC6 polymorphisms do not affect susceptibility to iMN, or clinical outcome in iMN.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0102065

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[PMID]: 24906536
[Au] Autor:Küst J; Dettmers C
[Ad] Address:MEDIAN-Klinik Burg Landshut, Bernkastel-Kues, Deutschland.
[Ti] Title:Fahreignung bei Multipler Sklerose. [Driving ability with multiple sclerosis].
[So] Source:Nervenarzt;85(7):829-34, 2014 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1433-0407
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:ger
[Ab] Abstract:Driving is an important issue for young patients, especially for those whose walking capacity is impaired. Driving might support the patient's social and vocational participation. The question as to whether a patient with multiple sclerosis (MS) is restricted in the ability to drive a car depends on neurological and neuropsychological deficits, self-awareness, insight into deficits and ability to compensate for loss of function. Because of the enormous variability of symptoms in MS the question is highly individualized. A practical driving test under supervision of a driving instructor (possibly accompanied by a neuropsychologist) might be helpful in providing both patient and relatives adequate feedback on driving abilities.
[Pt] Publication type:ENGLISH ABSTRACT; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00115-014-4009-7

  5 / 176134 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25023556
[Au] Autor:Cohen M; Lebrun C
[Ad] Address:Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Nice, Nice, France.
[Ti] Title:Moving to fingolimod from natalizumab in multiple sclerosis-reply.
[So] Source:JAMA Neurol;71(7):925, 2014 Jul 1.
[Is] ISSN:2168-6157
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Js] Journal subset:AIM; IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1001/jamaneurol.2014.1138

  6 / 176134 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25023553
[Au] Autor:Bianco A; Rossini PM; Mirabella M
[Ad] Address:Institute of Neurology, Catholic University, Rome, Italy.
[Ti] Title:Moving to Fingolimod From Natalizumab in Multiple Sclerosis: The ENIGM Is Not Solved.
[So] Source:JAMA Neurol;71(7):924-5, 2014 Jul 1.
[Is] ISSN:2168-6157
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Js] Journal subset:AIM; IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1001/jamaneurol.2014.1135

  7 / 176134 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24842800
[Au] Autor:Miller DH
[Ad] Address:Queen Square MS Centre, Department of Neuroinflammation, University College London Institute of Neurology, London, England.
[Ti] Title:Magnetic resonance spectroscopy: a possible in vivo marker of disease progression for multiple sclerosis?
[So] Source:JAMA Neurol;71(7):828-30, 2014 Jul 1.
[Is] ISSN:2168-6157
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Js] Journal subset:AIM; IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1001/jamaneurol.2014.896

  8 / 176134 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24839987
[Au] Autor:Llufriu S; Kornak J; Ratiney H; Oh J; Brenneman D; Cree BA; Sampat M; Hauser SL; Nelson SJ; Pelletier D
[Ad] Address:Department of Neurology, University of California-San Francisco4Center for Neuroimmunology, Service of Neurology, Hospital Clinic and Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain....
[Ti] Title:Magnetic resonance spectroscopy markers of disease progression in multiple sclerosis.
[So] Source:JAMA Neurol;71(7):840-7, 2014 Jul 1.
[Is] ISSN:2168-6157
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:IMPORTANCE: Predicting disease evolution is becoming essential for optimizing treatment decision making in multiple sclerosis (MS). Multiple sclerosis pathologic damage typically includes demyelination, neuro-axonal loss, and astrogliosis. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the potential of magnetic resonance markers of central nervous system injury to predict brain-volume loss and clinical disability in multiple sclerosis. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Participants were selected from the Multiple Sclerosis Center at the University of California-San Francisco. The preliminary data set included 59 patients with MS and 43 healthy control individuals. The confirmatory data set included 220 patients from an independent, large genotype-phenotype research project. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Baseline N-acetylaspartate (NAA) level, myo-inositol (mI) in normal-appearing white and gray matter, myelin water fraction in normal-appearing white matter, markers of axonal damage, astrogliosis, and demyelination were evaluated as predictors in a preliminary data set. Potential predictors were subsequently tested for replication in a confirmatory data set. Clinical scores and percentage of brain-volume change were obtained annually over 4 years as outcomes. Predictors of outcomes were assessed using linear models, linear mixed-effects models, and logistic regression. RESULTS: N-acetylaspartate and mI both had statistically significant effects on brain volume, prompting the use of the mI:NAA ratio in normal-appearing white matter as a predictor. The ratio was a predictor of brain-volume change in both cohorts (annual slope in the percentage of brain-volume change/unit of increase in the ratio: -1.68; 95% CI, -3.05 to -0.30; P = .02 in the preliminary study cohort and -1.08; 95% CI, -1.95 to -0.20; P = .02 in the confirmatory study cohort). Furthermore, the mI:NAA ratio predicted clinical disability (Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite evolution: -0.52 points annually, P < .001; Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite sustained progression: odds ratio, 2.76/SD increase in the ratio; 95% CI, 1.32 to 6.47; P = .01) in the preliminary data set and predicted Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite evolution (-0.23 points annually; P = .01), Expanded Disability Status Scale evolution (0.57 points annually; P = .04), and Expanded Disability Status Scale sustained progression (odds ratio, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.94; P = .009) in the confirmatory data set. Myelin water fraction did not show predictive value. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The mI:NAA ratio in normal-appearing white matter has consistent predictive power on brain atrophy and neurological disability evolution. The combined presence of astrogliosis and axonal damage in white matter has cardinal importance in disease severity.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Js] Journal subset:AIM; IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1001/jamaneurol.2014.895

  9 / 176134 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24821217
[Au] Autor:Haghikia A; Langer-Gould A; Rellensmann G; Schneider H; Tenenbaum T; Elias-Hamp B; Menck S; Zimmermann J; Herbstritt S; Marziniak M; Kümpfel T; Meinl I; Plavina T; Gold R; Hellwig K
[Ad] Address:Department of Neurology, St Josef-Hospital, Ruhr University Bochum, Bochum, Germany....
[Ti] Title:Natalizumab use during the third trimester of pregnancy.
[So] Source:JAMA Neurol;71(7):891-5, 2014 Jul 1.
[Is] ISSN:2168-6157
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:IMPORTANCE: Natalizumab reduces multiple sclerosis relapses very effectively; however, severe disease activity may return once natalizumab treatment is withdrawn, as recommended during pregnancy. Sometimes restarting natalizumab treatment may be the best option for the mother, but the consequences for the infant are unknown. Except for a few single case reports, to our knowledge, comprehensive data about third-trimester natalizumab exposure are scant. OBSERVATIONS: In a case series of 12 women with 13 pregnancies and highly active multiple sclerosis who were treated with natalizumab during their third trimester of pregnancy, we assessed the clinical and laboratory effects on the newborns. We observed mild to moderate hematologic alterations in 10 of 13 infants including thrombocytopenia and anemia. In a subsample of 5 mother-child pairs, we analyzed natalizumab levels in the umbilical cord blood. Natalizumab was detectable in all 5 newborns. CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: Natalizumab can be a therapeutic option in patients with highly active multiple sclerosis during pregnancy. We recommend that a pediatrician be available at the time of delivery to evaluate for potential complications of anemia and thrombocytopenia in newborns exposed to natalizumab during the third trimester.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Js] Journal subset:AIM; IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1001/jamaneurol.2014.209

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[PMID]: 24818670
[Au] Autor:Alvermann S; Hennig C; Stüve O; Wiendl H; Stangel M
[Ad] Address:Clinical Neuroimmunology and Neurochemistry, Department of Neurology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany....
[Ti] Title:Immunophenotyping of cerebrospinal fluid cells in multiple sclerosis: in search of biomarkers.
[So] Source:JAMA Neurol;71(7):905-12, 2014 Jul 1.
[Is] ISSN:2168-6157
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:IMPORTANCE: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is the compartment in closest proximity to the central nervous system (CNS) parenchyma and might reflect immune pathology in inflammatory CNS disorders like multiple sclerosis (MS). Multiparameter flow cytometry is used to characterize immunological alterations in the CSF of patients with MS. OBJECTIVES: To present a comprehensive review of the cellular alterations in CSF that distinguish MS from physiological conditions and other CNS disorders; integrate relevant findings into a model of leukocyte trafficking in the CNS; highlight treatment-related changes in leukocyte subsets; and evaluate the potential of CSF immunophenotyping in the search of novel biomarkers in MS. EVIDENCE REVIEW: We searched MEDLINE articles published between 1980 and 2013 that include the flow cytometric characterization of leukocyte subsets in the CSF of patients with MS. FINDINGS: All of the articles have shown CSF pleocytosis in MS. Interesting results include CSF enrichment of helper T cells (subtypes TH1 and TH17) and regulatory T cells, as well as intrathecal B-cell differentiation resulting in the generation of antibody-producing plasmablasts and plasma cells. Other leukocyte populations, including natural killer cells, monocytes, and dendritic cells, show alterations as well. Characterization of CSF cells increases our understanding of MS pathogenesis and may provide useful biomarkers for individual prognosis and treatment decisions. However, validation in controlled settings is lacking in most cases. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: With the advent of more sophisticated approaches, immunophenotyping of CSF cells in MS might become increasingly important to correlate cellular subsets with different stages of disease activity and remission. An assessment of CSF cell numbers and composition should be incorporated into clinical trials.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Js] Journal subset:AIM; IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1001/jamaneurol.2014.395


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