Database : MEDLINE
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[PMID]: 26727307
[Au] Autor:Couratier P; Corcia P; Lautrette G; Nicol M; Preux PM; Marin B
[Ad] Address:Centre de compétence SLA-fédération Tours-Limoges, CHU de Limoges, 2, avenue Martin-Luther-King, 87000 Limoges, France; Inserm UMR1094, neuroépidémiologie tropicale, université de Limoges, 2, rue du Dr.-Marcland, 87025 Limoges cedex, France. Electronic address: philippe.couratier@unilim.fr....
[Ti] Title:Epidemiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A review of literature.
[So] Source:Rev Neurol (Paris);172(1):37-45, 2016 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:0035-3787
[Cp] Country of publication:France
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease of motor neurons, resulting in worsening weakness of voluntary muscles until death occurs from respiratory failure. The incidence of ALS in European populations is two to three people per year per 100,000 of the general population. In Europe, crude prevalences range from 1.1/100,000 population in Yugoslavia to 8.2/100,000 in the Faroe Islands. Major advances have been made in our understanding of the genetic causes of ALS, whereas the contribution of environmental factors has been more difficult to assess and large-scale studies have not yet revealed a replicable, definitive environmental risk factor. The only established risk factors to date are older age, male gender and a family history of ALS. Median survival time from onset to death is usually 3 years from the first appearance of symptoms. Older age and bulbar onset are consistently reported to have poorer outcomes. However, there are conflicting data regarding gender, diagnostic delay and El Escorial criteria. The rate of symptom progression has been revealed to be an independent prognostic factor. Psychosocial factors and impaired cognitive function are negatively related to ALS outcome, while nutritional status and respiratory function are also related to ALS prognosis. The effect of enteral nutrition on survival is still unclear, although noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) has been found to improve survival. These findings have relevant implications for the design of future trials.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1601
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  2 / 193279 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26718593
[Au] Autor:Leray E; Moreau T; Fromont A; Edan G
[Ad] Address:Biostatistics and Epidemiology Department, EHESP, avenue du Professeur-Léon-Bernard, 35000 Rennes, France....
[Ti] Title:Epidemiology of multiple sclerosis.
[So] Source:Rev Neurol (Paris);172(1):3-13, 2016 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:0035-3787
[Cp] Country of publication:France
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most frequently seen demyelinating disease, with a prevalence that varies considerably, from high levels in North America and Europe (>100/100,000 inhabitants) to low rates in Eastern Asia and sub-Saharan Africa (2/100,000 population). Knowledge of the geographical distribution of the disease and its survival data, and a better understanding of the natural history of the disease, have improved our understanding of the respective roles of endogenous and exogenous causes of MS. Concerning mortality, in a large French cohort of 27,603 patients, there was no difference between MS patients and controls in the first 20 years of the disease, although life expectancy was reduced by 6-7 years in MS patients. In 2004, the prevalence of MS in France was 94.7/100,000 population, according to data from the French National Health Insurance Agency for Salaried Workers (Caisse nationale d'assurance maladie des travailleurs Salariés [CNAM-TS]), which insures 87% of the French population. This prevalence was higher in the North and East of France. In several countries, including France, the gender ratio for MS incidence (women/men) went from 2/1 to 3/1 from the 1950s to the 2000s, but only for the relapsing-remitting form. As for risk factors of MS, the most pertinent environmental factors are infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), especially if it arises after childhood and is symptomatic. The role of smoking in MS risk has been confirmed, but is modest. In contrast, vaccines, stress, traumatic events and allergies have not been identified as risk factors, while the involvement of vitamin D has yet to be confirmed. From a genetic point of view, the association between HLA-DRB1*15:01 and a high risk of MS has been known for decades. More recently, immunogenetic markers have been identified (IL2RA, IL7RA) and, in particular thanks to studies of genome-wide associations, more than 100 genetic variants have been reported. Most of these are involved in the immune response and often associated with other autoimmune diseases. Studies of the natural history of MS suggest it is a two-phase disease: in the first phase, inflammation is focal with flares; and in the second phase, disability progresses independently of focal inflammation. This has clear implications for therapy. Age may also be a key factor in the phenotype of the disease. In conclusion, France is a high-risk country for MS, but it only slightly reduces life expectancy. MS is a multifactorial disease and the implications of immunogenetics are major. Preventative approaches might be derived from knowledge of the risk factors and natural history of the disease (smoking, vitamin D).
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1601
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  3 / 193279 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26718591
[Au] Autor:Calderón-Garcidueñas L; Leray E; Heydarpour P; Torres-Jardón R; Reis J
[Ad] Address:The University of Montana, Missoula, MT, 59812, USA; Universidad del Valle de México, Mexico City 04850, Mexico....
[Ti] Title:Air pollution, a rising environmental risk factor for cognition, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration: The clinical impact on children and beyond.
[So] Source:Rev Neurol (Paris);172(1):69-80, 2016 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:0035-3787
[Cp] Country of publication:France
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Air pollution (indoors and outdoors) is a major issue in public health as epidemiological studies have highlighted its numerous detrimental health consequences (notably, respiratory and cardiovascular pathological conditions). Over the past 15years, air pollution has also been considered a potent environmental risk factor for neurological diseases and neuropathology. This review examines the impact of air pollution on children's brain development and the clinical, cognitive, brain structural and metabolic consequences. Long-term potential consequences for adults' brains and the effects on multiple sclerosis (MS) are also discussed. One challenge is to assess the effects of lifetime exposures to outdoor and indoor environmental pollutants, including occupational exposures: how much, for how long and what type. Diffuse neuroinflammation, damage to the neurovascular unit, and the production of autoantibodies to neural and tight-junction proteins are worrisome findings in children chronically exposed to concentrations above the current standards for ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and may constitute significant risk factors for the development of Alzheimer's disease later in life. Finally, data supporting the role of air pollution as a risk factor for MS are reviewed, focusing on the effects of PM10 and nitrogen oxides.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1601
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  4 / 193279 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26723138
[Au] Autor:Watson A; Pribadi M; Chowdari K; Clifton S; Joel Wood; Miller BL; Coppola G; Nimgaonkar V
[Ad] Address:Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, United States....
[Ti] Title:C9orf72 repeat expansions that cause frontotemporal dementia are detectable among patients with psychosis.
[So] Source:Psychiatry Res;235:200-2, 2016 Jan 30.
[Is] ISSN:1872-7123
[Cp] Country of publication:Ireland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:A pathologic hexanucleotide repeat expansion in C9orf72 causes frontotemporal dementia (FTD) or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Behavioral abnormalities can also occur among mutation carriers with FTD, but it is uncertain whether such mutations occur among persons with psychoses per se. Among participants in a genetic study of psychoses (N=739), two pairs of related individuals had C9orf72 expansions, of whom three were diagnosed with schizophrenia (SZ) / schizoaffective disorder (SZA), but their clinical features did not suggest dementia or ALS. A few patients with SZ/SZA carry C9orf72 repeat expansions; such individuals are highly likely to develop FTD/ALS.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1601
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  5 / 193279 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26299696
[Au] Autor:Jiang H; Delgado S; Liu C; Rammohan KW; DeBuc DC; Lam BL; Wang J
[Ad] Address:Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami, Miami, Florida; Department of Neurology, University of Miami, Miami, Florida. Electronic address: hjiang@med.miami.edu....
[Ti] Title:In Vivo Characterization of Retinal Microvascular Network in Multiple Sclerosis.
[So] Source:Ophthalmology;123(2):437-8, 2016 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1549-4713
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1601
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  6 / 193279 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26687930
[Au] Autor:Sánchez-Santed F; Colomina MT; Herrero Hernández E
[Ad] Address:Department of Psychology and Research Center for Agricultural and Food Biotechnology BITAL, Universidad de Almería, Almería, Spain. Electronic address: fsanchez@ual.es.
[Ti] Title:Organophosphate pesticide exposure and neurodegeneration.
[So] Source:Cortex;74:417-26, 2016 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1973-8102
[Cp] Country of publication:Italy
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Organophosphate pesticides (OPs) are used extensively throughout the world. The main sources of contamination for humans are dietary ingestion and occupational exposures. The major concerns related to OP exposure are delayed effects following high level exposures as well as the impact of low level exposures during the lifespan which are suggested to be a risk factor for nervous system chronic diseases. Both high and low level exposures may have a particularly high impact in population subgroups such as aged or genetically vulnerable populations. Apart from the principle action of OPs which involves inhibition of the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme, several molecular targets, such as hormones; neurotransmitters; neurotrophic factors; enzymes related to the metabolism of beta amyloid protein as well as inflammatory changes have been identified for OP compounds. Here we review the main neurological and/or cognitive deficits described and the experimental and epidemiological relationships found between pesticide exposure and Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) diseases. This report also focuses on possible individual differences making groups resilient or vulnerable to these toxicants. A critical discussion of the evidence obtained from experimental models and possible sources of bias in epidemiological studies is included. In particular this review aims to discuss common targets and pathways identified which may underlie the functional deficits associated with both pesticide exposure and neurodegeneration.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1601
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  7 / 193279 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26692368
[Au] Autor:de Bruin NM; Schmitz K; Schiffmann S; Tafferner N; Schmidt M; Jordan H; Häußler A; Tegeder I; Geisslinger G; Parnham MJ
[Ad] Address:Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME, Project Group Translational Medicine & Pharmacology TMP, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60596 Frankfurt am Main, Germany. Electronic address: natasja.debruin@gmail.com....
[Ti] Title:Multiple rodent models and behavioral measures reveal unexpected responses to FTY720 and DMF in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.
[So] Source:Behav Brain Res;300:160-74, 2016 Mar 1.
[Is] ISSN:1872-7549
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a widely-used rodent model for multiple sclerosis (MS), but a single model can hardly capture all features of MS. We investigated whether behavioral parameters in addition to clinical motor function scores could be used to assess treatment efficacy during score-free intervals in the relapsing-remitting EAE model in SJL/J mice. We studied the effects of the clinical reference compounds FTY720 (fingolimod, 0.5mg/kg/day) and dimethyl fumarate (DMF, 20-30mg/kg/day) on clinical scores in several rodent EAE models in order to generate efficacy profiles. SJL/J mice with relapsing-remitting EAE were studied using behavioral tests, including rotarod, gait analysis, locomotor activity and grip strength. SJL/J mice were also examined according to Crawley's sociability and preference for social novelty test. Prophylactic treatment with FTY720 prevented clinical scores in three of the four EAE rodent models: Dark Agouti (DA) and Lewis rats and C57BL/6J mice. Neither prophylactic nor late-therapeutic treatment with FTY720 reduced clinical scores or reversed deficits in the rotarod test in SJL/J mice, but we observed effects on motor functions and sociability in the absence of clinical scores. Prophylactic treatment with FTY720 improved the gait of SJL/J mice whereas late-therapeutic treatment improved manifestations of reduced social (re)cognition or preference for social novelty. DMF was tested in three EAE models and did not improve clinical scores at the dose used. These data indicate that improvements in behavioral deficits can occur in absence of clinical scores, which indicate subtle drug effects and may have translational value for human MS.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1601
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  8 / 193279 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26410555
[Au] Autor:Miller RE; Tran PB; Ishihara S; Larkin J; Malfait AM
[Ad] Address:Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, Rush University Medical Center, 1611 W. Harrison St, Suite 510, Chicago, IL 60612, USA; Department of Biochemistry, Rush University Medical Center, 1611 W. Harrison St, Suite 510, Chicago, IL 60612, USA....
[Ti] Title:Therapeutic effects of an anti-ADAMTS-5 antibody on joint damage and mechanical allodynia in a murine model of osteoarthritis.
[So] Source:Osteoarthritis Cartilage;24(2):299-306, 2016 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1522-9653
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE: The primary goal of this study was to test the disease-modifying effect of blocking a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS)-5 with a neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb) starting 4 weeks after destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) in the mouse. We also investigated whether ADAMTS-5 blockade reversed mechanical allodynia and decreased monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 production by dorsal root ganglia (DRG) cells. METHODS: Ten-week old male C57BL/6 mice underwent DMM surgery and were either left untreated or treated with anti-ADAMTS-5 mAb or IgG2c isotype control mAb starting 4 weeks after surgery. Knees were collected for histopathology 4 or 12 weeks later. Mechanical allodynia was monitored biweekly in the ipsilateral hind paw through 16 weeks. DRG were collected and cultured 8 weeks after DMM for analysis of MCP-1 production. RESULTS: By 4 weeks after DMM, mild cartilage degeneration was evident in the medial compartment, small osteophytes were present, and subchondral bone sclerosis was established. By 16 weeks after surgery, significant cartilage deterioration was apparent on the medial tibial plateaux and medial femoral condyles, osteophyte size had increased, and subchondral bone sclerosis was maintained. Treatment with ADAMTS-5 mAb from week 4 to 16 after surgery slowed cartilage degeneration and osteophyte growth but did not affect subchondral bone sclerosis. Moreover, ADAMTS-5 blockade resulted in temporary reversal of mechanical allodynia, which correlated with decreased MCP-1 production by cultured DRG cells. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests therapeutic efficacy of an ADAMTS-5 mAb in the DMM model, when therapy starts early in disease.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1601
[Cu] Class update date: 160123
[Lr] Last revision date:160123
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  9 / 193279 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25998063
[Au] Autor:Kim RB; Irvin CW; Tilva KR; Mitchell CS
[Ad] Address:a Department of Biomedical Engineering , Georgia Institute of Technology & Emory University , Atlanta , Georgia , USA....
[Ti] Title:State of the field: An informatics-based systematic review of the SOD1-G93A amyotrophic lateral sclerosis transgenic mouse model.
[So] Source:Amyotroph Lateral Scler Frontotemporal Degener;17(1-2):1-14, 2015 Jan-Feb.
[Is] ISSN:2167-9223
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Numerous sub-cellular through system-level disturbances have been identified in over 1300 articles examining the superoxide dismutase-1 guanine 93 to alanine (SOD1-G93A) transgenic mouse amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) pathophysiology. Manual assessment of such a broad literature base is daunting. We performed a comprehensive informatics-based systematic review or 'field analysis' to agnostically compute and map the current state of the field. Text mining of recaptured articles was used to quantify published data topic breadth and frequency. We constructed a nine-category pathophysiological function-based ontology to systematically organize and quantify the field's primary data. Results demonstrated that the distribution of primary research belonging to each category is: systemic measures an motor function, 59%; inflammation, 46%; cellular energetics, 37%; proteomics, 31%; neural excitability, 22%; apoptosis, 20%; oxidative stress, 18%; aberrant cellular chemistry, 14%; axonal transport, 10%. We constructed a SOD1-G93A field map that visually illustrates and categorizes the 85% most frequently assessed sub-topics. Finally, we present the literature-cited significance of frequently published terms and uncover thinly investigated areas. In conclusion, most articles individually examine at least two categories, which is indicative of the numerous underlying pathophysiological interrelationships. An essential future path is examination of cross-category pathophysiological interrelationships and their co-correspondence to homeostatic regulation and disease progression.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1601
[Cu] Class update date: 160123
[Lr] Last revision date:160123
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.3109/21678421.2015.1047455

  10 / 193279 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26555452
[Au] Autor:Martyanov V; Whitfield ML
[Ad] Address:Department of Genetics, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, New Hampshire, USA.
[Ti] Title:Molecular stratification and precision medicine in systemic sclerosis from genomic and proteomic data.
[So] Source:Curr Opin Rheumatol;28(1):83-8, 2016 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1531-6963
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this review is to summarize recent advances into the pathogenesis and treatment of systemic sclerosis (SSc) from genomic and proteomic studies. RECENT FINDINGS: Intrinsic gene expression-driven molecular subtypes of SSc are reproducible across three independent datasets. These subsets are a consistent feature of SSc and are found in multiple end-target tissues, such as skin and esophagus. Intrinsic subsets as well as baseline levels of molecular target pathways are potentially predictive of clinical response to specific therapeutics, based on three recent clinical trials. A gene expression-based biomarker of modified Rodnan skin score, a measure of SSc skin severity, can be used as a surrogate outcome metric and has been validated in a recent trial. Proteome analyses have identified novel biomarkers of SSc that correlate with SSc clinical phenotypes. SUMMARY: Integrating intrinsic gene expression subset data, baseline molecular pathway information, and serum biomarkers along with surrogate measures of modified Rodnan skin score provides molecular context in SSc clinical trials. With validation, these approaches could be used to match patients with the therapies from which they are most likely to benefit and thus increase the likelihood of clinical improvement.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1511
[Cu] Class update date: 160123
[Lr] Last revision date:160123
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1097/BOR.0000000000000237


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