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[PMID]: 29392532
[Au] Autor:Hill EM; Robinson LA; Abdul-Sada A; Vanbergen AJ; Hodge A; Hartley SE
[Ad] Address:School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Brighton, BN1 9QG, UK.
[Ti] Title:Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Plant Chemical Defence: Effects of Colonisation on Aboveground and Belowground Metabolomes.
[So] Source:J Chem Ecol;44(2):198-208, 2018 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1573-1561
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) colonisation of plant roots is one of the most ancient and widespread interactions in ecology, yet the systemic consequences for plant secondary chemistry remain unclear. We performed the first metabolomic investigation into the impact of AMF colonisation by Rhizophagus irregularis on the chemical defences, spanning above- and below-ground tissues, in its host-plant ragwort (Senecio jacobaea). We used a non-targeted metabolomics approach to profile, and where possible identify, compounds induced by AMF colonisation in both roots and shoots. Metabolomics analyses revealed that 33 compounds were significantly increased in the root tissue of AMF colonised plants, including seven blumenols, plant-derived compounds known to be associated with AMF colonisation. One of these was a novel structure conjugated with a malonyl-sugar and uronic acid moiety, hitherto an unreported combination. Such structural modifications of blumenols could be significant for their previously reported functional roles associated with the establishment and maintenance of AM colonisation. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), key anti-herbivore defence compounds in ragwort, dominated the metabolomic profiles of root and shoot extracts. Analyses of the metabolomic profiles revealed an increase in four PAs in roots (but not shoots) of AMF colonised plants, with the potential to protect colonised plants from below-ground organisms.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1007/s10886-017-0921-1

  2 / 2143 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29377789
[Au] Autor:Gottschalk C; Ostertag J; Meyer K; Gehring K; Thyssen S; Gareis M
[Ad] Address:a Chair of Food Safety, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine , Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich (LMU) , Oberschleissheim , Germany.
[Ti] Title:Influence of grass pellet production on pyrrolizidine alkaloids occurring in Senecio aquaticus-infested grassland.
[So] Source:Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess;:1-10, 2018 Feb 23.
[Is] ISSN:1944-0057
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:1,2-Dehydro-pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA) and their N-oxides (PANO) exhibit acute and chronic toxic effects on the liver and other organs and therefore are a hazard for animal and human health. In certain regions of Germany, an increasing spread of Senecio spp. (ragwort) on grassland and farmland areas has been observed during the last years leading to a PA/PANO-contamination of feed and food of animal and plant origin. This project was carried out to elucidate whether the process of grass pellet production applying hot air drying influences the content of PA and PANO. Samples of hay (n = 22) and grass pellets (n = 28) originated from naturally infested grassland (around 10% and 30% dominance of Senecio aquaticus) and from a trial plot with around 50% dominance. Grass pellets were prepared from grass originating from exactly the same plots as the hay samples. The samples were analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for PA/PANO typically produced by this weed. The results of the study revealed that PA/PANO levels (predominantly sum of senecionine, seneciphylline, erucifoline and their N-oxides) in hay ranged between 2.1 and 12.6 mg kg dry matter in samples with 10% and 30% dominance of S. aquaticus, respectively. Samples from the trial plot (50% dominance) had levels of up to 52.9 mg kg . Notably, the hot air drying process during the production of grass pellets did not lead to a reduction of PA/PANO levels. Instead, the levels in grass pellets with 10% and 30% S. aquaticus ranged from 3.1 to 55.1 mg kg . Grass pellets from the trial plot contained up to 96.8 mg kg . In conclusion, hot air drying and grass pellet production did not affect PA/PANO contents in plant material and therefore, heat-dried products cannot be regarded as safe in view of the toxic potential of 1,2-dehydro-pyrrolizidine alkaloids.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180223
[Lr] Last revision date:180223
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1080/19440049.2018.1430901

  3 / 2143 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29450953
[Au] Autor:Arfin Khan MAS; Vetter VMS; Reshi ZA; Dar PA; Jentsch A
[Ad] Address:Disturbance Ecology, BayCEER, University of Bayreuth Germany.
[Ti] Title:Factors influencing seedling emergence of three global invaders in greenhouses representing major eco-regions of the world.
[So] Source:Plant Biol (Stuttg);, 2018 Feb 16.
[Is] ISSN:1438-8677
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Success of germination and seedling emergence in new environments are crucial first steps in the life history of global plant invaders and thus play a key role in processes of range expansion. We examined the germination and seedling emergence success of three global plant invaders - Lupinus polyphyllus, Senecio inaequidens, and Verbascum thapsus - in greenhouses and climate chambers under climate regimes corresponding to seven eco-regions. Seed materials were collected from one non-native population for L. polyphyllus and S. inaequidens, and from 12 populations for V. thapsus (six natives and six non-natives). Experimental climates had significant effects on species responses. No species germinated in the dry (humidity ≤ 50%) and cool (temperature ≤ 5°C) experimental climates. But, all species germinated and emerged in two moderately cool (12-19°C) and in three warm (24-27°C) experimental climates. In general, V. thapsus showed higher fitness than S. inaequidens and L. polyphyllus. The climate of the seed source region influenced responses of native and non-native populations of V. thapsus. Non-native populations of V. thapsus, originating from the warmer seed source, showed higher performance in warm experimental climates and lower performance in moderately cool experimental climates compared to native populations. Responses of V. thapsus populations were also related to precipitation of the seed source region in moderately dry experimental climates. The warm, semi-arid and humid experimental climates are suitable for the crucial first steps of invasion success by L. polyphyllus, S. inaequidens and V. thapsus. The species adaption to its source region modified the responses of our studied plants under different experimental climates representing major eco-regions of the world. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180216
[Lr] Last revision date:180216
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1111/plb.12710

  4 / 2143 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29275205
[Au] Autor:Yu J; Hu M; Wang Y; Zhang Q; Xu W; Su W
[Ad] Address:National Engineering Research Center for Process Development of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients, Collaborative Innovation Center of Yangtze River Region Green Pharmaceuticals, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, 310014, China.
[Ti] Title:Extraction, partial characterization and bioactivity of polysaccharides from Senecio scandens Buch.-Ham.
[So] Source:Int J Biol Macromol;109:535-543, 2018 Apr 01.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0003
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Mechanochemistry was applied to improve the yield of bioactive acid polysaccharides obtained from low-cost Senecio scandens Buch.-Ham. The structural characteristics and biological activities of three novel polysaccharides from S. scandens (SP2-1, SP2-2 and SP3-2) were investigated. SP2-1 and SP2-2 with molecular weights of 267.6 and 253.1 kDa, respectively, were composed of -rhamnose, -arabinose, -mannose, -xylose, -glucose and -galactose in various ratios, whereas SP3-2 with molecular weight of 266.6 kDa was composed of -arabinose, -glucose and -galactose. In vitro, SP3-2 presented the strongest DPPH, ABTS and O radicals scavenging activities, as well as Fe reducibility. Immunological tests demonstrated that all polysaccharide fractions stimulated the production of nitric oxide (NO) and immunomodulatory cytokines (IL-1ß and TNF-α) without cytotoxicity in macrophages and promoted splenocyte proliferation in different degree. These findings indicated that SP2-1, SP2-2 and SP3-2 have prominent antioxidant activity and potential immune response, which proved the possibility of S. scandens polysaccharides (SSP) applied in the field of functional food or medicine.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 180210
[Lr] Last revision date:180210
[St] Status:In-Process

  5 / 2143 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28975371
[Au] Autor:Jaber A; Seraphin D; Guilet D; Osuga J; Cheble E; Ibrahim G; Richomme P; Schinkovitz A
[Ad] Address:SONAS/SFR QUASAV, Université d'Angers, Université Bretagne Loire, Campus du végétal, 42 rue Georges Morel, 49070, Beaucouzé, France.
[Ti] Title:Bithiophenic MALDI matrices as valuable leads for the selective detection of alkaloids.
[So] Source:Anal Bioanal Chem;409(29):6791-6801, 2017 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1618-2650
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Alkaloids represent a group of biologically most interesting compounds commonly used in modern medicines but also known for exhibiting severe toxic effects. Therefore, the detection of alkaloids is an important issue in quality control of plants, dietary supplements, and herbal pharmaceutical and mostly facilitated by methods such as GC or LC-MS. However, benefitting from the development of selective matrices as well as requiring very little sample preparation, MALDI-MS may also provide a valuable supplement to these standard analytical methods. With this in mind, the present study highlights recent advances in the development of bithiophenic matrix molecules designed for the selective detection of alkaloids. Overall four new bithiophenic matrix molecules (BMs) were tested on different analytes belonging to various chemical families such as alkaloids, curcuminoids, benzopyrones, flavonoids, steroids, and peptides (I). All BMs were further compared to the commercial matrices α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) in terms of their signal response as well as their matrix noise formation (II). Based on these results the most promising candidate, 3-(5'-pentafluorophenylmethylsulfanyl-[2,2']bithiophenyl-5-ylsulfanyl)propionitrile (PFPT3P), was tested on highly complex samples such as the crude extracts of Colchicum autumnale, RYTMOPASC ® solution (a herbal pharmaceutical containing sparteine and rubijervine), as well as strychnine-spiked human plasma (III). For the latter, an evaluation of the limit of detection was performed. Eventually, a simplified protocol for the direct MALDI detection of major alkaloids from pulverized plant material of Atropa belladonna and Senecio vulgaris is presented (IV). Graphical abstract Selective MALDI MATRICES for Alkaloid Detection.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171104
[Lr] Last revision date:171104
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00216-017-0634-x

  6 / 2143 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28960556
[Au] Autor:Letsyo E; Jerz G; Winterhalter P; Lindigkeit R; Beuerle T
[Ad] Address:Institute of Food Chemistry, Technische Universitat Carolo Wilhelmina zu Braunschweig, Braunschweig, Niedersachsen, Germany.
[Ti] Title:Incidence of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in Herbal Medicines from German Retail Markets: Risk Assessments and Implications to Consumers.
[So] Source:Phytother Res;, 2017 Sep 28.
[Is] ISSN:1099-1573
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The occurrence of potentially toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) in herbal medicines (HMs) is currently intensely being discussed in Europe. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids, particularly the 1,2-unsaturated PAs, are undesired compounds in HMs due to their potential hepatotoxic and carcinogenic properties. In this study, 98 widely patronized HMs from six popular German retail supermarkets/drugstores, as well as from pharmacies, were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry for the presence of PAs. The results showed that about 63% of the HMs were PA positive, whereas the average PA concentration of the samples was 201 µg/kg, the highest concentration of PAs (3270 µg/kg) was attributed to a product that was purchased from the pharmacy and contained Hypericum perforatum L. (St. John's Wort) as an active ingredient. In addition, H. perforatum-containing products were frequently contaminated with PAs from Echium spp., while both Cynara cardunculus L. products and fixed-combination products of Gentiana lutea L., Rumex acetosa L., Verbena officinalis L., Sambucus nigra L., and Primula veris L. products were commonly contaminated with PAs of Senecio spp. The study showed that H. perforatum, C. cardunculus, Urtica dioica L., and fixed-combination products were frequently contaminated with PA levels above the recommended values of both the German and European Medicines Agencies. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1709
[Cu] Class update date: 170929
[Lr] Last revision date:170929
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1002/ptr.5935

  7 / 2143 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28956733
[Au] Autor:Kast C; Kilchenmann V; Reinhard H; Droz B; Lucchetti MA; Dübecke A; Beckh G; Zoller O
[Ad] Address:a Agroscope , Swiss Bee Research Centre , Bern , Switzerland.
[Ti] Title:Chemical fingerprinting identifies Echium vulgare, Eupatorium cannabinum and Senecio spp. as plant species mainly responsible for pyrrolizidine alkaloids in bee-collected pollen.
[So] Source:Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess;:1-12, 2017 Sep 28.
[Is] ISSN:1944-0057
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Various studies have shown that bee-collected pollen sold as nutritional supplements may contain toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) and, thus, pose a potential health risk for consumers. The level of contamination may vary according to its geographical and botanical origin. Here, the PA content of pollen produced in Switzerland was studied and 32 commercially available bee-collected pollen supplements produced between 2010 and 2014 were analysed. In addition, at what time period bees collect PA-containing pollen was investigated. Hence, this study looked into the occurrence of PAs in pollen samples collected daily during two-to-three consecutive seasons. Furthermore, the PA spectrum in pollen was compared to the spectrum found in flower heads of PA-plants to unambiguously identify plants responsible for PA contamination of pollen. The PA concentration of commercial and daily collected pollen was determined by target analysis using an HPLC-MS/MS system, allowing the detection of 18 different PAs and PA N-oxides found in the genera Echium, Eupatorium and Senecio, while the comparison of the PA spectrum in pollen and flower heads was performed by LC-HR-MS, allowing the detection of all PA types in a sample, including saturated, non-carcinogenic PAs. Of the commercially available pollen, 31% contained PAs with a mean concentration of 319 ng/g, mainly Echium- and Eupatorium-type PAs, while the PA concentrations were below the limit of quantitation (LOQ) in 69% of the pollen samples. Bees collected pollen containing Echium-type PAs mainly in June and July, while they gathered pollen containing Eupatorium-type PAs from mid-July to August. Senecio-type PAs appeared from June to September. Comparison of the PA array in pollen and plants identified E. vulgare and E. cannabinum as the main plants responsible for PA contamination of Swiss bee-collected pollen, and to a lesser extent also identified plants belonging to the genus Senecio.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1709
[Cu] Class update date: 171025
[Lr] Last revision date:171025
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1080/19440049.2017.1378443

  8 / 2143 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28861248
[Au] Autor:Dusková E; Sklenár P; Kolár F; Vásquez DLA; Romoleroux K; Fér T; Marhold K
[Ad] Address:Department of BotanyFaculty of ScienceCharles UniversityPragueCzech Republic.
[Ti] Title:Growth form evolution and hybridization in (Asteraceae) from the high equatorial Andes.
[So] Source:Ecol Evol;7(16):6455-6468, 2017 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:2045-7758
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Changes in growth forms frequently accompany plant adaptive radiations, including páramo-a high-elevation treeless habitat type of the northern Andes. We tested whether diverse group of inhabiting montane forests and páramo represented such growth form changes. We also investigated the role of Andean geography and environment in structuring genetic variation of this group. We sampled 108 populations and 28 species of (focusing on species from former genera and ) and analyzed their genetic relationships and patterns of intraspecific variation using DNA fingerprinting (AFLPs) and nuclear DNA sequences (ITS). We partitioned genetic variation into environmental and geographical components. ITS-based phylogeny supported monophyly of a - clade. A grade of herbaceous alpine species subtended the - clade suggesting a change from the herbaceous to the woody growth form. Both ITS sequences and the AFLPs separated a group composed of the majority of páramo subshrubs from other group(s) comprising both forest and páramo species of various growth forms. These morphologically variable group(s) further split into clades encompassing both the páramo subshrubs and forest lianas, indicating independent switches among the growth forms and habitats. The finest AFLP genetic structure corresponded to morphologically delimited species except in two independent cases in which patterns of genetic variation instead reflected geography. Several morphologically variable species were genetically admixed, which suggests possible hybrid origins. Latitude and longitude accounted for 5%-8% of genetic variation in each of three AFLP groups, while the proportion of variation attributed to environment varied between 8% and 31% among them. A change from the herbaceous to the woody growth form is suggested for species of high-elevation Andean . Independent switches between habitats and growth forms likely occurred within the group. Hybridization likely played an important role in species diversification.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1709
[Cu] Class update date: 170903
[Lr] Last revision date:170903
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/ece3.3206

  9 / 2143 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28829252
[Au] Autor:de Nijs M; Mulder PPJ; Klijnstra MD; Driehuis F; Hoogenboom RLAP
[Ad] Address:a RIKILT Wageningen University & Research , Wageningen , the Netherlands.
[Ti] Title:Fate of pyrrolizidine alkaloids during processing of milk of cows treated with ragwort.
[So] Source:Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess;34(12):2212-2219, 2017 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1944-0057
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:To investigate the fate of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) during milk processing, milk of cows treated via rumen fistula with a mixture of 84% (w/w) ragwort (Jacobaea vulgaris, syn. Senecio jacobaea) and 16% narrow-leaved ragwort (Senecio inaequidens) was processed using laboratory scale heating systems with industrial settings. Pasteurised and sterilised (UHT) milk were produced, as well as set-type yoghurt and cheese. Samples were analysed for 29 PAs using LC-MS/MS, of which 11 PAs were detected above LOQ in the samples (0.1 µg l ). Alterations in the PA concentration and composition between the standardised milk and the corresponding end-product(s) were evaluated. The heat treatments applied for pasteurisation and UHT sterilisation to prepare semi-skimmed consumption milk did not affect the PA levels in the end-products. In yoghurt, after fermentation of standardised milk (6 h, pH 4.4), 73% of total PAs were recovered. The PA concentration, specifically dehydrojacoline, was decreased, although not quantifiable, during cheese production. A further decrease of 38% during 6 weeks of ripening was observed. The results show that the PA concentration of natural contaminated cow's milk is not affected by heat treatment applied for pasteurised and sterilised milk, but that microbial fermentation of the milk leads to a lowered PA concentration in yoghurt and cheese. This is probably due to microbiological degradation, since PAs are fairly stable under acidic conditions.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1708
[Cu] Class update date: 171031
[Lr] Last revision date:171031
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1080/19440049.2017.1364432

  10 / 2143 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28777979
[Au] Autor:Hu XR; Chou GX; Zhang CG
[Ad] Address:The MOE Key Laboratory of Standardization of Chinese Medicines, and SATCM Key Laboratory of New Resources and Quality Evaluation of Chinese Medicines, Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203, People's Republic of China; Shanghai R&D Centre for Standardization of Chinese Medicines, Shanghai 201203, People's Republic of China.
[Ti] Title:Flavonoids, alkaloids from the seeds of Crotalaria pallida and their cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory activities.
[So] Source:Phytochemistry;143:64-71, 2017 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1873-3700
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Three flavonoids, cropalliflavones A-C, including two homoisoflavonoids with rare skeletons; three previously undescribed alkaloids, usaramine-N-oxide and cropallins A-B; and sixteen known compounds, were isolated from the seeds of Crotalaria pallida Ait. The absolute configurations of cropalliflavone A and usaramine-N-oxide were established by an ECD calculation and X-ray crystallography, respectively. Additionally, cropalliflavone B showed anti-proliferative activity against the MCF-7 cell line with an IC value of 6.77 µM, and cropalliflavone C showed anti-inflammatory activity, with an IC value of 16.07 µM.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Alkaloids/isolation & purification
Alkaloids/pharmacology
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/isolation & purification
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology
Crotalaria/chemistry
Flavonoids/isolation & purification
Flavonoids/pharmacology
Seeds/chemistry
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Alkaloids/chemistry
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry
Crystallography, X-Ray
Flavonoids/chemistry
Humans
Inhibitory Concentration 50
MCF-7 Cells
Molecular Conformation
Molecular Structure
Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Alkaloids); 0 (Anti-Inflammatory Agents); 0 (Flavonoids); 0 (Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids); XJ86XWL8IY (retrorsine)
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171002
[Lr] Last revision date:171002
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170805
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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