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[PMID]: 29524925
[Au] Autor:Chen MK
[Ad] Address:Yale University, New Haven, CT.
[Ti] Title:The Effect of Language on Economic Behavior: Evidence from Savings Rates, Health Behaviors, and Retirement Assets.
[So] Source:Am Econ Rev;103(2):690-731, 2013 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:0002-8282
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Languages differ widely in the ways they encode time. I test the hypothesis that the languages that grammatically associate the future and the present, foster future-oriented behavior. This prediction arises naturally when well-documented effects of language structure are merged with models of intertemporal choice. Empirically, I find that speakers of such languages: save more, retire with more wealth, smoke less, practice safer sex, and are less obese. This holds both across countries and within countries when comparing demographically similar native households. The evidence does not support the most obvious forms of common causation. I discuss implications for theories of intertemporal choice.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:Publisher

  2 / 836648 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29524918
[Au] Autor:Guimond S; Padani S; Lutz O; Eack S; Thermenos H; Keshavan M
[Ad] Address:Department of Psychiatry, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Massachusetts Mental Health Center Division of Public Psychiatry, MA 02115, USA; Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Electronic address: sguimond@bidmc.harvard.edu.
[Ti] Title:Impaired regulation of emotional distractors during working memory load in schizophrenia.
[So] Source:J Psychiatr Res;101:14-20, 2018 Mar 02.
[Is] ISSN:1879-1379
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Schizophrenia (SZ) patients exhibit deficits in emotion regulation that affect their daily functioning. There is evidence that the prefrontal cortex plays an important role in emotion regulation. However, it remains unclear how this brain region is involved in emotion regulation deficits in SZ, and how such deficits impact performance on cognitively demanding tasks. We examined how happy and fearful emotional distractors impact performance on working memory (WM) tasks of varying difficulty (0-back, 2-back), and brain activity using fMRI. Participants were 20 patients with SZ and 20 healthy controls (HC) matched on age, sex, race, and IQ. A significant 3-way interaction showed that SZ patients had lower performance compared to HC when exposed to fearful and happy distractors, but only during the 2-back task. Second-level fMRI between-group analysis revealed that compared to SZ patients, HC showed significantly greater increase in brain activity with WM load in the left IFG (BA 45) when exposed to fearful distractors. Less brain activity in this region was also associated with reduction in SZ patients' performance during higher WM load and the presence of fearful distractors. SZ patients had difficulty in performing a WM task when regulating emotions, and they failed to show the emotion-specific modulation of the left IFG observed in HC. These results suggest that SZ patients have difficulty with emotion regulation demands during effortful cognitive tasks. This also provides us with potential insight on how emotion regulation could be rehabilitated in SZ using cognitive training.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  3 / 836648 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29524863
[Au] Autor:Kasselman LJ; Vernice NA; DeLeon J; Reiss AB
[Ad] Address:Winthrop Research Institute and Department of Medicine, NYU Winthrop Hospital, Mineola, NY, USA. Electronic address: lkasselman@nyuwinthrop.org.
[Ti] Title:The gut microbiome and elevated cardiovascular risk in obesity and autoimmunity.
[So] Source:Atherosclerosis;271:203-213, 2018 Mar 02.
[Is] ISSN:1879-1484
[Cp] Country of publication:Ireland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Cardiovascular disease associated with obesity and autoimmunity is the leading cause of death in these populations and significant residual risk remains despite current treatment approaches. Obesity, type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are linked to chronic inflammation, and subjects with these disorders have characteristic shifts in their gut microbiome composition. Recent data suggest that alterations in gut microbial and metabolic composition may be responsible, in part, for induction of chronic inflammation, thus promoting cardiovascular disease. Common microbiome changes observed in obesity, T1DM, RA, and SLE include a decrease in the ratio of bacteria, such as Gram-positive Firmicutes to Gram-negative Bacteroidetes, as well as an overabundance or depletion of certain species, including Prevotella copri. The consequent effects of these shifts include alterations in the metabolic composition of the gut, hyper-activation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4), upregulation of inflammatory pathways, e.g. c-Jun N-terminal kinase and nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB), increased intestinal permeability, increased C-reactive protein, and increased levels of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO). Differential microbiome compositions may also explain sex differences observed in autoimmunity, where a male gut microbiome promotes anti-inflammatory processes as compared to a female pro-inflammatory gut microbiome. Intervention at the level of the microbiota appears to attenuate symptoms in these inflammatory syndromes with probiotic treatment, such as Lactobacilli, playing a uniquely beneficial role in restoring intestinal health, decreasing inflammation, and reducing cardiovascular disease. This review will discuss obesity, T1DM, RA, and SLE in the context of how each unique microbiome profile contributes to elevated cardiovascular risk.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  4 / 836648 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29524813
[Au] Autor:Wong DN; Fan W
[Ad] Address:Heart Disease Prevention Program, Division of Cardiology, University of California, Irvine, USA.
[Ti] Title:Ethnic and sex differences in E-cigarette use and relation to alcohol use in California adolescents: the California Health Interview Survey.
[So] Source:Public Health;157:147-152, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1476-5616
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVES: E-cigarette use is not only prevalent among adolescents but is growing at an alarming rate. This study sought to determine e-cigarette use prevalence and its relation to alcohol use as a potential gateway drug, and how this may differ by sex and ethnicity in a multi-ethnic sample of California adolescents. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. METHODS: We included data from 1806 adolescents (weighted to 3.0 million) aged 12-17 in the 2014 and 2015 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) cycles. The prevalence of e-cigarette use was calculated within sex and ethnic groups and the prevalence of alcohol use according to e-cigarette use was also examined with sample weighting providing population estimates. Multiple logistic regression models were built to predict the odds of using alcohol from e-cigarette use status adjusted for sociodemographic and other characteristics. RESULTS: The prevalence of e-cigarette use was 9.1% (projected to 0.3 million) overall in California adolescents but highest in boys among non-Hispanic Whites (15.1%) and in Asian girls (13.3%). Among e-cigarette users, 61.3% of boys and 71.0% of girls reported using alcohol as well. The logistic regression odds of alcohol use, adjusted for age, ethnicity, body mass index, cigarette smoking status, socioeconomic status, parents' education level, and insurance status among e-cigarettes users (compared with non-users) was 9.2 in girls and 3.1 in boys (both P<0.01). Asians/others, non-Hispanic whites and Hispanics were similarly at increased odds: 17.8, 5.4, and 3.0, respectively (P<0.01 for Asians/others and for whites) of using alcohol compared with their non-e-cigarette using counterparts, respectively. CONCLUSION: Attention needs to be paid to the high prevalence of e-cigarette smoking as well as its potential as a gateway drug for alcohol drinking in adolescents, especially among girls and Asians.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  5 / 836648 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29524779
[Au] Autor:Zhang JL; Liu M; Zhang CN; Li EC; Fan MZ; Huang MX
[Ad] Address:Laboratory of Aquatic Environment and Animal Safety, College of Animal Science and Technology, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang, Henan, China. Electronic address: jlzhang@haust.edu.cn.
[Ti] Title:Transcriptomic analyses of tributyltin-induced sexual dimorphisms in rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) brains.
[So] Source:Ecotoxicol Environ Saf;156:18-24, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1090-2414
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The brain of fish displays sexual dimorphisms and exhibits remarkable sexual plasticity throughout their life span. Although reproductive toxicity of tributyltin (TBT) in fish is well documented in fish, it remains unknown whether TBT interrupts sexual dimorphisms of fish brains. In this work, brain transcriptomic profiles of rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) was characterized and sex-biased genes were identified using RNA sequencing. Functional annotation and enrichment analysis were performed to reveal differences of gene products and pathways between the brains of male and female fish. Furthermore, transcriptomic responses of male and female brains to TBT at 10 ng/L were also investigated to understand effects of TBT on brain sexual dimorphisms. Only 345 male-biased and 273 female-biased genes were found in the brains. However, significant female-biased pathways of circadian rhythm and phototransduction were identified in the brains by enrichment analysis. Interestingly, following TBT exposure in the female fish, the circadian rhythm pathway was significantly disrupted based on enrichment analysis, while in the male fish, the phototransduction pathway was significantly disrupted. In the female fish, expression of genes (Per, Cry, Rev-Erb α, Ror, Dec and CK1δ/ε) in the circadian rhythm pathway was down-regulated after TBT exposure; while in the male fish, expression of genes (Rec, GNAT1_2, GNGT1, Rh/opsin, PDE and Arr) in the phototransduction pathway was up-regulated after TBT exposure. Overall, our results not only provide key data on the molecular basis of brain sexual dimorphisms in fish, but also offer valuable resources for investigating molecular mechanisms by which environmental chemicals might influence brain sexual plasticity.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  6 / 836648 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29524632
[Au] Autor:De Riccardis L; Buccolieri A; Muci M; Pitotti E; De Robertis F; Trianni G; Manno D; Maffia M
[Ad] Address:Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences and Technologies, University of Salento, via Monteroni, Lecce, Italy.
[Ti] Title:Copper and ceruloplasmin dyshomeostasis in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of multiple sclerosis subjects.
[So] Source:Biochim Biophys Acta;, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:0006-3002
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Although many studies have been carried out in order to understand the implication of copper (Cu) in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), the exact role that this metal plays in the disease is not still clear. Because of the lack of information in this subject, the present study compared the serum and cerebrospinal (CSF) levels of copper in MS patients in respect to a control group, matched for age and sex, finding a significant increase of metal concentrations, in both biological fluids of MS subjects. To confirm the possible impairment of Cu metabolism, we analyzed ceruloplasmin (Cp) level and activity, seeing as this protein is an established peripheral marker in diseases associated with Cu imbalance. By comparing these two parameters between control and MS subjects, we found an increase of Cp levels, associated with a decrease in Cp activity, in the second group. By analysing these data, free copper levels were calculated, significantly increased in serum of MS subjects; the increase in free copper could be one of the predisposing factors responsible for the Cu altered levels in CSF of MS patients. At the same time, this alteration could be attributable to the inability to incorporate Cu by Cp, probably due to the high oxidative environment found in serum of MS patients. Overall, all these copper alterations may play a role in MS pathogenesis.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  7 / 836648 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29524574
[Au] Autor:Zhang X; Li L; Jiang H; Ma J; Li J; Chen J
[Ad] Address:Guangdong Key Laboratory of Animal Conservation and Resource Utilization, Guangdong Public Laboratory of Wild Animal Conservation and Utilization, Guangdong Institute of Applied Biological Resources, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510260, People's Republic of China.
[Ti] Title:Identification and differential expression of microRNAs in testis and ovary of Amur sturgeon (Acipenser schrenckii).
[So] Source:Gene;, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0038
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) cooperate with sex-related genes in post-transcriptional regulation and play extremely important roles in the establishment of sexually dimorphic traits in animals. However, the gonad miRNAs and expression patterns of miRNAs in sturgeon have not been investigated. METHODS: In the present study, we used high-throughput small RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) to discover gonad miRNAs from the ovaries and testes of Amur sturgeons (Acipenser schrenckii). Further, microarray and real-time PCR assays were performed to identify the expression patterns of gonad miRNAs. RESULTS: As a result, a total of 679 conserved and 51 novel miRNAs were successfully discovered in the gonads of A. schrenckii. Moreover, we found wide sequence variations (isomiRs) in gonad miRNAs, including 5' and 3' isomiRs. Our microarray analysis further characterized the 730 miRNAs expression profiles, which indicated that 117 differentially expressed miRNAs were detected with sex-biased patterns: 71 testis-biased and 46 ovary-biased miRNAs. Based on bioinformatics prediction, we found that there were functional differences between the testis-biased and ovary-biased miRNA targets involved in reproductive-related GO and KEGG pathways. Further, the association of the differentially expressed miRNAs and sex-related target mRNAs was uncovered. Finally, the expression patterns of 11 sex-biased miRNAs and 7 sex-related targets were validated in testes and ovaries using real-time PCR. Putative, negatively expressed miRNA-mRNA relationships were confirmed, such as Dmrt1 and asc-miR-2779, AR and asc-miR-203b-3p, foxl2 and asc-miR-30d. CONCLUSION: This study provides information regarding the gonad miRNAs in sturgeon. The differential expression miRNAs in the gonads will help us to further understand the role of miRNA-mediated post-transcriptional regulation in the ovary and testis of sturgeon.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  8 / 836648 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29524498
[Au] Autor:Misaki K; Uchiyama N; Inaki A; Kinuya S; Nambu I; Kamide T; Mohri M; Hayashi Y; Nakada M
[Ad] Address:Department of Neurosurgery, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan. Electronic address: misaki@med.kanazawa-u.ac.jp.
[Ti] Title:Objective evaluation of cerebrovascular reactivity for acetazolamide predicts cerebral hyperperfusion after carotid artery stenting: Comparison with region of interest methods.
[So] Source:J Neuroradiol;, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:0150-9861
[Cp] Country of publication:France
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Hemodynamic impairments are considered risk factors of cerebral hyperperfusion after carotid artery stenting (CAS); measurement by SPECT using a subjective ROI method lacks consistency and reproducibility. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study compared objective perfusion analysis (stereotactic extraction estimation [SEE] method) with the ROI method for preoperative SPECT to predict the hyperperfusion phenomenon (HPP) after CAS. Preoperative resting asymmetry index (CBF ratio from the affected to unaffected hemisphere) and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) to acetazolamide were measured by N-isopropyl-p-[ I]-iodoamphetamine SPECT using the SEE and ROI method in 84 patients. CBF was also measured the day after CAS. Perfusion data with the highest area under the curve (AUC) by receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was considered a perfusion risk factor of HPP. Multivariate analyses for clinical characteristics and perfusion risk factors were performed to determine predictors of HPP. RESULTS: the HPP was observed in 10 patients (11.9%). Female sex, contralateral stenosis, and degree of stenosis were significantly associated with HPP development on univariate analysis, and symptomatic stenosis was not found to be a significant factor. On SPECT analysis, CVR in the MCA area by SEE method had the highest AUC (0.981). Multivariate analysis showed that CVR in the MCA area was a significant predictor of HPP (p=0.041). To predict hyperperfusion, the ROC curve of the CVR showed a cutoff value of -0.60%, sensitivity of 94.6%, and specificity of 100% (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: objective SEE method had better a predictive capability than ROI method to identify risk of hyperperfusion after CAS.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  9 / 836648 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29524497
[Au] Autor:Beppu M; Mineharu Y; Imamura H; Adachi H; Sakai C; Tani S; Arimura K; Tokunaga S; Sakai N
[Ad] Address:Department of Neurosurgery, Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, Kobe, Japan.
[Ti] Title:Postoperative in-stent protrusion is an important predictor of perioperative ischemic complications after carotid artery stenting.
[So] Source:J Neuroradiol;, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:0150-9861
[Cp] Country of publication:France
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although in-stent protrusion is a potential risk factor of thromboembolism following carotid artery stenting, the correlation between in-stent protrusion and postoperative ipsilateral stroke has not been well examined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 342 consecutive carotid artery lesions in 319patients who underwent carotid artery stenting between April 2008 and April 2015. After excluding cases with carotid artery dissection and acute occlusion, 301 lesions in total of 277 patients were included in the analysis. We examined the association between in-stent protrusion, which was detected by intravascular ultrasound, and postoperative ipsilateral stroke within 30 days. RESULTS: In-stent protrusion was observed in 47 (15.6%) lesions, of which postoperative ipsilateral stroke within 30 days occurred with 4 (8.5%) lesions. All these events occurred within 10 days after treatment. On the other hand, only 1 (0.39%) of the 256 lesions without in-stent protrusion showed this symptom, and the event occurred at 30 days after treatment. Thus, lesions with in-stent protrusion had higher cumulative risk of ipsilateral stroke than those without in-stent protrusion (8.5% vs 0.4% at 30days, log-rank p < 0.001). In-stent protrusion, which was more often seen in symptomatic lesions, was associated with a vulnerable plaque assessed by MRI. After adjustment for postoperative stroke risks such as symptomatic lesions, plaque vulnerability, age or sex, in-stent protrusion was still significantly associated with postoperative ipsilateral stroke within 30 days (OR = 27.03, p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative ipsilateral stroke was observed more frequently in patients with demonstrated ISP following CAS.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  10 / 836648 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29524458
[Au] Autor:Fonken LK; Frank MG; Gaudet AD; D'Angelo HM; Daut RA; Hampson EC; Ayala MT; Watkins LR; Maier SF
[Ad] Address:Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA80309. Electronic address: laura.fonken@austin.utexas.edu.
[Ti] Title:Neuroinflammatory priming to stress is differentially regulated in male and female rats.
[So] Source:Brain Behav Immun;, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1090-2139
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Exposure to stressors can enhance neuroinflammatory responses, and both stress and neuroinflammation are predisposing factors in the development of psychiatric disorders. Females suffer disproportionately more from several psychiatric disorders, yet stress-induced changes in neuroinflammation have primarily been studied in males. Here we tested whether exposure to inescapable tail shock sensitizes or 'primes' neuroinflammatory responses in male and female rats. At 24 h post-stress, male and female rats exposed to a peripheral immune challenge enhanced neuroinflammatory responses and exacerbated anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors. These changes are likely glucocorticoid dependent, as administering exogenous CORT, caused a similar primed inflammatory response in the hippocampus of male and female rats. Further, stress disinhibited anti-inflammatory signaling mechanisms (such as CD200R) in the hippocampus of male and female rats. In males, microglia are considered the likely cellular source mediating neuroinflammatory priming; stress increased cytokine expression in ex vivo male microglia. Conversely, microglia isolated from stressed or CORT treated females did not exhibit elevated cytokine responses. Microglia isolated from both stressed male and female rats reduced phagocytic activity; however, suggesting that microglia from both sexes experience stress-induced functional impairments. Finally, an immune challenge following either stress or CORT in females, but not males, increased peripheral inflammation (serum IL-1). These novel data suggest that although males and females both enhance stress-induced neuroinflammatory and behavioral responses to an immune challenge, this priming may occur through distinct, sex-specific mechanisms.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher


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