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[PMID]: 29458354
[Au] Autor:Puterova J; Kubat Z; Kejnovsky E; Jesionek W; Cizkova J; Vyskot B; Hobza R
[Ad] Address:Department of Plant Developmental Genetics, Institute of Biophysics, Czech Academy of Sciences, Kralovopolska 135, 612 00, Brno, Czech Republic.
[Ti] Title:The slowdown of Y chromosome expansion in dioecious Silene latifolia due to DNA loss and male-specific silencing of retrotransposons.
[So] Source:BMC Genomics;19(1):153, 2018 02 20.
[Is] ISSN:1471-2164
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: The rise and fall of the Y chromosome was demonstrated in animals but plants often possess the large evolutionarily young Y chromosome that is thought has expanded recently. Break-even points dividing expansion and shrinkage phase of plant Y chromosome evolution are still to be determined. To assess the size dynamics of the Y chromosome, we studied intraspecific genome size variation and genome composition of male and female individuals in a dioecious plant Silene latifolia, a well-established model for sex-chromosomes evolution. RESULTS: Our genome size data are the first to demonstrate that regardless of intraspecific genome size variation, Y chromosome has retained its size in S. latifolia. Bioinformatics study of genome composition showed that constancy of Y chromosome size was caused by Y chromosome DNA loss and the female-specific proliferation of recently active dominant retrotransposons. We show that several families of retrotransposons have contributed to genome size variation but not to Y chromosome size change. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the large Y chromosome of S. latifolia has slowed down or stopped its expansion. Female-specific proliferation of retrotransposons, enlarging the genome with exception of the Y chromosome, was probably caused by silencing of highly active retrotransposons in males and represents an adaptive mechanism to suppress degenerative processes in the haploid stage. Sex specific silencing of transposons might be widespread in plants but hidden in traditional hermaphroditic model plants.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180304
[Lr] Last revision date:180304
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12864-018-4547-7

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[PMID]: 29261257
[Au] Autor:Fazekasová D; Boguská Z; Fazekas J; Skvareninová J; Chovancová J
[Ti] Title:Contamination of vegetation growing on soils and substrates in the unhygienic region of Central Spis (Slovakia) polluted by heavy metals.
[So] Source:J Environ Biol;37(6):1335-40, 2016 11.
[Is] ISSN:0254-8704
[Cp] Country of publication:India
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The present paper aims at clarifying the long-term impact of mining activities on the contamination of biotic components of the environment. The research was conducted in during 2011-2014 at selected locations of the cadastral territory of former mining towns of Central Spis (Slovakia) with different ecosystems of permanent grassland, mine waste sites and bankside vegetation. The results of the analysis showed that considerably dominant species at contaminated locations such as Betula pendula, Silene vulgaris, Geranium sylvaticum, Petasites hybridus, Mentha longifolia could absorb high quantities of heavy metals. The observed contents of heavy metals, especially zinc, copper and mercury in plants significantly exceeded the threshold values determined by law. The highest contamination as compared to the threshold values was found in young plants of Betula pendula in the Slovinky tailing pond site, in which zinc content exceeded the threshold value 852 times. Excess of copper content also exceeded the threshold value 271 times. The highest concentration of mercury in all of the surveyed sites was observed in dry matter of Betula pendula in the area of heap in the Por?c Valley, where threshold value was 184 times higher. Statistically significant locations similar in relation to the characteristic species and monitored heavy metals was recorded on the locations of tailing pond and heap as the most important centres of contamination with the following dominant species Betula pendula, Pinus silvestris and Agrostis capilaris.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Metals, Heavy/chemistry
Plants/chemistry
Soil Pollutants/chemistry
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Ecosystem
Environmental Monitoring
Slovakia
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Metals, Heavy); 0 (Soil Pollutants)
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180219
[Lr] Last revision date:180219
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:171221
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 27775172
[Au] Autor:Favre A; Widmer A; Karrenberg S
[Ad] Address:Plant Ecological Genetics, ETH Zurich, Institute of Integrative Biology, Universitätstrasse 16, 8092, Zurich, Switzerland.
[Ti] Title:Differential adaptation drives ecological speciation in campions (Silene): evidence from a multi-site transplant experiment.
[So] Source:New Phytol;213(3):1487-1499, 2017 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1469-8137
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:In order to investigate the role of differential adaptation for the evolution of reproductive barriers, we conducted a multi-site transplant experiment with the dioecious sister species Silene dioica and S. latifolia and their hybrids. Crosses within species as well as reciprocal first-generation (F ) and second-generation (F ) interspecific hybrids were transplanted into six sites, three within each species' habitat. Survival and flowering were recorded over 4 yr. At all transplant sites, the local species outperformed the foreign species, reciprocal F hybrids performed intermediately and F hybrids underperformed in comparison to F hybrids (hybrid breakdown). Females generally had slightly higher cumulative fitness than males in both within- and between-species crosses and we thus found little evidence for Haldane's rule acting on field performance. The strength of selection against F and F hybrids as well as hybrid breakdown increased with increasing strength of habitat adaptation (i.e. the relative fitness difference between the local and the foreign species) across sites. Our results suggest that differential habitat adaptation led to ecologically dependent post-zygotic reproductive barriers and drives divergence and speciation in this Silene system.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Adaptation, Physiological
Ecosystem
Genetic Speciation
Silene/genetics
Silene/physiology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Crosses, Genetic
Flowers/physiology
Genetic Fitness
Hybridization, Genetic
Models, Biological
Sex Ratio
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180212
[Lr] Last revision date:180212
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:161025
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/nph.14202

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[PMID]: 29196496
[Au] Autor:San Toh S; Chen Z; Rouchka EC; Schultz DJ; Cuomo CA; Perlin MH
[Ad] Address:Department of Biology, Program on Disease Evolution, University of Louisville, Kentucky 40292.
[Ti] Title:: An Intricate Dance of Anther Smut and Its Host.
[So] Source:G3 (Bethesda);8(2):505-518, 2018 Feb 02.
[Is] ISSN:2160-1836
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The successful interaction between pathogen/parasite and host requires a delicate balance between fitness of the former and survival of the latter. To optimize fitness a parasite/pathogen must effectively create an environment conducive to reproductive success, while simultaneously avoiding or minimizing detrimental host defense response. The association between and its host serves as an excellent model to examine such interactions. This fungus is part of a species complex that infects species of the Caryophyllaceae, replacing pollen with the fungal spores. In the current study, transcriptome analyses of the fungus and its host were conducted during discrete stages of bud development so as to identify changes in fungal gene expression that lead to spore development and to identify changes associated with infection in the host plant. In contrast to early biotrophic phase stages of infection for the fungus, the latter stages involve tissue necrosis and in the case of infected female flowers, further changes in the developmental program in which the ovary aborts and a pseudoanther is produced. Transcriptome analysis via Illumina RNA sequencing revealed enrichment of fungal genes encoding small secreted proteins, with hallmarks of effectors and genes found to be relatively unique to the species complex. Host gene expression analyses also identified interesting sets of genes up-regulated, including those involving stress response, host defense response, and several agamous-like MADS-box genes (AGL61 and AGL80), predicted to interact and be involved in male gametophyte development.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 180208
[Lr] Last revision date:180208
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1534/g3.117.300318

  5 / 800 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29367788
[Au] Autor:Pacwa-Plociniczak M; Plociniczak T; Yu D; Kurola JM; Sinkkonen A; Piotrowska-Seget Z; Romantschuk M
[Ad] Address:1Department of Microbiology, University of Silesia, Jagiellonska 28, 40-032 Katowice, Poland.
[Ti] Title:Effect of and Heavy Metal Pollution on Soil Microbial Diversity in Long-Term Contaminated Soil.
[So] Source:Water Air Soil Pollut;229(1):13, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:0049-6979
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:In this study, we analysed the impact of heavy metals and plant rhizodeposition on the structure of indigenous microbial communities in rhizosphere and bulk soil that had been exposed to heavy metals for more than 150 years. Samples of the rhizosphere of and non-rhizosphere soils 250 and 450 m from the source of emission that had different metal concentrations were collected for analyses. The results showed that soils were collected 250 m from the smelter had a higher number of Cd-resistant CFU compared with the samples that were collected from 450 m, but no significant differences were observed in the number of total and oligotrophic CFU or the equivalent cell numbers between rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils that were taken 250 and 450 m from the emitter. Unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) cluster analysis of the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles, as well as a cluster analysis that was generated on the phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles, showed that the bacterial community structure of rhizosphere soils depended more on the plant than on the distance and metal concentrations. The sequencing of the 16S rDNA fragments that were excised from the DGGE gel revealed representatives of the phyla , , , and in the analysed soil with a predominance of the first three groups. The obtained results demonstrated that the presence of did not affect the number of CFUs, except for those of Cd-resistant bacteria. However, the presence of altered the soil bacterial community structure, regardless of the sampling site, which supported the thesis that plants have a higher impact on soil microbial community than metal contamination.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180130
[Lr] Last revision date:180130
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1007/s11270-017-3655-3

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[PMID]: 29245686
[Au] Autor:Barjadze S; Barbagallo S; Blackman R; Özdemir I
[Ad] Address:Institute of Zoology, Ilia State University, Giorgi Tsereteli 3, 0162 Tbilisi, Georgia.. shalva.barjadze@yahoo.com.
[Ti] Title:A new Caryophyllaceae-feeding species of Macrosiphum (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in Republic of Georgia, and a redescription of Macrosiphum hartigi Hille Ris Lambers.
[So] Source:Zootaxa;4341(2):229-242, 2017 Oct 31.
[Is] ISSN:1175-5334
[Cp] Country of publication:New Zealand
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Apterous and alate viviparous females and the alate males of Macrosiphum eastopi Barjadze & Blackman sp. n. living on Oberna multifida Ikonn. (=Silene multifida Rohrb.) (Caryophyllaceae) are described from the Republic of Georgia (Caucasus). Type specimens are deposited at the Institute of Zoology, Ilia State University (IZISU), Tbilisi, Georgia; the Natural History Museum (BMNH), London, U.K.; and the University of Catania (UCI), Sicily, Italy. Apterous and alate viviparous females of its close relative M. hartigi Hille Ris Lambers, 1947, living on Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke and Stellaria holostea L. (Caryophyllaceae) are redescribed, based on co-types and other material from Austria, France, Italy and Switzerland. The hitherto unknown fundatrix, oviparous females and alate males of M. hartigi are described from Italy and Switzerland. Macrosiphum eastopi sp. n. is differentiated from the morphologically similar M. hartigi and compared with other Macrosiphum species living on Caryophyllaceae. A key is provided to apterous viviparous females of all aphid species recorded on Oberna multifida.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 171216
[Lr] Last revision date:171216
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.11646/zootaxa.4341.2.3

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[PMID]: 29155464
[Au] Autor:Peterson ML; Doak DF; Morris WF
[Ad] Address:Environmental studies program, University of Colorado Boulder, 4001 Discovery Drive, Boulder, CO, 80309.
[Ti] Title:Both life history plasticity and local adaptation will shape range-wide responses to climate warming in the tundra plant Silene acaulis.
[So] Source:Glob Chang Biol;, 2017 Nov 20.
[Is] ISSN:1365-2486
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Many predictions of how climate change will impact biodiversity have focused on range shifts using species-wide climate tolerances, an approach that ignores the demographic mechanisms that enable species to attain broad geographic distributions. But these mechanisms matter, as responses to climate change could fundamentally differ depending on the contributions of life history plasticity vs local adaptation to species-wide climate tolerances. In particular, if local adaptation to climate is strong, populations across a species' range - not only those at the trailing range edge - could decline sharply with global climate change. Indeed, faster rates of climate change in many high latitude regions could combine with local adaptation to generate sharper declines well away from trailing edges. Combining 15 years of demographic data from field populations across North America with growth chamber warming experiments, we show that growth and survival in a widespread tundra plant show compensatory responses to warming throughout the species' latitudinal range, buffering overall performance across a range of temperatures. However, populations also differ in their temperature responses, consistent with adaptation to local climate, especially growing season temperature. In particular, warming begins to negatively impact plant growth at cooler temperatures for plants from colder, northern populations than for those from warmer, southern populations, both in the field and in growth chambers. Further, the individuals and maternal families with the fastest growth also have the lowest water use efficiency at all temperatures, suggesting that a trade-off between growth and water use efficiency could further constrain responses to forecasted warming and drying. Taken together, these results suggest that populations throughout species' ranges could be at risk of decline with continued climate change, and that the focus on trailing edge populations risks overlooking the largest potential impacts of climate change on species' abundance and distribution. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1711
[Cu] Class update date: 171120
[Lr] Last revision date:171120
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1111/gcb.13990

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[PMID]: 29094423
[Au] Autor:Stone JD; Olson MS
[Ad] Address:Department of Biology and Wildlife, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK, USA.
[Ti] Title:Pollination context alters female advantage in gynodioecious Silene vulgaris.
[So] Source:J Evol Biol;, 2017 Nov 01.
[Is] ISSN:1420-9101
[Cp] Country of publication:Switzerland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Gynodioecy, the co-occurrence of females and hermaphrodites, is arguably the most common angiosperm gender polymorphism in many florae. Females' ability to invade and persist among hermaphrodites depends, in part, on pollinators providing adequate pollination to females. We directly measured diurnal and nocturnal pollinators' contributions to female and hermaphrodite seed production in artificial populations of gynodioecious Silene vulgaris by experimentally restricting pollinator access. We found that female relative seed production in this system depended strongly on pollination context: females produced more than twice as many seeds as hermaphrodites in the context of abundant, nectar-collecting moths. Conversely, females showed no seed production advantage in the context of pollen-collecting syrphid flies and bees due to acutely hermaphrodite-biased visitation. We infer that variation in pollinator type, behaviour and abundance may be important for achieving the female relative fitness thresholds necessary for the maintenance of gynodioecy. Generally, our study illustrates how pollinator-mediated mechanisms may influence the evolution of breeding systems and associated suites of floral traits. Segments of a pollinator community may facilitate gynodioecy by selecting for plant characteristics that increase the attractiveness of both sexes to pollinators, such as nectar rewards. Conversely, discriminating visitors in search of pollen may restrict gynodioecy in associated plant lineages by reducing male steriles' fitness below threshold levels.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1711
[Cu] Class update date: 171121
[Lr] Last revision date:171121
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1111/jeb.13203

  9 / 800 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29086177
[Au] Autor:Capuana M; Colzi I; Buccianti A; Coppi A; Palm E; Del Bubba M; Gonnelli C
[Ad] Address:Institute of Bioscience and Bioresources-Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Polo Scientifico, Via Madonna del Piano 10, Sesto Fiorentino, Florence, Italy.
[Ti] Title:Paradoxical effects of density on measurement of copper tolerance in Silene paradoxa L.
[So] Source:Environ Sci Pollut Res Int;, 2017 Oct 31.
[Is] ISSN:1614-7499
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:This work investigated if the assessment of tolerance to trace metals can depend on plant density in the experimental design. A non-metallicolous and a metallicolous populations of Silene paradoxa were hydroponically cultivated at increasing density and in both the absence (-Cu conditions) and excess of copper (+Cu conditions). In -Cu conditions, the metallicolous population showed a lower susceptibility to plant density in comparison to the non-metallicolous one, explained by a higher capacity of the metallicolous population to exploit resources. In +Cu conditions, an alleviating effect of increasing density was found in roots. Such effect was present to a greater extent in the non-metallicolous population, thus making the populations equally copper-tolerant at the highest density used. In shoots, an additive effect of increasing plant density to copper toxicity was reported. Its higher intensity in the metallicolous population reverted the copper tolerance relationship at the highest plant densities used. In both populations, a density-induced decrease in root copper accumulation was observed, thus concurring to the reported mitigation in +Cu conditions. Our work revealed the importance of density studies on the optimization of eco-toxicological bioassays and of metal tolerance assessment and it can be considered the first example of an alleviating effect of increasing plant number on copper stress in a metallophyte.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1711
[Cu] Class update date: 171031
[Lr] Last revision date:171031
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1007/s11356-017-0593-y

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[PMID]: 29028613
[Au] Autor:Bothe H; Slomka A
[Ad] Address:Botanical Institute, The University of Cologne, Zuelpicher Str. 47b, 50674 Cologne, Germany. Electronic address: Hermann.Bothe@uni-koeln.de.
[Ti] Title:Divergent biology of facultative heavy metal plants.
[So] Source:J Plant Physiol;219:45-61, 2017 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1618-1328
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Among heavy metal plants (the metallophytes), facultative species can live both in soils contaminated by an excess of heavy metals and in non-affected sites. In contrast, obligate metallophytes are restricted to polluted areas. Metallophytes offer a fascinating biology, due to the fact that species have developed different strategies to cope with the adverse conditions of heavy metal soils. The literature distinguishes between hyperaccumulating, accumulating, tolerant and excluding metallophytes, but the borderline between these categories is blurred. Due to the fact that heavy metal soils are dry, nutrient limited and are not uniform but have a patchy distribution in many instances, drought-tolerant or low nutrient demanding species are often regarded as metallophytes in the literature. In only a few cases, the concentrations of heavy metals in soils are so toxic that only a few specifically adapted plants, the genuine metallophytes, can cope with these adverse soil conditions. Current molecular biological studies focus on the genetically amenable and hyperaccumulating Arabidopsis halleri and Noccaea (Thlaspi) caerulescens of the Brassicaceae. Armeria maritima ssp. halleri utilizes glands for the excretion of heavy metals and is, therefore, a heavy metal excluder. The two endemic zinc violets of Western Europe, Viola lutea ssp. calaminaria of the Aachen-Liège area and Viola lutea ssp. westfalica of the Pb-Cu-ditch of Blankenrode, Eastern Westphalia, as well as Viola tricolor ecotypes of Eastern Europe, keep their cells free of excess heavy metals by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi which bind heavy metals. The Caryophyllaceae, Silene vulgaris f. humilis and Minuartia verna, apparently discard leaves when overloaded with heavy metals. All Central European metallophytes have close relatives that grow in areas outside of heavy metal soils, mainly in the Alps, and have, therefore, been considered as relicts of the glacial epoch in the past. However, the current literature favours the idea that hyperaccumulation of heavy metals serves plants as deterrent against attack by feeding animals (termed elemental defense hypothesis). The capability to hyperaccumulate heavy metals in A. halleri and N. caerulescens is achieved by duplications and alterations of the cis-regulatory properties of genes coding for heavy metal transporting/excreting proteins. Several metallophytes have developed ecotypes with a varying content of such heavy metal transporters as an adaption to the specific toxicity of a heavy metal site.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171121
[Lr] Last revision date:171121
[St] Status:In-Process


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