Database : MEDLINE
Search on : Somnambulism [Words]
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[PMID]: 29353392
[Au] Autor:Wajiha; Hasan Z; Afridi R; Rahman L; Qureshi NA; Saeed K; Afridi H
[Ad] Address:Department of Animal Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan. wajiha@bs.qau.edu.pk.
[Ti] Title:A preliminary survey on prevalence and knowledge about different aspects of somnambulism in Buner District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
[So] Source:Sleep Breath;, 2018 Jan 20.
[Is] ISSN:1522-1709
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:PURPOSE: Present study was aimed to investigate the prevalence and knowledge about different aspects of somnambulism in general population of Buner District, KP, Pakistan, during December 2015-November 2016. METHODS: Data was collected through convenient sampling technique which was comprised of structured and detailed questionnaire. Collected data regarding different actions performed by sleepwalkers were adjusted through a weighted variable to generalize results. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate association between variables related to somnambulism. Their odds ratios (ORs) were reported with their corresponding 95% CIs. RESULTS: In total, 11,881 individuals were surveyed, of which 448 (4%) suffered with sleep disorder. Females 256/448 (57%) were more prevalent as compared to males 192/448 (43%). Prevalence of somnambulism among children was 38% whereas 94% sufferers reported no effect on their growth. Majority of respondents reported that main cause of sleepwalking is stress and tension. Somnambulism was taken normal and mostly amusing disorder by sufferers and their families. CONCLUSION: Sleepwalking is not age specific and serious disorder. Sleepwalkers need special care during their episode due to unconsciousness.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180121
[Lr] Last revision date:180121
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1007/s11325-018-1629-3

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[PMID]: 29073634
[Au] Autor:Bargiotas P; Arnet I; Frei M; Baumann CR; Schindler K; Bassetti CL
[Ad] Address:Sleep-Wake-Epilepsy Center (SWEZ), Department of Neurology, University Hospital (Inselspital) and University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
[Ti] Title:Demographic, Clinical and Polysomnographic Characteristics of Childhood- and Adult-Onset Sleepwalking in Adults.
[So] Source:Eur Neurol;78(5-6):307-311, 2017 Oct 26.
[Is] ISSN:1421-9913
[Cp] Country of publication:Switzerland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Sleepwalking (SW) is found to affect children predominantly, but it can persist or appear de novo even among adults. In this study, we assessed the demographic, clinical and polysomnographic profile, trigger factors and associated comorbidities of adult-onset (AO-SW) and childhood-onset (CO-SW) adult sleepwalkers. METHODS: In adult sleepwalkers, a structured clinical interview, a battery of questionnaires, video-polysomnography (v-PSG) and standard electroencephalography (EEG) were performed. RESULTS: Among 63 sleepwalkers, 45% had ≥1 episodes/month, 54% had partial recall of the episodes and 36% reported trigger factors for SW. Almost all subjects reported co-occurring parasomnias. In v-PSG, 4% exhibited episodes of SW, 17% confusional arousals, 21% had an increased apnea-hypopnea-index and 6% exhibited features of an overlap parasomnia disorder. In our cohort, 73% reported CO-SW and 27% AO-SW. In subjects with AO-SW, positive family history for parasomnias was found in 33% (vs. 49% in CO-SW), neurological comorbidities in 44% (vs. 14%), psychiatric comorbidities in 25% (vs. 33%), EEG abnormalities in 50% (vs. 29%). Violence during SW episodes was more frequent in males and in subjects with CO-SW (45% for self-injury and 44% for violent behaviour vs. 33 and 29% respectively in the AO-SW group). CONCLUSIONS: Adult SW represents a complex and potentially dangerous condition. The characteristics of AO-SW often differ from those of CO-SW.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171026
[Lr] Last revision date:171026
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1159/000481685

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[PMID]: 29065287
[Au] Autor:Kannape OA; Perrig S; Rossetti AO; Blanke O
[Ad] Address:School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK; Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience, Brain Mind Institute, School of Life Sciences, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Campus Biotech, Geneva, Switzerland.
[Ti] Title:Distinct locomotor control and awareness in awake sleepwalkers.
[So] Source:Curr Biol;27(20):R1102-R1104, 2017 Oct 23.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0445
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Sleepwalkers' complex nocturnal behaviors have inspired fictional characters from Shakespeare's Lady Macbeth to Polidori's Vampyre to Cesare, the homicidal somnambulist in The Cabinet of Dr Caligari. Yet although the underlying pathophysiology of sleepwalking, i.e. the partial arousal from slow-wave sleep, is today well-documented, the detailed sensorimotor mechanisms permitting locomotion and further complex behaviors to occur outside of conscious control remain poorly understood [1]. Further, the paroxysmal character, nocturnal pattern, and spontaneous onset have made it nigh on impossible to study somnambulism behaviorally during wakefulness. The goal-directed walking paradigm reported here, based on full-body motion capture and virtual reality feedback, directly addresses this issue and provides unique insights into the functional mechanisms of this common parasomnia: sleepwalkers exhibited improved movement automation and a stronger dissociation between locomotor control and awareness than matched controls when challenged with a cognitive load. Our data therefore suggest that behavioral markers exist in awake sleepwalkers, characterized by their ability to perform complex locomotor actions in the absence of full consciousness. Our findings are important as they firmly link sleepwalking to the neuroscience of motor control and motor awareness and may complement formal diagnosis procedures (normally requiring time, cost-intensive sleep studies and polysomnographic recordings).
[Pt] Publication type:LETTER
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171024
[Lr] Last revision date:171024
[St] Status:In-Process

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[PMID]: 29027813
[Au] Autor:de Oliveira Maraldi E; Alvarado CS
[Ad] Address:University of São Paulo, Brazil.
[Ti] Title:Classic Text No. 113: Final chapter, From India to the Planet Mars: A Study of a Case of Somnambulism with Glossolalia, by Théodore Flournoy (1900).
[So] Source:Hist Psychiatry;:957154X17734782, 2017 Oct 01.
[Is] ISSN:0957-154X
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Among the many attempts to explain mediumship psychologically at the turn of the century were the efforts of Swiss psychologist Théodore Flournoy (1854-1920). In his well-known book Des Indes à la Planète Mars (1900), translated as From India to the Planet Mars (1900), Flournoy analysed the mediumistic productions of medium Hélène Smith (1861-1929), consisting of accounts of previous lives in France and in India, and material about planet Mars. Flournoy explained the phenomena as a function of cryptomnesia, suggestive influences, and subconscious creativity, analyses that influenced both psychology and psychical research. The purpose of this Classic Text is to reprint the conclusion of Flournoy's study, whose ideas were developed in the context of psychological attention to mediumship and secondary personalities.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171013
[Lr] Last revision date:171013
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1177/0957154X17734782

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[PMID]: 28994603
[Au] Autor:Keks NA; Hope J; Keogh S
[Ad] Address:Professor & Director, Monash Medical Centre and Centre for Mental Health Education and Research at Delmont Private Hospital, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
[Ti] Title:Suvorexant: scientifically interesting, utility uncertain.
[So] Source:Australas Psychiatry;:1039856217734677, 2017 Oct 01.
[Is] ISSN:1440-1665
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE: Suvorexant, a new hypnotic, is indicated for the treatment of insomnia characterized by difficulties with sleep onset and/or sleep maintenance, and is used long-term. This paper will briefly review suvorexant. RESULTS: Orexin is a hypothalamic peptide which promotes wakefulness. By blocking orexin receptors, suvorexant induces sleep. Peaking 2 h after ingestion, it has a half-life of 12 h and is hepatically metabolized mainly by CYP3A. Kinetics are not affected by age but concentrations are higher in females and obese patients. There may be interactions with benzodiazepines, antidepressants and antipsychotics. Suvorexant is available in 15 mg and 20 mg doses at which benefits are moderate: after three months' treatment users fell asleep 6 min faster and slept 16 min longer than those on placebo. Studies with 40 mg showed greater benefits but more side effects: next day somnolence, fatigue, xerostomia and peripheral oedema. Hallucinations, sleep paralysis and somnambulism occur rarely. Tolerance, withdrawal and rebound do not generally occur at recommended doses. CONCLUSION: Suvorexant has not been trialled against other hypnotics, is expensive and its utility for insomnia in patients with psychiatric disorders is unknown. Currently, use of suvorexant could be considered where more established treatments are inappropriate.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171010
[Lr] Last revision date:171010
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1177/1039856217734677

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[PMID]: 28735913
[Au] Autor:Heidbreder A; Stefani A; Brandauer E; Steiger R; Kremser C; Gizewski ER; Young P; Poewe W; Högl B; Scherfler C
[Ad] Address:Department of Neurology, Medical University Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria; Department of Neurology, Division of Sleep Medicine and Neuromuscular Disorders, University Hospital Muenster, Muenster, Germany.
[Ti] Title:Gray matter abnormalities of the dorsal posterior cingulate in sleep walking.
[So] Source:Sleep Med;36:152-155, 2017 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1878-5506
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine whether voxel-based analysis of T1 weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging is able to detect alterations of gray and white matter morphometry as well as measures of mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy in patients with non-rapid eye movement parasomnia. METHODS: 3 Tesla MRI was performed in 14 drug-free, polysomnography-confirmed adult patients with non-rapid eye movement parasomnia (age: 29 ± 4.2 years; disease duration 19.2 ± 7.7 years) and 14 healthy subjects, matched for age and gender. Statistical parametric mapping was applied to objectively identify focal changes of MRI parameters throughout the entire brain volume. RESULTS: Statistical parametric mapping localized significant decreases of gray matter volume in the left dorsal posterior cingulate cortex (BA23) and posterior midcingulate cortex (BA24) in patients with non-rapid eye movement parasomnias compared to the control group (p < 0.001, corrected for multiple comparisons). No significant differences of mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy measures were found between the non-rapid eye movement parasomnia group and the healthy control group. CONCLUSIONS: Recently, the simultaneous co-existence of arousal or wakefulness originating from the motor and cingulate cortices and persistent sleep in associative cortical regions was suggested as a functional framework of somnambulism. Gray matter volume decline in the dorsal posterior and posterior midcingulate cortex reported in this study might represent the neuroanatomical substrate for this condition.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1707
[Cu] Class update date: 170724
[Lr] Last revision date:170724
[St] Status:In-Process

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[PMID]: 28534293
[Au] Autor:Waters F; Moretto U; Dang-Vu TT
[Ad] Address:School of Psychological Science, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, Western Australia, 6009, Australia. flavie.waters@health.wa.gov.au.
[Ti] Title:Psychiatric Illness and Parasomnias: a Systematic Review.
[So] Source:Curr Psychiatry Rep;19(7):37, 2017 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1535-1645
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Little is known about the presence of parasomnias such as nightmare disorder, sleep paralysis, REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), and sleep-related eating disorders (SRED) in people with mental illness. A predominant view suggests that psychotropic medications might be contributing to parasomnias. This article summarizes knowledge regarding the relationships between psychiatric disorders and parasomnias, and possible confounds. A systematic search of the literature in the past 10 years identified 19 articles. RECENT FINDINGS: There were significantly elevated rates of parasomnias in psychiatric disorders (average prevalence of nightmares was 38.9%, sleep paralysis 22.3%, SRED 9.9%, sleepwalking 8.5%, and RBD 3.8%). Medication usage was only one of many risk factors (other sleep disorders, medical comorbidities, and substance abuse) which were associated with parasomnias. A strong association exists between mental illness and parasomnias which is not fully explained by medications. Prospective longitudinal studies are needed to develop a better understanding of the unique and shared variance from multiple risk factors.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1705
[Cu] Class update date: 171107
[Lr] Last revision date:171107
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1007/s11920-017-0789-3

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[PMID]: 28513054
[Au] Autor:Haridi M; Weyn Banningh S; Clé M; Leu-Semenescu S; Vidailhet M; Arnulf I
[Ad] Address:Sleep Disorders Unit, Pitié-Salpêtrière University Hospital, APHP, Paris, France.
[Ti] Title:Is there a common motor dysregulation in sleepwalking and REM sleep behaviour disorder?
[So] Source:J Sleep Res;26(5):614-622, 2017 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1365-2869
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:This study sought to determine if there is any overlap between the two major non-rapid eye movement and rapid eye movement parasomnias, i.e. sleepwalking/sleep terrors and rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. We assessed adult patients with sleepwalking/sleep terrors using rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder screening questionnaires and determined if they had enhanced muscle tone during rapid eye movement sleep. Conversely, we assessed rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder patients using the Paris Arousal Disorders Severity Scale and determined if they had more N3 awakenings. The 251 participants included 64 patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (29 with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and 35 with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder associated with Parkinson's disease), 62 patients with sleepwalking/sleep terrors, 66 old healthy controls (age-matched with the rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder group) and 59 young healthy controls (age-matched with the sleepwalking/sleep terrors group). They completed the rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder screening questionnaire, rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder single question and Paris Arousal Disorders Severity Scale. In addition, all the participants underwent a video-polysomnography. The sleepwalking/sleep terrors patients scored positive on rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder scales and had a higher percentage of 'any' phasic rapid eye movement sleep without atonia when compared with controls; however, these patients did not have higher tonic rapid eye movement sleep without atonia or complex behaviours during rapid eye movement sleep. Patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder had moderately elevated scores on the Paris Arousal Disorders Severity Scale but did not exhibit more N3 arousals (suggestive of non-rapid eye movement parasomnia) than the control group. These results indicate that dream-enacting behaviours (assessed by rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder screening questionnaires) are commonly reported by sleepwalking/sleep terrors patients, thus decreasing the questionnaire's specificity. Furthermore, sleepwalking/sleep terrors patients have excessive twitching during rapid eye movement sleep, which may result either from a higher dreaming activity in rapid eye movement sleep or from a more generalised non-rapid eye movement/rapid eye movement motor dyscontrol during sleep.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Movement
REM Sleep Behavior Disorder/physiopathology
Somnambulism/physiopathology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adult
Aged
Arousal
Case-Control Studies
Dreams
Female
Humans
Male
Night Terrors/complications
Night Terrors/physiopathology
Parkinson Disease/complications
Polysomnography
REM Sleep Behavior Disorder/complications
REM Sleep Behavior Disorder/diagnosis
Sleep, REM
Somnambulism/complications
Surveys and Questionnaires
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1711
[Cu] Class update date: 171113
[Lr] Last revision date:171113
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170518
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/jsr.12544

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[PMID]: 28364495
[Au] Autor:Dubessy AL; Leu-Semenescu S; Attali V; Maranci JB; Arnulf I
[Ad] Address:Sleep Disorders Unit and Hospital-University, Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital (APHP).
[Ti] Title:Sexsomnia: A Specialized Non-REM Parasomnia?
[So] Source:Sleep;40(2), 2017 Feb 01.
[Is] ISSN:1550-9109
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Introduction: To describe patients with sexsomnia and to contrast their clinical and sleep measures with those of healthy controls and sleepwalkers. Aims and Methods: Subjects referred for sexsomnia and for sleepwalking/night terror were interviewed, completed the Paris Arousal Disorder Severity Scale (PADSS), and were monitored 1-2 nights with video-polysomnography. Results: Seventeen patients (70.6% male, aged 17-76 years) had sexsomnia, with amnestic fondling of the bed partner (n = 11), complete sexual intercourse (n = 8), masturbation (n = 8), and spontaneous orgasm (n = 1). The sexual behaviors were more direct during sleep than during wakefulness (n = 12), leading to 6 sexual assaults, including intra-conjugal rape (n = 3), assault of a family member (n = 2), rape of a friend (n = 1), and forensic consequences (n = 2). In 47% of sexsomnia patients, there was a history or current occurrences of sleepwalking/night terrors. Patients with sexsomnia had more N3 awakenings than healthy matched controls and the same amount as regular sleepwalkers. Half of them presented evidence of cortico-cortical dissociation, including concomitant slow (mostly frontal) and rapid (mostly temporal and occipital) electroencephalography (EEG) rhythms, with concomitant N3 penile erection in 1 case. Of 89 sleepwalkers, 10% had previous episodes of amnestic sexual behaviors, with a higher PADSS-A score and a trend of a higher total PADSS score than the 80 sleepwalkers without sexsomnia. Conclusion: In this single-center series, we confirmed the male predominance of sexsomnias and its potential for severe clinical and forensic consequences. The results suggest a continuum of regular sleepwalking, sleepwalking with occasional sexsomnia, and quasi-exclusive sexsomnia.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Parasomnias/diagnosis
Sex Offenses
Sexual Behavior
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Case-Control Studies
Electroencephalography
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Night Terrors/diagnosis
Night Terrors/psychology
Parasomnias/psychology
Polysomnography
Sleep, REM
Somnambulism/diagnosis
Somnambulism/psychology
Young Adult
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171003
[Lr] Last revision date:171003
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170402
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1093/sleep/zsw043

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[PMID]: 28363449
[Au] Autor:Stallman HM; Kohler M; White J
[Ad] Address:Centre for Sleep Research, University of South Australia, Australia. Electronic address: helen.stallman@unisa.edu.au.
[Ti] Title:Medication induced sleepwalking: A systematic review.
[So] Source:Sleep Med Rev;, 2017 Jan 29.
[Is] ISSN:1532-2955
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Medications that trigger sleepwalking may inadvertently put the patient at risk of injury to themselves and/or others, and contribute to poor treatment adherence. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature to identify drugs that may increase the risk of sleepwalking. A search of CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, PubMed, and ScienceDirect was conducted with the keywords 'sleepwalking' OR 'somnambulism'. Of the original 83 sourced papers, 62 met the inclusion criteria and were subsequently included for review. Twenty-nine drugs, primarily in four classes-benzodiazepine receptor agonists and other gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) modulators, antidepressants and other serotonergic agents, antipsychotics, and ß-blockers-were identified as possible triggers for sleepwalking. The strongest evidence for medication-induced sleepwalking was for zolpidem and sodium oxybate. All other associations were based on case reports. This research highlights the importance of considering sleepwalking in risk profiles in clinical trials, particularly for drugs that enhance GABA activity at the GABA receptor, enhance serotonergic activity, or block the activity of noradrenaline at ß receptors. The results also have implications for prescribers to consider sleepwalking as a potential adverse effect and ensure that: 1) the patient is educated about a safe sleep environment; 2) they are encouraged to report the onset or exacerbation of sleepwalking, and 3) alternative treatments are considered if sleepwalking occurs.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1704
[Cu] Class update date: 170401
[Lr] Last revision date:170401
[St] Status:Publisher


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