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[PMID]: 29075475
[Au] Autor:La Pierre KJ; Simms EL; Tariq M; Zafar M; Porter SS
[Ad] Address:Department of Integrative BiologyUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyCAUSA.
[Ti] Title:Invasive legumes can associate with many mutualists of native legumes, but usually do not.
[So] Source:Ecol Evol;7(20):8599-8611, 2017 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:2045-7758
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Mutualistic interactions can strongly influence species invasions, as the inability to form successful mutualisms in an exotic range could hamper a host's invasion success. This barrier to invasion may be overcome if an invader either forms novel mutualistic associations or finds and associates with familiar mutualists in the exotic range. Here, we ask (1) does the community of rhizobial mutualists associated with invasive legumes in their exotic range overlap with that of local native legumes and (2) can any differences be explained by fundamental incompatibilities with particular rhizobial genotypes? To address these questions, we first characterized the rhizobial communities naturally associating with three invasive and six native legumes growing in the San Francisco Bay Area. We then conducted a greenhouse experiment to test whether the invasive legume could nodulate with any of a broad array of rhizobia found in their exotic range. There was little overlap between the communities associated with wild-grown invasive and native legumes, yet the invasive legumes could nodulate with a broad range of rhizobial strains under greenhouse conditions. These observations suggest that under field conditions in their exotic range, these invasive legumes are not currently associating with the mutualists of local native legumes, despite their potential to form such associations. However, the promiscuity with which these invading legumes can form mutualistic associations could be an important factor early in the invasion process if mutualist scarcity limits range expansion. Overall, the observation that invasive legumes have a community of rhizobia distinct from that of native legumes, despite their ability to associate with many rhizobial strains, challenges existing assumptions about how invading species obtain their mutualists. These results can therefore inform current and future efforts to prevent and remove invasive species.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171029
[Lr] Last revision date:171029
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/ece3.3310

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[PMID]: 28992874
[Au] Autor:Giménez N; Magro N; Cortés N; Guitart R
[Ad] Address:Research Unit, Mútua Terrassa Research Foundation, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain; Toxicology Laboratory, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain.
[Ti] Title:Poisoning after Ingestion of Spartium junceum Seeds: Dose-Dependent Effects in Three Boys.
[So] Source:J Emerg Med;53(3):e41-e44, 2017 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:0736-4679
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Spanish broom (Spartium junceum L.) is an ornamental, medicinal, and potentially poisonous plant. CASE REPORT: Three children, aged 5-6 years, were accidentally poisoned from ingesting a variable number of seeds of Spanish broom. This plant contains several quinolizidine alkaloids as cytisine, which act as an agonist of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The potential danger varies, depending on the dose. After having ingested one to two seeds, one of the boys was asymptomatic. A second boy ingested four to five seeds and presented some digestive problems with favorable clinical evolution. A third boy ingested seven to eight seeds, and presented with digestive and neurologic symptoms, as well as minor metabolic acidosis. In this case there was vomiting with remains of the seeds. He responded well to a gastric lavage and activated charcoal. He was discharged 24 h post ingestion. The intake within one to eight seeds was accompanied by moderate symptoms, with good response to treatment. Children poisoned by plants with nicotine-like symptomatology usually fully recover, but some fatal cases have been reported. Prevention is always a key aspect to consider so as to reduce the risk of poisoning. There is a lack of legislative measures, based on lists provided by experts, to regulate real or potentially poisonous plants in children's areas. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: This case serves as an example of accidental plant poisoning. For emergency physicians, it is usually complicated to identify the specific plant involved, so initial treatment often starts with basic measures (airway, breathing, and circulation).
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171010
[Lr] Last revision date:171010
[St] Status:In-Process

  3 / 92 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28299515
[Au] Autor:Lombardi F; Scippa GS; Lasserre B; Montagnoli A; Tognetti R; Marchetti M; Chiatante D
[Ad] Address:Dipartimento di AGRARIA, Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Loc. Feo di Vito, 89122, Reggio Calabria, Italy. fabio.lombardi@unirc.it.
[Ti] Title:The influence of slope on Spartium junceum root system: morphological, anatomical and biomechanical adaptation.
[So] Source:J Plant Res;130(3):515-525, 2017 May.
[Is] ISSN:1618-0860
[Cp] Country of publication:Japan
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Root systems have a pivotal role in plant anchorage and their mechanical interactions with the soil may contribute to soil reinforcement and stabilization of slide-prone slopes. In order to understand the responses of root system to mechanical stress induced by slope, samples of Spartium junceum L., growing in slope and in plane natural conditions, were compared in their morphology, biomechanical properties and anatomical features. Soils sampled in slope and plane revealed similar characteristics, with the exception of organic matter content and penetrometer resistance, both higher in slope. Slope significantly influenced root morphology and in particular the distribution of lateral roots along the soil depth. Indeed, first-order lateral roots of plants growing on slope condition showed an asymmetric distribution between up- and down-slope. Contrarily, this asymmetric distribution was not observed in plants growing in plane. The tensile strength was higher in lateral roots growing up-slope and in plane conditions than in those growing down-slope. Anatomical investigations revealed that, while roots grown up-slope had higher area covered by xylem fibers, the ratio of xylem and phloem fibers to root diameter did not differ among the three conditions, as also, no differences were found for xylem fiber cell wall thickness. Roots growing up-slope were the main contributors to anchorage properties, which included higher strength and higher number of fibers in the xylematic tissues. Results suggested that a combination of root-specific morphological, anatomical and biomechanical traits, determines anchorage functions in slope conditions.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Acclimatization/physiology
Adaptation, Physiological/physiology
Plant Roots/anatomy & histology
Plant Roots/growth & development
Spartium/anatomy & histology
Spartium/growth & development
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Biomechanical Phenomena
Cell Wall
Italy
Models, Biological
Plant Roots/cytology
Plant Roots/physiology
Soil/chemistry
Stress, Mechanical
Tensile Strength
Xylem/cytology
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Soil)
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171116
[Lr] Last revision date:171116
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170317
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s10265-017-0919-3

  4 / 92 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 27931851
[Au] Autor:Cerchiara T; Abruzzo A; Ñahui Palomino RA; Vitali B; De Rose R; Chidichimo G; Ceseracciu L; Athanassiou A; Saladini B; Dalena F; Bigucci F; Luppi B
[Ad] Address:Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnologies, University of Bologna, Via San Donato 19/2, 40127 Bologna, Italy. Electronic address: teresa.cerchiara2@unibo.it.
[Ti] Title:Spanish Broom (Spartium junceum L.) fibers impregnated with vancomycin-loaded chitosan nanoparticles as new antibacterial wound dressing: Preparation, characterization and antibacterial activity.
[So] Source:Eur J Pharm Sci;99:105-112, 2017 Mar 01.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0720
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:In this work, we propose as new wound dressing, the Spanish Broom fibers impregnated with vancomycin (VM) loaded chitosan nanoparticles. Spanish Broom fibers were extracted by patented method DiCoDe and the morphological, physical and mechanical properties were investigated. Chitosan nanoparticles were prepared by ionic gelation using different weight ratios between chitosan (CH) and tripolyphosphate (TPP). Nanoparticles were characterized in terms of size, zeta potential, yield, encapsulation efficiency, stability and drug release. Finally, the antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus as well as in vitro cytotoxicity on HaCaT cells were evaluated. The best formulation CH/TPP 4:1 was selected based on the encapsulation efficiency and yield. Spanish Broom fibers impregnated with loaded nanoparticles showed an increased antibacterial activity against S. aureus compared to the same fibers containing VM without nanoparticles. Moreover, these fibers were not toxic to HaCaT keratinocytes cells. In conclusion, Spanish Broom fibers impregnated with VM loaded CH/TPP nanoparticles would appear to be a promising candidate for wound dressing application.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
Chitosan/chemistry
Nanoparticles/chemistry
Spartium/chemistry
Vancomycin/chemistry
Vancomycin/pharmacology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Bandages
Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods
Drug Carriers/chemistry
Drug Liberation
Gels/chemistry
Particle Size
Plant Preparations/chemistry
Plant Preparations/pharmacology
Polyphosphates/chemistry
Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents); 0 (Drug Carriers); 0 (Gels); 0 (Plant Preparations); 0 (Polyphosphates); 6Q205EH1VU (Vancomycin); 9012-76-4 (Chitosan); NU43IAG5BC (triphosphoric acid)
[Em] Entry month:1705
[Cu] Class update date: 170526
[Lr] Last revision date:170526
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:161210
[St] Status:MEDLINE

  5 / 92 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 27678162
[Au] Autor:Chaumont L; Malécot V; Pymar R; Sbai C
[Ad] Address:LAREMA - UMR CNRS 6093, Université d'Angers, 2 bd Lavoisier, 49045 Angers Cedex 01, France.
[Ti] Title:Reconstructing pedigrees using probabilistic analysis of ISSR amplification.
[So] Source:J Theor Biol;412:8-16, 2017 Jan 07.
[Is] ISSN:1095-8541
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Data obtained from ISSR amplification may readily be extracted but only allows us to know, for each gene, if a specific allele is present or not. From this partial information we provide a probabilistic method to reconstruct the pedigree corresponding to some families of diploid cultivars. This method consists in determining for each individual what is the most likely couple of parent pair amongst all older individuals, according to some probability measure. The construction of this measure bears on the fact that the probability to observe the specific alleles in the child, given the status of the parents does not depend on the generation and is the same for each gene. This assumption is then justified from a convergence result of gene frequencies which is proved here. Our reconstruction method is applied to a family of 85 living accessions representing the common broom Cytisus scoparius.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Alleles
Cytisus/genetics
Models, Genetic
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1709
[Cu] Class update date: 170911
[Lr] Last revision date:170911
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:161105
[St] Status:MEDLINE

  6 / 92 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 27824938
[Au] Autor:Shao F; Zhang Q; Liu H; Lu S; Qiu D
[Ad] Address:State Key Laboratory of Tree Genetics and Breeding, Key Laboratory of Tree Breeding and Cultivation of State Forestry Administration, Research Institute of Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing, China.
[Ti] Title:Genome-Wide Identification and Analysis of MicroRNAs Involved in Witches'-Broom Phytoplasma Response in Ziziphus jujuba.
[So] Source:PLoS One;11(11):e0166099, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in responding to biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. Jujube witches'-broom a phytoplasma disease of Ziziphus jujuba is prevalent in China and is a serious problem to the industry. However, the molecular mechanism of the disease is poorly understood. In this study, genome-wide identification and analysis of microRNAs in response to witches'-broom was performed. A total of 85 conserved miRNA unique sequences belonging to 32 miRNA families and 24 novel miRNA unique sequences, including their complementary miRNA* strands were identified from small RNA libraries derived from a uninfected and witches'-broom infected Z. jujuba plant. Differentially expressed miRNAs associated with Jujube witches'-broom disease were investigated between the two libraries, and 12 up-regulated miRNAs and 10 down- regulated miRNAs identified with more than 2 fold changes. Additionally, 40 target genes of 85 conserved miRNAs and 49 target genes of 24 novel miRNAs were predicted and their putative functions assigned. Using the modified 5'-RACE method, we confirmed that SPL and MYB were cleaved by miR156 and miR159, respectively. Our results provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of witches'-broom disease in Z. jujuba.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Cytisus/genetics
Cytisus/microbiology
MicroRNAs/genetics
Phytoplasma/pathogenicity
Plant Diseases/microbiology
Ziziphus/genetics
Ziziphus/microbiology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: DNA, Bacterial/genetics
Down-Regulation/genetics
Genome-Wide Association Study/methods
Phylogeny
Plant Diseases/genetics
Up-Regulation/genetics
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (DNA, Bacterial); 0 (MicroRNAs)
[Em] Entry month:1706
[Cu] Class update date: 170627
[Lr] Last revision date:170627
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:161109
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0166099

  7 / 92 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 27417986
[Au] Autor:Li B; Bewick S; Barnard MR; Fagan WF
[Ad] Address:Department of Mathematics, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, 40059, USA. bing.li@louisville.edu.
[Ti] Title:Persistence and Spreading Speeds of Integro-Difference Equations with an Expanding or Contracting Habitat.
[So] Source:Bull Math Biol;78(7):1337-79, 2016 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1522-9602
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:We study an integro-difference equation model that describes the spatial dynamics of a species in an expanding or contracting habitat. We give conditions under which the species disperses to a region of poor quality where the species eventually becomes extinct. We show that when the species persists in the habitat, the rightward and leftward spreading speeds are determined by c, the speed at which the habitat quality increases or decreases in time, as well as [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text], which are formulated in terms of the dispersal kernel and species growth rates in both directions. We demonstrate that in the case that the species grows everywhere in space, the rightward spreading speed is [Formula: see text] if c is relatively small and is [Formula: see text] if c is large, and the leftward spreading speed is one of [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], or [Formula: see text]. We also show that it is possible for a solution to form a two-layer wave, with the propagation speeds of the two layers analytically determined.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Ecosystem
Models, Biological
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Aphids
Climate Change
Computer Simulation
Cytisus
Introduced Species/statistics & numerical data
Lizards
Mathematical Concepts
Moths
Population Dynamics/statistics & numerical data
Species Specificity
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1709
[Cu] Class update date: 170925
[Lr] Last revision date:170925
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:160716
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s11538-016-0180-2

  8 / 92 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 27105397
[Au] Autor:Rostgaard Nielsen L; Brandes U; Dahl Kjaer E; Fjellheim S
[Ad] Address:Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Rolighedsvej 23, Frederiksberg C, 1958, Denmark.
[Ti] Title:Introduced Scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius) invades the genome of native populations in vulnerable heathland habitats.
[So] Source:Mol Ecol;25(12):2790-804, 2016 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1365-294X
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Cytisus scoparius is a global invasive species that affects local flora and fauna at the intercontinental level. Its natural distribution spans across Europe, but seeds have also been moved among countries, mixing plants of native and non-native genetic origins. Hybridization between the introduced and native gene pool is likely to threaten both the native gene pool and the local flora. In this study, we address the potential threat of invasive C. scoparius to local gene pools in vulnerable heathlands. We used nuclear single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers together with plastid SSR and indel markers to investigate the level and direction of gene flow between invasive and native heathland C. scoparius. Analyses of population structures confirmed the presence of two gene pools: one native and the other invasive. The nuclear genome of the native types was highly introgressed with the invasive genome, and we observed advanced-generation hybrids, suggesting that hybridization has been occurring for several generations. There is asymmetrical gene flow from the invasive to the native gene pool, which can be attributed to higher fecundity in the invasive individuals, measured by the number of flowers and seed pods. Strong spatial genetic structure in plastid markers and weaker structure in nuclear markers suggest that seeds spread over relatively short distances and that gene flow over longer distances is mainly facilitated by pollen dispersal. We further show that the growth habits of heathland plants become more vigorous with increased introgression from the invaders. Implications of the findings are discussed in relation to future management of invading C. scoparius.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Cytisus/genetics
Gene Pool
Hybridization, Genetic
Introduced Species
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Conservation of Natural Resources
DNA, Plant/genetics
Denmark
Ecosystem
Gene Flow
Genetics, Population
Genome, Plant
Microsatellite Repeats
Models, Genetic
Pollen/genetics
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Seeds/genetics
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (DNA, Plant)
[Em] Entry month:1706
[Cu] Class update date: 170607
[Lr] Last revision date:170607
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:160423
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/mec.13666

  9 / 92 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26871495
[Au] Autor:Cordero RL; Torchelsen FP; Overbeck GE; Anand M
[Ad] Address:School of Environmental Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
[Ti] Title:Cytisus scoparius (Fam. Fabaceae) in southern Brazil - first step of an invasion process?
[So] Source:An Acad Bras Cienc;88(1):149-54, 2016 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1678-2690
[Cp] Country of publication:Brazil
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The occurrence of Scotch broom Cytisus scoparius (L.) Link (Fabaceae), is reported for the first time in Brazil. The species has been registered in the species-rich Campos Sulinos grasslands, in the Campos de Cima da Serra, and in the Serra do Sudeste. Naturalizing populations were frequently formed in natural habitats near to human settlements, where prevailing land uses and disturbances facilitate dispersal and establishment. The plant is an invasive species that has globally caused significant damage to biodiversity and economic losses. In Brazil, the species has a strong potential for spreading into a wide range of ecosystems. The Atlantic Forest biome and part of the Pampa biome, together known as the Campos Sulinos, represent optimal areas for the species. Features of the observed populations and recommendations for management are presented.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Cytisus/growth & development
Introduced Species
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Brazil
Cytisus/classification
Forests
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Entry month:1611
[Cu] Class update date: 161230
[Lr] Last revision date:161230
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:160213
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 26628515
[Au] Autor:Hogg BN; Smith L; Daane KM
[Ti] Title:Impacts of the Adventive Psyllid Arytainilla spartiophila (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) on Growth of the Invasive Weed Cytisus scoparius Under Controlled and Field Conditions in California.
[So] Source:Environ Entomol;45(1):109-16, 2016 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1938-2936
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The postrelease impact of weed biological control agents on their target weeds is rarely assessed. This study focuses on the impacts of the univoltine broom psyllid Arytainilla spartiophila Forster on the growth of its target weed, the invasive shrub Scotch broom, Cytisus scoparius (L.) Link (Fabaceae), in California. Arytainilla spartiophila is an adventive species that has been present in North America for several decades. In a greenhouse experiment, plant growth as measured by both height and total stem length (height + length of all branches) was reduced on plants that received psyllids, and psyllid densities were negatively correlated to proportional change in plant height. There were no effects on number of leaves, however. Furthermore, the psyllid had no statistically detectable impacts on plant growth parameters in a field experiment, underscoring how results obtained under controlled conditions may not fully predict the performance of biological control agents in the field. The high psyllid mortality that occurred at higher psyllid densities in both the greenhouse and the field suggests that the impacts of A. spartiophila may be moderated by intraspecific competition.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Cytisus/growth & development
Hemiptera/physiology
Pest Control, Biological
Plant Weeds/growth & development
Weed Control
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
California
Introduced Species
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1612
[Cu] Class update date: 161230
[Lr] Last revision date:161230
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:151203
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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