Database : MEDLINE
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[PMID]: 29407461
[Au] Autor:Merullo DP; Spool JA; Zhao C; Riters LV
[Ad] Address:Department of Integrative Biology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, 53706, USA. Electronic address: dmerullo@wisc.edu.
[Ti] Title:Co-localization patterns of neurotensin receptor 1 and tyrosine hydroxylase in brain regions involved in motivation and social behavior in male European starlings.
[So] Source:J Chem Neuroanat;89:1-10, 2018 Jan 31.
[Is] ISSN:1873-6300
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Animals communicate in distinct social contexts to convey information specific to those contexts, such as sexual or agonistic motivation. In seasonally-breeding male songbirds, seasonal changes in day length and increases in testosterone stimulate sexually-motivated song directed at females for courtship and reproduction. Dopamine and testosterone may act in the same brain regions to stimulate sexually-motivated singing. The neuropeptide neurotensin, acting at the neurotensin receptor 1 (NTR1), can strongly influence dopamine transmission. The goal of this study was to gain insight into the degree to which seasonal changes in physiology modify interactions between neurotensin and dopamine to adjust context-appropriate communication. Male European starlings were examined in physiological conditions that stimulate season-typical forms of communication: late summer/early fall non-breeding condition (low testosterone; birds sing infrequently), late fall non-breeding condition (low testosterone; birds produce non-sexually motivated song), and spring breeding condition (high testosterone; males produce sexually-motivated song). Double fluorescent immunolabeling was performed to detect co-localization patterns between tyrosine hydroxylase (TH; the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis) and NTR1 in brain regions implicated in motivation and song production (the ventral tegmental area, medial preoptic nucleus, periaqueductal gray, and lateral septum). Co-localization between TH and NTR1 was present in the ventral tegmental area for all physiological conditions, and the number of co-localized cells did not differ across conditions. Immunolabeling for TH and NTR1 was also present in the other examined regions, although no co-localization was seen. These results support the hypothesis that interactions between NTR1 and dopamine in the ventral tegmental area may modulate vocalizations, but suggest that testosterone- or photoperiod-induced changes in NTR1/TH co-localization do not underlie seasonally-appropriate adjustment of communication.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:Publisher

  2 / 908 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29478718
[Au] Autor:Woodworth HL; Brown JA; Batchelor HM; Bugescu R; Leinninger GM
[Ad] Address:Department of Physiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA.
[Ti] Title:Determination of neurotensin projections to the ventral tegmental area in mice.
[So] Source:Neuropeptides;, 2018 Feb 15.
[Is] ISSN:1532-2785
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Pharmacologic treatment with the neuropeptide neurotensin (Nts) modifies motivated behaviors such as feeding, locomotor activity, and reproduction. Dopamine (DA) neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) control these behaviors, and Nts directly modulates the activity of DA neurons via Nts receptor-1. While Nts sources to the VTA have been described in starlings and rats, the endogenous sources of Nts to the VTA of mice remain incompletely understood, impeding determination of which Nts circuits orchestrate specific behaviors in this model. To overcome this obstacle we injected the retrograde tracer Fluoro-Gold into the VTA of mice that express GFP in Nts neurons. Identification of GFP-Nts cells that accumulate Fluoro-Gold revealed the Nts afferents to the VTA in mice. Similar to rats, most Nts afferents to the VTA of mice arise from the medial and lateral preoptic areas (POA) and the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), brain regions that are critical for coordination of feeding and reproduction. Additionally, the VTA receives dense input from Nts neurons in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAsh) of mice, and minor Nts projections from the amygdala and periaqueductal gray area. Collectively, our data reveal multiple populations of Nts neurons that provide direct afferents to the VTA and which may regulate specific aspects of motivated behavior. This work lays the foundation for understanding endogenous Nts actions in the VTA, and how circuit-specific Nts modulation may be useful to correct motivational and affective deficits in neuropsychiatric disease.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180302
[Lr] Last revision date:180302
[St] Status:Publisher

  3 / 908 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28462486
[Au] Autor:Diatroptov MЕ; Diatroptova MA
[Ad] Address:Research Institute of Human Morphology, Moscow, Russia.
[Ti] Title:Infradian Biorhythm of Thyroid Hormone Concentrations in Mammals and Birds.
[So] Source:Bull Exp Biol Med;162(6):815-819, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1573-8221
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Studies of the dynamics of thyroid hormone concentrations in the blood revealed a 3-day rhythm that significantly manifested in male Wistar rats and Chinchilla rabbits during intensive growth and in common starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) during moult. Synphasic 3-day biorhythms of thyroid hormonal activities were found in these animals, which attested to an external synchronizer of this biorhythm common for mammals and birds. The maximum level of thyroid hormones coincided with the extrema of daily fluctuations of the Earth rotation velocity, as a result of which this external factor or another factor closely related to it seemed to be involved in synchronization of the 3-day infradian biorhythm of thyroid hormones in mammals and birds.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Corticosterone/blood
Passeriformes/physiology
Periodicity
Thyroid Gland/physiology
Thyroxine/blood
Triiodothyronine/blood
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Geography
Male
Molting/physiology
Rabbits
Rats
Rats, Wistar
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:06LU7C9H1V (Triiodothyronine); Q51BO43MG4 (Thyroxine); W980KJ009P (Corticosterone)
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180223
[Lr] Last revision date:180223
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170503
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s10517-017-3720-3

  4 / 908 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29370164
[Au] Autor:Butler SR; Fernández-Juricic E
[Ad] Address:Purdue University, Department of Biological Sciences, West Lafayette, Indiana, United States of America.
[Ti] Title:European starlings use their acute vision to check on feline predators but not on conspecifics.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0188857, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Head movements allow birds with laterally placed eyes to move their centers of acute vision around and align them with objects of interest. Consequently, head movements have been used as indicator of fixation behavior (where gaze is maintained). However, studies on head movement behavior have not elucidated the degree to which birds use high-acuity or low-acuity vision. We studied how European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) used high-acuity vision in the early stages of visual exploration of a stuffed cat (common terrestrial predator), a taxidermy Cooper's hawk (common aerial predator), and a stuffed study skin of a conspecific. We found that starlings tended to use their high acuity vision when looking at predators, particularly, the cat was above chance levels. However, when they viewed a conspecific, they used high acuity vision as expected by chance. We did not observe a preference for the left or right center of acute vision. Our findings suggest that starlings exposed to a predator (particularly cats) may employ selective attention by using high-acuity vision to obtain quickly detailed information useful for a potential escape, but exposed to a social context may use divided attention by allocating similar levels high- and low-quality vision to monitor both conspecifics and the rest of the environment.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Cats/physiology
Predatory Behavior
Starlings/physiology
Visual Acuity
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Eye Movements
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180222
[Lr] Last revision date:180222
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:180126
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0188857

  5 / 908 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29440359
[Au] Autor:Smit B; Whitfield MC; Talbot WA; Gerson AR; McKechnie AE; Wolf BO
[Ad] Address:Department of Zoology and Entomology, Rhodes University, P.O. Box 94 Grahamstown 6040, South Africa b.smit@ru.ac.za.
[Ti] Title:Avian thermoregulation in the heat: phylogenetic variation among avian orders in evaporative cooling capacity and heat tolerance.
[So] Source:J Exp Biol;, 2018 Feb 13.
[Is] ISSN:1477-9145
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Little is known about the phylogenetic variation of avian evaporative cooling efficiency and heat tolerance in hot environments. We quantified thermoregulatory responses to high air temperature ( ) in ∼100-g representatives of three orders: African cuckoo ( , Cuculiformes), lilac-breasted roller ( , Coraciiformes), and Burchell's starling ( , Passeriformes). All three species initiated respiratory mechanisms to increase evaporative heat dissipation when body temperature ( ) approached 41.5°C in response to increasing , with gular flutter observed in cuckoos and panting in rollers and starlings. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) and evaporative water loss (EWL) increased by quantitatively similar magnitudes in all three species, although maximum rates of EWL were proportionately lower in starlings. Evaporative cooling efficiency [defined as the ratio of evaporative heat loss (EHL) to metabolic heat production (MHP)] generally remained below 2.0 in cuckoos and starlings, but reached a maximum of ∼3.5 in rollers. The high value for rollers reveals a very efficient evaporative cooling mechanism, and is similar to EHL/MHP maxima for similarly sized columbids which very effectively dissipate heat via cutaneous evaporation. This unexpected phylogenetic variation among the orders tested in the physiological mechanisms of heat dissipation is an important step toward determining the evolution of heat tolerance traits in desert birds.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180214
[Lr] Last revision date:180214
[St] Status:Publisher

  6 / 908 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28470122
[Au] Autor:Dawson A
[Ad] Address:Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, Penicuik, Midlothian, UK.
[Ti] Title:Daily Cycles in Body Temperature in a Songbird Change with Photoperiod and Are Weakly Circadian.
[So] Source:J Biol Rhythms;32(2):177-183, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1552-4531
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Although it is well known that body temperature (Tb) is higher during the day in diurnal birds than at night, no data are available regarding exactly how Tb varies during a 24-h period, how this differs under different photoperiods, and how it responds to a change in photoperiod. This study used implanted temperature loggers in starlings ( Sturnus vulgaris) to address these questions. The duration of elevated Tb was directly related to photoperiod, but the amplitude of the daily cycle was significantly greater under shorter photoperiods. Under all photoperiods, Tb started to increase before dawn and continued to increase after dawn; there was no sudden change associated with dawn. In contrast, Tb decreased immediately and rapidly at dusk (significantly by 15 min). The daily cycle in Tb rapidly adjusted to a change in photoperiod. Following an acute increase in photoperiod, Tb increased immediately at the new earlier dawn but did not decrease until the new later dusk. Following a decrease in photoperiod, Tb did not increase after the time of the missed dawn; it only increased after the new later dawn. It decreased at the new earlier dusk. Following transfer to constant darkness, there was a moderate increase in Tb around the missed dawn, but then Tb gradually decreased before the missed dusk to lower values than during the previous night. The results suggest that the daily cycle in Tb is weakly circadian and may be entrained by dusk rather than dawn.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Body Temperature
Circadian Rhythm/physiology
Photoperiod
Songbirds/physiology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Darkness
Light
Melatonin/metabolism
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:JL5DK93RCL (Melatonin)
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180126
[Lr] Last revision date:180126
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170505
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1177/0748730417691206

  7 / 908 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29356445
[Au] Autor:de Bruijn R; Reed JM; Romero LM
[Ad] Address:Department of Biology, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts, USA.
[Ti] Title:Chronic repeated exposure to weather-related stimuli elicits few symptoms of chronic stress in captive molting and non-molting European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).
[So] Source:J Exp Zool A Ecol Integr Physiol;327(8):493-503, 2017 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:2471-5646
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Repeated exposure to acute stressors causes dramatic changes in an animal's stress physiology and the cumulative effects are often called chronic stress. Recently we showed that short-term exposure to weather-related stimuli, such as temperature change, artificial precipitation, and food restriction, cause acute responses in captive European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). Here, we examined the effect of repeated exposure to weather-related stressors on heart rate and corticosterone (CORT) of captive non-molting and molting European starlings. Four times every day for 3 weeks, birds were exposed to either 30 min of a subtle (3°C) decrease in temperature, a short bout of simulated rain, or 2 hr of food removal. The order and time of presentation were randomly assigned on each day. We found no differences in heart rate or heart rate variability. Furthermore, there were no changes in baseline CORT levels, CORT negative feedback efficacy, or maximal adrenal capacity. Mass increased across the experimental period only in molting birds. CORT responses to restraint were decreased in both groups following treatment, suggesting the birds had downregulated their responses to acute stress. Molting birds showed evidence of suppression of the HPA axis compared with non-molting birds, which is consistent with previous research. Overall, our data show that repeated exposure to weather-related stressors does not elicit most of the symptoms normally associated with chronic stress.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180122
[Lr] Last revision date:180122
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1002/jez.2134

  8 / 908 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29224857
[Au] Autor:Carlson JC; Stahl RS; DeLiberto ST; Wagner JJ; Engle TE; Engeman RM; Olson CS; Ellis JW; Werner SJ
[Ad] Address:Wildlife Services, National Wildlife Research Center, USDA-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, 4101 LaPorte Avenue, Fort Collins, CO 80521. Electronic address: james.c.carlson@aphis.usda.gov.
[Ti] Title:Nutritional depletion of total mixed rations by European starlings: Projected effects on dairy cow performance and potential intervention strategies to mitigate damage.
[So] Source:J Dairy Sci;101(2):1777-1784, 2018 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1525-3198
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:European starlings are an invasive bird species in North America that are known to cause damage to commercial dairies through the consumption of total mixed rations (TMR) destined for dairy cows. We hypothesized that large foraging flocks of starlings alter the physical composition of TMR, and that this change may be significant enough to affect milk production. To better determine if production losses could potentially occur in commercial dairies as a consequence of feed consumption by foraging flocks of starlings, we conducted controlled feeding experiments using a TMR sourced from a commercial dairy that is chronically plagued with seasonal starling damage. European starlings selected the high-energy fraction of the TMR and reduced starch and crude fat availability. Using the dairy National Research Council production model equations, the nutritional changes measured in the controlled feeding experiments could potentially reduce the productivity of dairies. Model output suggests that for Holsteins producing 32 kg of milk/d, total required net energy intake (NE ) was 31.5 Mcal/d. Within the reference TMR, NE supplied was 29.3 Mcal/d, whereas within the starling-consumed TMR NE supplied was 27.7 Mcal/d. Following our nutrition experiments, we assessed the efficacy of pelleted feed as a deterrent strategy for bird damage management in commercial dairies. Six different pelleted feed treatments of differing diameter were offered to starlings. All pellets of 0.95 cm diameter or larger inhibited starling consumption by ≥79%.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 180116
[Lr] Last revision date:180116
[St] Status:In-Process

  9 / 908 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29332150
[Au] Autor:Tomás G; Martín-Gálvez D; Ruiz-Castellano C; Ruiz-Rodríguez M; Peralta-Sánchez JM; Martín-Vivaldi M; Soler JJ
[Ad] Address:Estación Experimental de Zonas Áridas (EEZA-CSIC), Almería, Spain. gtomas@eeza.csic.es.
[Ti] Title:Ectoparasite Activity During Incubation Increases Microbial Growth on Avian Eggs.
[So] Source:Microb Ecol;, 2018 Jan 13.
[Is] ISSN:1432-184X
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:While direct detrimental effects of parasites on hosts are relatively well documented, other more subtle but potentially important effects of parasitism are yet unexplored. Biological activity of ectoparasites, apart from skin injuries and blood-feeding, often results in blood remains, or parasite faeces that accumulate and modify the host environment. In this way, ectoparasite activities and remains may increase nutrient availability that may favour colonization and growth of microorganisms including potential pathogens. Here, by the experimental addition of hematophagous flies (Carnus hemapterus, a common ectoparasite of birds) to nests of spotless starlings Sturnus unicolor during incubation, we explore this possible side effect of parasitism which has rarely, if ever, been investigated. Results show that faeces and blood remains from parasitic flies on spotless starling eggshells at the end of incubation were more abundant in experimental than in control nests. Moreover, eggshell bacterial loads of different groups of cultivable bacteria including potential pathogens, as well as species richness of bacteria in terms of Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs), were also higher in experimental nests. Finally, we also found evidence of a link between eggshell bacterial loads and increased embryo mortality, which provides indirect support for a bacterial-mediated negative effect of ectoparasitism on host offspring. Trans-shell bacterial infection might be one of the main causes of embryo death and, consequently, this hitherto unnoticed indirect effect of ectoparasitism might be widespread in nature and could affect our understanding of ecology and evolution of host-parasite interactions.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180114
[Lr] Last revision date:180114
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00248-017-1140-6

  10 / 908 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 27778195
[Au] Autor:Federspiel IG; Garland A; Guez D; Bugnyar T; Healy SD; Güntürkün O; Griffin AS
[Ad] Address:School of Psychology, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, 2308, Australia.
[Ti] Title:Adjusting foraging strategies: a comparison of rural and urban common mynas (Acridotheres tristis).
[So] Source:Anim Cogn;20(1):65-74, 2017 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1435-9456
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Establishment in urbanized environments is associated with changes in physiology, behaviour, and problem-solving. We compared the speed of learning in urban and rural female common mynas, Acridotheres tristis, using a standard visual discrimination task followed by a reversal learning phase. We also examined how quickly each bird progressed through different stages of learning, including sampling and acquisition within both initial and reversal learning, and persistence following reversal. Based on their reliance on very different food resources, we expected urban mynas to learn and reversal learn more quickly but to sample new contingencies for proportionately longer before learning them. When quantified from first presentation to criterion achievement, urban mynas took more 20-trial blocks to learn the initial discrimination, as well as the reversed contingency, than rural mynas. More detailed analyses at the level of stage revealed that this was because urban mynas explored the novel cue-outcome contingencies for longer, and despite transitioning faster through subsequent acquisition, remained overall slower than rural females. Our findings draw attention to fine adjustments in learning strategies in response to urbanization and caution against interpreting the speed to learn a task as a reflection of cognitive ability.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Problem Solving
Reversal Learning
Starlings
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Discrimination Learning
Environment
Female
Visual Perception
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 171208
[Lr] Last revision date:171208
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:161026
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s10071-016-1045-7


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