Database : MEDLINE
Search on : Tick and Paralysis [Words]
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[PMID]: 29336689
[Au] Autor:Chalada MJ; Stenos J; Vincent G; Barker D; Bradbury RS
[Ad] Address:1 School of Health, Medical and Applied Sciences, Central Queensland University , North Rockhampton, Queensland, Australia .
[Ti] Title:A Molecular Survey of Tick-Borne Pathogens from Ticks Collected in Central Queensland, Australia.
[So] Source:Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis;18(3):151-163, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1557-7759
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Central Queensland (CQ) is a large and isolated, low population density, remote tropical region of Australia with a varied environment. The region has a diverse fauna and several species of ticks that feed upon that fauna. This study examined 518 individual ticks: 177 Rhipicephalus sanguineus (brown dog tick), 123 Haemaphysalis bancrofti (wallaby tick), 102 Rhipicephalus australis (Australian cattle tick), 47 Amblyomma triguttatum (ornate kangaroo tick), 57 Ixodes holocyclus (paralysis tick), 9 Bothriocroton tachyglossi (CQ short-beaked echidna tick), and 3 Ornithodoros capensis (seabird soft tick). Tick midguts were pooled by common host or environment and screened for four genera of tick-borne zoonoses by PCR and sequencing. The study examined a total of 157 midgut pools of which 3 contained DNA of Coxiella burnetii, 13 Rickettsia gravesii, 1 Rickettsia felis, and 4 other Rickettsia spp. No Borrelia spp. or Babesia spp. DNA were recovered.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180301
[Lr] Last revision date:180301
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1089/vbz.2017.2182

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[PMID]: 29084761
[Au] Autor:Lother SA; Haley L
[Ad] Address:Sections of Infectious Diseases (Lother) and Neurology (Haley), Department of Internal Medicine, The University of British Columbia; Vancouver General Hospital (Lother); Gordon and Leslie Diamond Health Care Centre (Haley), Vancouver, BC sa.lother@me.com.
[Ti] Title:Tick paralysis.
[So] Source:CMAJ;189(43):E1341, 2017 10 30.
[Is] ISSN:1488-2329
[Cp] Country of publication:Canada
[La] Language:eng
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1711
[Cu] Class update date: 171110
[Lr] Last revision date:171110
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1503/cmaj.170868

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[PMID]: 29083955
[Au] Autor:Morshed M; Li L; Lee MK; Fernando K; Lo T; Wong Q
[Ad] Address:1 Zoonotic Diseases and Emerging Pathogens Section, BC Centre of Disease Control Public Health Laboratory , Vancouver, Canada .
[Ti] Title:A Retrospective Cohort Study of Tick Paralysis in British Columbia.
[So] Source:Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis;, 2017 Oct 30.
[Is] ISSN:1557-7759
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Tick paralysis is a frequently overlooked severe disease characterized by bilateral ascending flaccid paralysis caused by a neurotoxin produced by feeding ticks. We aimed to characterize suspected tick paralysis cases documented at the BC Centre for Disease Control (BCCDC) in British Columbia (BC) from 1993 to 2016 and reviewed prevention, diagnosis, and treatment considerations. METHODS: Demographic, geographic, and clinical data from test requisition forms for ticks submitted to the BCCDC Public Health Laboratory (PHL) from patients across BC between 1993 and 2016 for suspected human and animal tick paralysis were reviewed. Descriptive statistics were generated to characterize tick paralysis cases in BC, including tick species implicated, seasonality of disease, and regional differences. RESULTS: From 1993 to 2016, there were 56 cases of suspected tick paralysis with at least one tick specimen submitted for testing at the BCCDC PHL. Humans and animals were involved in 43% and 57% of cases, respectively. The majority of cases involved a Dermacentor andersoni tick (48 cases or 86%) and occurred between the months of April and June (49 cases or 88%). Among known locations of tick acquisition, the Interior region of BC was disproportionately affected, with 25 cases (69%) of tick bites occurring in that area. CONCLUSIONS: Tick paralysis is a rare condition in BC. The region of highest risk is the Interior, particularly during the spring and summer months. Increasing awareness of tick paralysis among healthcare workers and the general public is paramount to preventing morbidity and mortality from this rare disease.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171030
[Lr] Last revision date:171030
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1089/vbz.2017.2168

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[PMID]: 29080763
[Au] Autor:Whitfield Z; Kelman M; Ward MP
[Ad] Address:Sydney School of Veterinary Science, The University of Sydney, Camden NSW, Australia.
[Ti] Title:Delineation of an endemic tick paralysis zone in southeastern Australia.
[So] Source:Vet Parasitol;247:42-48, 2017 Nov 30.
[Is] ISSN:1873-2550
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Tick paralysis has a major impact on pet dog and cat populations in southeastern Australia. It results from envenomation by Ixodes holocyclus and Ixodes cornuatus ticks, the role of Ixodes cornuatus in the epidemiology of this disease in Australia being unclear. The aim of this study was to describe the geographical distribution of tick paralysis cases in southeastern Australia using data from a national disease surveillance system and to compare characteristics of "endemic" cases with those reported outside this endemic zone ("sporadic" cases). Data were collated and a proportional symbol map of all cases by postcode was created. A 15-case isopleth was developed based on descriptive spatial statistics (directional ellipses) and then kernel smoothing to distinguish endemic from sporadic cases. During the study period (January 2010-December 2015) 12,421 cases were reported, and 10,839 of these reported by clinics located in 434 postcodes were included in the study. Endemic cases were predominantly reported from postcodes in coastal southeastern Australia, from southern Queensland to eastern Victoria. Of those cases meeting selection criteria, within the endemic zone 10,767 cases were reported from 351 (88%) postcodes and outside this zone 72 cases were reported from 48 (12%) postcodes. Of these latter 48 postcodes, 18 were in Victoria (26 cases), 16 in New South Wales (28 cases), 7 in Tasmania (9 cases), 5 in South Australia (7 cases) and 2 in Queensland (2 cases). Seasonal distribution in reporting was found: 62% of endemic and 52% of sporadic cases were reported in spring. The number of both endemic and sporadic cases reported peaked in October and November, but importantly a secondary peak in reporting of sporadic cases in April was found. In non-endemic areas, summer was the lowest risk season whilst in endemic areas, autumn was the lowest risk season. Two clusters of sporadic cases were identified, one in South Australia (P=0.022) during the period 22 May to 2 June 2012 and another in New South Wales (P=0.059) during the period 9 October to 29 November 2012. Endemic and sporadic cases did not differ with respect to neuter status (P=0.188), sex (P=0.205), case outcome (P=0.367) or method of diagnosis (P=0.413). However, sporadic cases were 4.2-times more likely to be dogs than cats (P<0.001). The endemic tick paralysis zone described is consistent with previous anecdotal reports. Sporadic cases reported outside this zone might be due to a history of pet travel to endemic areas, small foci of I. holocyclus outside of the endemic zone, or in the case of southern areas, tick paralysis caused by I. cornuatus.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171029
[Lr] Last revision date:171029
[St] Status:In-Process

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[PMID]: 29042312
[Au] Autor:Karbanowicz T; Dover E; Mu X; Tabor A; Rodriguez-Valle M
[Ad] Address:The University of Queensland, Queensland Alliance for Agriculture & Food Innovation, Queensland, Australia.
[Ti] Title:Extracellular expression of the HT1 neurotoxin from the Australian paralysis tick in two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.
[So] Source:Toxicon;140:1-10, 2017 Dec 15.
[Is] ISSN:1879-3150
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Surface display libraries (SDL) have predominantly been utilized for the screening of peptides, and single-chain variable IgG fragments, however, the use of SDL for the expression and purification of proteins is gaining interest. Prokaryote SDL express proteins within the periplasm, limiting the application of common screening techniques, such as ELISA and FACS, to assess the viability of recombinant toxin before purification. A previous attempt to express a functional holocyclotoxin-1 (HT1) from the Australian paralysis tick (Ixodes holocyclus) using a prokaryotic system was unsuccessful. In this study, the coding sequence (CDS) of HT1 was cloned into the pYD1 plasmid and transformed by electroporation into IMTV014 and EBY100 yeast cell lines. Post induction, recombinant HT1 was identified on the cell surface of IMTV014/ht1 and EBY100/ht1 transformants by FACS, Western blot, and ELISA utilizing dog anti-paralysis tick IgG. The recombinant HT1 was purified, and functionality confirmed by an in vitro synaptosome-binding assay. This research reports for the first time the extracellular expression and display of a functional HT1 on the surface of the S. cerevisiae. It also provides evidence that yeast display libraries provide a viable technology to produce recombinant toxins, and their screening using high throughput methodologies such as FACS.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171121
[Lr] Last revision date:171121
[St] Status:In-Process

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[PMID]: 28994630
[Au] Autor:Leister E; Morton J; Atwell R; Webster R
[Ad] Address:1 Pet Intensive Care Unit, Veterinary Specialist Services and Animal Emergency Service, Underwood, Australia.
[Ti] Title:Clinical presentations, treatments and risk factors for mortality in cats with tick paralysis caused by Ixodes holocyclus: 2077 cases (2008-2016).
[So] Source:J Feline Med Surg;:1098612X17733628, 2017 Oct 01.
[Is] ISSN:1532-2750
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Objectives The objective of this study was to describe seasonality, demographics, presentations, treatments, complications and outcomes for cats with Ixodes holocyclus causing tick paralysis, and to identify risk factors for mortality. Methods This was a retrospective single cohort study with 2077 cases occurring between 2008 and 2016, and presenting to one of four emergency clinics in south-eastern Queensland, Australia. Case mortality at 5 days post-presentation could be determined for 1742 cases, and potential risk factors for mortality were assessed using random-effects logistic regression. Results Cases occurred all year round, but there was a marked seasonal pattern with more cases presenting in spring than any other season. Overall, 54/1742 cases (3%) died by 5 days after presentation. Five day mortality incidence for cases that received polyclonal canine tick antitoxin serum (TAS) and recommended treatment was 28/1410 (2%) vs 4/52 (8%) for cases that did not receive TAS ( P <0.001). Mechanical ventilation was recommended for 131/2077 cases (6%). Where mechanical ventilation was recommended but not implemented, mortality incidence was 15/17 (88%), whereas 4/22 cases (18%) that received mechanical ventilation died by day 5. From multivariable analyses, initial gait score (overall P = 0.047) and body temperature on presentation (overall P <0.001) were independently associated with mortality; cases with higher gait scores and those with body temperatures <35°C were at greater risk of death. Cases that had an adverse reaction to TAS were also more likely to die ( P = 0.002). Additional ticks were detected at coat clipping for (80/872) 9% of the cases that were clipped, and coat clipping was associated with a reduced risk of mortality ( P = 0.020). Risk of mortality did not differ significantly by time of year, clinic location, breed, sex, neuter status, age, weight, coat length or number of ticks found. Conclusions and relevance The overall mortality risk for cats treated for tick paralysis caused by I holocyclus is low. Risk factors for mortality include advanced gait and respiratory scores, and hypothermia at presentation. Coat clipping and TAS reduce the risk of mortality, whereas the occurrence of a TAS reaction increases the risk. Mechanical ventilation reduces mortality risk in cats with respiratory failure due to tick paralysis.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171010
[Lr] Last revision date:171010
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1177/1098612X17733628

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[PMID]: 28989068
[Au] Autor:Rodriguez-Valle M; Moolhuijzen P; Barrero RA; Ong CT; Busch G; Karbanowicz T; Booth M; Clark R; Koehbach J; Ijaz H; Broady K; Agnew K; Knowles AG; Bellgard MI; Tabor AE
[Ad] Address:Queensland Alliance for Agriculture & Food Innovation, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072, Australia. Electronic address: m.rodriguezvalle@uq.edu.au.
[Ti] Title:Transcriptome and toxin family analysis of the paralysis tick, Ixodes holocyclus.
[So] Source:Int J Parasitol;, 2017 Oct 06.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0135
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The Australian paralysis tick (Ixodes holocyclus) secretes neuropathic toxins into saliva that induce host paralysis. Salivary glands and viscera were dissected from fully engorged female I. holocyclus ticks collected from dogs and cats with paralysis symptoms. cDNA from both tissue samples were sequenced using Illumina HiSeq 100 bp pair end read technologies. Unique and non-redundant holocyclotoxin sequences were designated as HT2-HT19, as none were identical to the previously described HT1. Specific binding to rat synaptosomes was determined for synthetic HTs, and their neurotoxic capacity was determined by neonatal mouse assay. They induced a powerful paralysis in neonatal mice, particularly HT4 which produced rapid and strong respiratory distress in all animals tested. This is the first known genomic database developed for the Australian paralysis tick. The database contributed to the identification and subsequent characterization of the holocyclotoxin family that will inform the development of novel anti-paralysis control methods.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171111
[Lr] Last revision date:171111
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 28849543
[Au] Autor:Kwak ML; Madden C
[Ad] Address:Invertebrate Biosystematics Laboratory, Agribio: the Centre for Agribioscience, Department of Economic Development, Jobs, Transport and Resources, 5 Ring Road, Bundoora, VIC, 3083, Australia. mackenziekwak@gmail.com.
[Ti] Title:The first record of infestation by a native tick (Acari: Ixodidae) on the Australian emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) and a review of tick paralysis in Australian birds.
[So] Source:Exp Appl Acarol;73(1):103-107, 2017 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1572-9702
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:For the first time, infestation of the Australian emu by a native tick is recorded based on an engorged adult female specimen of the southern paralysis tick (Ixodes cornuatus) taken from a captive emu at Healesville sanctuary, Victoria, Australia. Tick paralysis in Australian birds is discussed.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1708
[Cu] Class update date: 171117
[Lr] Last revision date:171117
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1007/s10493-017-0168-0

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[PMID]: 28717957
[Au] Autor:de Burgh S; Hunter K; Jackson C; Chambers M; Klupiec C; Smith V
[Ad] Address:Bayer Australia Ltd, Animal Health, Pymble, NSW, Australia. susan.deburgh@bayer.com.
[Ti] Title:Repellency Effect of an Imidacloprid / Flumethrin (Seresto ) Controlled Release Polymer Matrix Collar against the Australian Paralysis Tick (Ixodes holocyclus) in Dogs.
[So] Source:Parasitol Res;116(Suppl 1):145-156, 2017 08.
[Is] ISSN:1432-1955
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1707
[Cu] Class update date: 171114
[Lr] Last revision date:171114
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00436-017-5500-4

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[PMID]: 28654563
[Au] Autor:Södermark L; Sigurdsson V; Näs W; Wall P; Trollfors B
[Ad] Address:From the *Department of Pediatrics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden; †Department of Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden; and ‡Department of Medicine, Karlstad Hospital, Karlstad, Sweden.
[Ti] Title:Neuroborreliosis in Swedish Children: A Population-based Study on Incidence and Clinical Characteristics.
[So] Source:Pediatr Infect Dis J;36(11):1052-1056, 2017 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1532-0987
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Borrelia burgdorferi is a common cause of bacterial meningitis, but there are very few studies on incidence in Europe. The aim of this study was to report the incidence and symptoms of neuroborreliosis in Swedish children. METHODS: Medical records of children (< 15 years) treated for neuroborreliosis 2002-2014 were studied retrospectively. The patients were identified in the computerized registers of discharge diagnoses at the Departments of Pediatrics and Infectious Diseases in Gothenburg, Borås, Trollhättan and Halmstad using International Classification of Diseases 10 diagnosis codes G51.0, G01.9 and/or A69.1. Of those, patients with symptoms compatible with neuroborreliosis and a white blood cell count in cerebrospinal fluid ≥ 7 cells/mm with ≥ 80% mononuclear cells were included. Only children living in the city of Gothenburg and 10 surrounding municipalities were included. RESULTS: Five hundred forty-eight children were included. The median age was 7 (1-14) years. The total incidence for the 13-year-period was 2.8/10,000 and remained unchanged during the period. The incidence was significantly higher in rural (4.0/10,000) than in urban municipalities (2.1/10,000). The most common presenting symptoms were headache (n = 335), fatigue (n = 330) and cranial nerve palsies (n = 329). The median duration of symptoms before admittance was 4.0 days for facial palsy and 14.0 days for other symptoms (P < 0.001). The median white blood cell count in cerebrospinal fluid was 129 (7-1069) cells/mm. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the largest so far in a pediatric population. The incidence of neuroborreliosis was higher than in previous European reports. This might be explained by increased Borrelia awareness, the distribution of tick population in Sweden, and the possibility that Swedish children more frequently play outdoors.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Borrelia burgdorferi
Lyme Neuroborreliosis/epidemiology
Meningitis, Bacterial/epidemiology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adolescent
Child
Child, Preschool
Facial Paralysis
Female
Headache
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Lyme Neuroborreliosis/microbiology
Male
Meningitis, Bacterial/microbiology
Retrospective Studies
Sweden/epidemiology
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171024
[Lr] Last revision date:171024
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170628
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1097/INF.0000000000001653


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