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[PMID]: 27931177
[Au] Autor:Sheeja Malar D; Beema Shafreen R; Karutha Pandian S; Pandima Devi K
[Ad] Address:a Department of Biotechnology , Alagappa University , Karaikudi , Tamil Nadu , India.
[Ti] Title:Cholinesterase inhibitory, anti-amyloidogenic and neuroprotective effect of the medicinal plant Grewia tiliaefolia - An in vitro and in silico study.
[So] Source:Pharm Biol;55(1):381-393, 2017 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1744-5116
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:CONTEXT: Grewia tiliaefolia Vahl. (Tiliaceae) is a sub-tropical plant used as an indigenous medicine in India. However, its efficacy has not been evaluated against Alzheimer's disease. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to evaluate cholinesterase inhibitory, anti-aggregation and neuroprotective activity of G. tiliaefolia. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Grewia tiliaefolia leaves were collected from Eastern Ghats region, India, and subjected to successive extraction (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water). The extracts were subjected to in vitro antioxidant, anticholinesterase and anti-aggregation assays. The active methanol extract (MEGT) was separated using column chromatography. LC-MS analysis was done and the obtained compounds were docked against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme to identify the active component. RESULTS: Antioxidant assays demonstrated that the MEGT showed significant free radical scavenging activity at the IC value of 71.5 ± 1.12 µg/mL. MEGT also exhibited significant dual cholinesterase inhibition with IC value of 64.26 ± 2.56 and 54 ± 0.7 µg/mL for acetyl and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), respectively. Also, MEGT showed significant anti-aggregation activity by preventing the oligomerization of Aß . Further, MEGT increased the viability of Neuro2a cells up to 95% against Aß neurotoxicity. LC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 16 compounds including vitexin, ellagic acid, isovitexin, etc. In silico analysis revealed that vitexin binds effectively with AChE through strong hydrogen bonding. These results were further confirmed by evaluating the activity of vitexin in vitro, which showed dual cholinesterase inhibition with IC value of 15.21 ± 0.41 and 19.75 ± 0.16 µM for acetyl and butyrlcholinesterase, respectively. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Grewia tiliaefolia can be considered as a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of AD.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Amyloid beta-Peptides/metabolism
Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology
Grewia/chemistry
Molecular Docking Simulation
Neurons/drug effects
Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology
Peptide Fragments/metabolism
Plant Extracts/pharmacology
Protein Aggregation, Pathological
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Acetylcholinesterase/chemistry
Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism
Animals
Apigenin/isolation & purification
Apigenin/pharmacology
Butyrylcholinesterase/metabolism
Cell Line, Tumor
Cholinesterase Inhibitors/isolation & purification
Cholinesterase Inhibitors/metabolism
Chromatography, Liquid
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Free Radical Scavengers/isolation & purification
Free Radical Scavengers/pharmacology
Mass Spectrometry
Mice
Neurons/metabolism
Neurons/pathology
Neuroprotective Agents/isolation & purification
Neuroprotective Agents/metabolism
Oxidation-Reduction
Phytotherapy
Plant Extracts/isolation & purification
Plant Extracts/metabolism
Plant Leaves
Plants, Medicinal
Plaque, Amyloid
Protein Binding
Protein Conformation
Solvents/chemistry
Structure-Activity Relationship
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Amyloid beta-Peptides); 0 (Cholinesterase Inhibitors); 0 (Free Radical Scavengers); 0 (Neuroprotective Agents); 0 (Peptide Fragments); 0 (Plant Extracts); 0 (Solvents); 0 (amyloid beta-protein (25-35)); 7V515PI7F6 (Apigenin); 9VP70K75OK (vitexin); EC 3.1.1.7 (Acetylcholinesterase); EC 3.1.1.8 (Butyrylcholinesterase)
[Em] Entry month:1703
[Cu] Class update date: 171116
[Lr] Last revision date:171116
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:161210
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 27818835
[Au] Autor:Calixto-Júnior JT; de Morais SM; Colares AV; Coutinho HD
[Ad] Address:Juazeiro do Norte College (FJN), Juazeiro do Norte, CE, Brazil.
[Ti] Title:The Genus (Malvaceae-Tiliaceae): Review about Chemical and Pharmacological Aspects.
[So] Source:J Pharm (Cairo);2016:1368971, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:2090-9918
[Cp] Country of publication:Egypt
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Popularly known as "açoita-cavalo" (whips-horse), species (Malvaceae-Tilioideae) are native to America and are used in folk medicine as anti-inflammatory, antidiarrheal, antiseptic, expectorant, and depurative and against skin infections. Although there are studies showing the chemical constituents of some species, the active substances have not been properly identified. A systematic study was carried out through a computer search of data on CAPES journals, SciELO, ISI Bireme, PubMed, ScienceDirect, ScienceDomain Medline, and Google Scholar from published articles using key words: , açoita-cavalo, and Malvaceae. was the species with the highest number of studies observed. Triterpenes (9), flavonoids (6), and steroids (4), including saponins, organic acids (4), and one lignan, are the main types of secondary metabolites registered and the most cited flavonoids were rutin and quercetin and among triterpenes there was maslinic acid, which might be associated with the popular indication of its anti-inflammatory action. The vitexin, a C-glycosylated flavone, isolated from three different species, is cited as a possible taxonomic marker of the genus. Studies confirm in part the medicinal uses of plants named as "açoita-cavalo" species. Some pharmacological activities, not assigned to the species of the genus by populations, were observed in laboratory experiments.
[Pt] Publication type:REVIEW; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1611
[Cu] Class update date: 170816
[Lr] Last revision date:170816
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 27706569
[Au] Autor:Shen WH; Li ZH; Peng YH; Yang MH; Tan ZQ; Zheng W
[Ad] Address:Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha, Hunan, China.
[Ti] Title:Development and characterization of microsatellite loci in Excentrodendron hsienmu (Chun & How) H.T. Chang& R.H. Miau.
[So] Source:Genet Mol Res;15(3), 2016 Aug 19.
[Is] ISSN:1676-5680
[Cp] Country of publication:Brazil
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Microsatellite markers were isolated using dual-suppression-PCR for the endangered species Excentrodendron hsienmu (Tiliaceae) to evaluate the genetic diversity and population structure of this species. A total of 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci were characterized in E. hsienmu. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 9, with an average of 5.27. The expected heterozygosity value ranged from 0.053 to 0.780, with an average of 0.568 and the observed heterozygosity value ranged from 0 to 0.595, with an average of 0.268. The polymorphic information content value ranged from 0.051 to 0.740, with an average of 0.521. These newly designed markers will be of great potential significance and profound influence in future research related to the genetic diversity, population structure, and patterns of gene flow of this species, which will contribute to the implementation of conservation and management strategies for this species.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Microsatellite Repeats
Tiliaceae/genetics
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Alleles
DNA, Plant/genetics
Endangered Species
Genetic Loci
Genetic Variation
Heterozygote
Polymorphism, Genetic
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (DNA, Plant)
[Em] Entry month:1704
[Cu] Class update date: 170403
[Lr] Last revision date:170403
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:161006
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.4238/gmr.15038060

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[PMID]: 27689232
[Au] Autor:Robin N; Foldi I; Godinot M; Petit G
[Ad] Address:Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, CNRS, UPMC, Sorbonne Université, UMR 7207 CR2P, 8 rue Buffon, CP 38, 75005, Paris, France. ninon.robin@edu.mnhn.fr.
[Ti] Title:Scale insect larvae preserved in vertebrate coprolites (Le Quesnoy, France, Lower Eocene): paleoecological insights.
[So] Source:Naturwissenschaften;103(9-10):85, 2016 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1432-1904
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Coprolites of terrestrial vertebrates from the Sparnacian Le Quesnoy locality (Ypresian, Eocene, MP7, 53 Ma; Oise, France) were examined for possible parasitic helminth eggs. The extraction of the coprolite components was performed by a weak acetolyse and a slide mounting in glycerin. This long examination did not reveal paleoparasite remains, which may be explained through several arguments. However, some pollen grains, some enigmatic components, and two well-preserved first-instar cochineal nymphs (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea) were evidenced in coprolites. Identified as Coccidae, these larvae are the earliest stage of the scale insect development ever reported as fossil, revealing the specific environment of preservation that fossilized scats may provide. These observations, combined to the coprolites morphotype, enable to ascribe the fossil scats producer to a small herbivorous mammal present in the deposit (early perissodactyls or Plesiadapidae). Regarding the ecology of extant representatives of Coccidae, this mammal was a likely foliage consumer, and the abundant Juglandaceae and/or Tiliaceae from Le Quesnoy might have lived parasitized by scale insects. These Early Eocene parasites had an already well-established dissemination strategy, with prevalent minute first-instar larvae. The herein performed extraction technique appears well-suited for the study of carbonate coprolites and could certainly be useful for evidencing other kind of microorganisms (including internal parasites).
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Feces
Fossils
Hemiptera/physiology
Vertebrates
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Feces/parasitology
France
Herbivory
Larva
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1702
[Cu] Class update date: 170916
[Lr] Last revision date:170916
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:161001
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 27381082
[Au] Autor:Taiwo BJ; Taiwo GO; Olubiyi OO; Fatokun AA
[Ad] Address:Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife, Nigeria; School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Bradford, Bradford BD7 1DP, England, United Kingdom. Electronic address: bamit@oauife.edu.ng.
[Ti] Title:Polyphenolic compounds with anti-tumour potential from Corchorus olitorius (L.) Tiliaceae, a Nigerian leaf vegetable.
[So] Source:Bioorg Med Chem Lett;26(15):3404-10, 2016 08 01.
[Is] ISSN:1464-3405
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Chromatographic fractionation of the methanolic extract of Corchorus olitorius (L.) (Tiliaceae), on silica gel yielded two polyphenolic compounds. The structures of the compounds were elucidated as Methyl-1,4,5-tri-O-caffeoyl quinate and trans-3-(4-Hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)acrylic anhydride, based on extensive use of spectroscopic techniques such as (1)H and (13)C NMR, DEPT and 2D NMR experiments (COSY, HSQC, HMBC), IR and MS. To establish an initial proof-of-concept for the biological relevance of these compounds, their cytotoxicity against the cancer cell lines HeLa, HL460 and PC3, which might indicate their anti-tumour potential, was assessed. The compounds when tested at a range of concentrations up to 1.6mM were found to possess mild cytotoxic activity which was significant against HeLa cells at ⩾800µM. The trans-3-(4-Hydroxy-3-methoxyl phenyl)acrylic anhydride was found to be related to curcumin, a compound known to have anti-cancer activity. Docking of each of the two compounds and also of curcumin into some molecular targets implicated in tumourigenesis revealed that the three compounds had binding affinities that were superior to those obtained for the co-crystallized inhibitors of metalloproteinase-9, fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). The plant Corchorus olitorius therefore represents a potential source of natural 'lead' compounds with anti-tumour potential.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology
Corchorus/chemistry
Polyphenols/pharmacology
Vegetables/chemistry
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry
Antineoplastic Agents/isolation & purification
Cell Line, Tumor
Cell Proliferation/drug effects
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor
Humans
Molecular Structure
Plant Leaves/chemistry
Polyphenols/chemistry
Polyphenols/isolation & purification
Structure-Activity Relationship
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Antineoplastic Agents); 0 (Polyphenols)
[Em] Entry month:1707
[Cu] Class update date: 171122
[Lr] Last revision date:171122
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:160707
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 26642683
[Au] Autor:Afzal S; Chaudhary BA; Ahmad A; Afzali K
[Ti] Title:PRELIMIARY PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITIES OF CRUDE EXTRACTS OF ZALEYA PENTANDRA AND CORCHORUS DEPRESSUS LINN.
[So] Source:Acta Pol Pharm;72(2):329-34, 2015 Mar-Apr.
[Is] ISSN:0001-6837
[Cp] Country of publication:Poland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Zaleya pentandra (Zp) and Cochoms depressus Linn. (Cd) have been considered as herbs with potential therapeutic benefits. Zp and Cd belong to the important family Aizoaceae and Tiliaceae, respectively. The extractions were carried out successively with methanol and dichloromethane at room temperature for 24 h. Preliminary phytochemical screening of Zp and Cd revealed the presence of steroids, alkaloids, saponins, and anthraquinones. The methanolic and dichloromethane extracts of selected plants were subjected to examination of antifungal activity by using agar tube dilution. The extracts were tested against different fungi such as A. nigeir, A. flavus, F. solani, A. funigatis and Mucor. The dichloromethane extract of aerial parts of Cd showed high antifungal activity against A. niger as compared to all other tested extracts.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Aizoaceae/chemistry
Antifungal Agents/pharmacology
Corchorus/chemistry
Plant Extracts/pharmacology
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Antifungal Agents); 0 (Plant Extracts)
[Em] Entry month:1601
[Cu] Class update date: 151208
[Lr] Last revision date:151208
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:151209
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 26006030
[Au] Autor:Aziz MA
[Ad] Address:Department of Pharmacy, Stamford University Bangladesh, Dhaka-1217, Bangladesh.
[Ti] Title:Qualitative phytochemical screening and evaluation of anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities of Microcos paniculata barks and fruits.
[So] Source:J Integr Med;13(3):173-84, 2015 May.
[Is] ISSN:2095-4964
[Cp] Country of publication:China
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE: The main objectives of this study were to qualitatively evaluate the profile of phytochemical constituents present in methanolic extract of Microcos paniculata bark (BME) and fruit (FME), as well as to evaluate their anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities. METHODS: Phytochemical constituents of BME and FME were determined by different qualitative tests such as Molisch's test, Fehling's test, alkaloid test, frothing test, FeCl3 test, alkali test, Salkowski's test and Baljet test. The anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities of the extracts were evaluated through proteinase-inhibitory assay, xylene-induced ear edema test, cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation in mice, formalin test, acetic acid-induced writhing test, tail immersion test and Brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in mice. RESULTS: M. paniculata extracts revealed the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids and triterpenoids. All of the extracts showed significant (P<0.05, vs aspirin group) proteinase-inhibitory activity, whereas the highest effect elicited by plant extracts was exhibited by the BME (75.94% proteinase inhibition activity) with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 61.31 µg/mL. Each extract at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight showed significant (P<0.05, vs control) percentage inhibition of ear edema and granuloma formation. These extracts significantly (P<0.05, vs control) reduced the paw licking and abdominal writhing of mice. In addition, BME 400 mg/kg, and FME at 200 and 400 mg/kg showed significant (P<0.05, vs control) analgesic activities at 60 min in the tail immersion test. Again, the significant (P<0.05, vs control) post-treatment antipyretic activities were found by BME 200 and 400 mg/kg and FME 400 mg/kg respectively. CONCLUSION: Study results indicate that M. paniculata may provide a source of plant compounds with anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Analgesics/pharmacology
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology
Antipyretics/pharmacology
Plant Extracts/pharmacology
Tiliaceae/chemistry
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Female
Fruit/chemistry
Male
Mice
Plant Bark/chemistry
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Analgesics); 0 (Anti-Inflammatory Agents); 0 (Antipyretics); 0 (Plant Extracts)
[Em] Entry month:1507
[Cu] Class update date: 150526
[Lr] Last revision date:150526
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:150527
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 25885803
[Au] Autor:Natarajan A; Sugumar S; Bitragunta S; Balasubramanyan N
[Ad] Address:Department of Chemistry, SRM University, Kattankulathur, 603203, India. abirami.n@ktr.srmuniv.ac.in.
[Ti] Title:Molecular docking studies of (4Z, 12Z)-cyclopentadeca-4, 12-dienone from Grewia hirsuta with some targets related to type 2 diabetes.
[So] Source:BMC Complement Altern Med;15:73, 2015 Mar 20.
[Is] ISSN:1472-6882
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Management of diabetes without any side effects is still a challenge to the medical system. This leads to increasing demand for natural products with antidiabetic activity with fewer side effects. Grewia hirsuta (Tiliaceae) is a traditional herbal medicinal plant and is reported to possess a variety of pharmacological actions. In the present research, a compound (4Z, 12Z)-cyclopentadeca-4, 12-dienone isolated from Grewia hirsuta was taken as ligand for molecular docking studies. Evaluation of hypoglycemic activity through an extensive in silico docking approach with molecular targets such as aldose reductase, glucokinase, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoform 2, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma, glycogen synthase kinase-3, 11ß-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and glutamine: fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase were performed. METHODS: Isolation of the (4Z, 12Z)-cyclopentadeca-4,12-dienone from the methanol extract of the leaves of Grewia hirsuta was performed by the column chromatography to yield different fractions. These fractions were then subjected to purification and the structure was elucidated and confirmed by spectroscopic methods including UV, FTIR, (1)H, (13)C NMR and the accurate mass determination was carried out using the Q-TOF mass spectrometer. In-vivo experimentation was performed with evaluation of α-glucosidase, α-amylase and MTT assay that had been reported by the author in the earlier paper. Molecular docking study was performed with GLIDE docking software. RESULTS: The docking studies of the ligand (4Z, 12Z)-cyclopentadeca-4, 12-dienone with seven different target proteins showed that this is a good inhibitor, which docks well with various targets related to diabetes mellitus. Hence (4Z, 12Z)-cyclopentadeca-4,12-dienone can be considered for developing into a potent anti-diabetic drug. CONCLUSION: The results of the current study have revealed that the leaves of the selected plant Grewia hirsuta contains a potential inhibitor for diabetes (4Z, 12Z)-cyclopentadeca-4,12-dienone. Thus enabling a possibility of this plant extract as a new alternative to existing diabetic approaches.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Cyclopentanes/pharmacology
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism
Enzymes/metabolism
Grewia/chemistry
Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology
Plant Extracts/pharmacology
Transcription Factors/metabolism
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Aldehyde Reductase/metabolism
Cyclopentanes/isolation & purification
Cyclopentanes/therapeutic use
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy
Fructosephosphates/metabolism
Humans
Hypoglycemic Agents/isolation & purification
Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use
Molecular Docking Simulation
PPAR gamma/metabolism
Phytotherapy
Plant Extracts/chemistry
Plant Extracts/therapeutic use
Plant Leaves
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 ((4Z,12Z)-cyclopentadeca-4,12-dienone); 0 (Cyclopentanes); 0 (Enzymes); 0 (Fructosephosphates); 0 (Hypoglycemic Agents); 0 (PPAR gamma); 0 (Plant Extracts); 0 (Transcription Factors); 6814-87-5 (fructose-6-phosphate); EC 1.1.1.21 (Aldehyde Reductase)
[Em] Entry month:1511
[Cu] Class update date: 170220
[Lr] Last revision date:170220
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:150418
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12906-015-0588-5

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[PMID]: 25792013
[Au] Autor:Rofiee MS; Yusof MI; Abdul Hisam EE; Bannur Z; Zakaria ZA; Somchit MN; Teh LK; Salleh MZ
[Ad] Address:Integrative Pharmacogenomics Institute (iPROMISE), Universiti Teknologi MARA, Puncak Alam Campus, Bandar Puncak Alam, 42300 Selangor, Malaysia.
[Ti] Title:Isolating the metabolic pathways involved in the hepatoprotective effect of Muntingia calabura against CCl4-induced liver injury using LC/MS Q-TOF.
[So] Source:J Ethnopharmacol;166:109-18, 2015 May 26.
[Is] ISSN:1872-7573
[Cp] Country of publication:Ireland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Muntingia calabura L. has been used in Southeast Asia and tropical America as antipyretic, antiseptic, analgesic, antispasmodic and liver tonic. This study aims to determine the acute toxicity and the metabolic pathways involved in the hepatoprotective mechanism of M. calabura. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CCl4-induced hepatotoxic rat model was developed and a dose dependent effect of M. calabura was conducted. Body weight, food and water consumption were measured every day and rats were sacrificed to collect the serum samples at the end of the 10-days treatment. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry quadrapole time of flight (LC/MS-QTOF) combined with principal component analysis (PCA) were used to determine differentially expressed metabolites due to treatment with CCl4 and M. calabura extracts. Metabolomics Pathway Analysis (MetPA) was used for analysis and visualization of pathways involved. RESULTS: Body weight, food and water consumption were significantly decreased and histopathological study revealed steatosis in CCl4-induced rats. PCA score plots show distinct separation in the metabolite profiles of the normal group, CCl4-treated group and extract of M. calabura (MCME) pre-treated groups. Biomarkers network reconstruction using MetPA had identified 2 major pathways which were involved in the protective mechanism of MCME. These include the (i) biosynthesis of the primary bile acid, (ii) metabolism of arachidonic acid. CONCLUSION: This study has successfully isolated 2 major pathways involved in the hepatoprotecive effect of MCME against CCl4-induced liver injury using the LC/MS Q-TOF metabolomics approach. The involvement of archidonic acid and purine metabolism in hepatoprotection has not been reported previously and may provide new therapeutic targets and/or options for the treatment of liver injury.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/drug therapy
Elaeocarpaceae/chemistry
Metabolic Networks and Pathways/drug effects
Plant Extracts/pharmacology
Protective Agents/pharmacology
Tiliaceae/chemistry
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Biomarkers/metabolism
Body Weight/drug effects
Carbon Tetrachloride/pharmacology
Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/metabolism
Chromatography, Liquid/methods
Male
Mass Spectrometry/methods
Metabolomics/methods
Rats
Rats, Sprague-Dawley
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Biomarkers); 0 (Plant Extracts); 0 (Protective Agents); CL2T97X0V0 (Carbon Tetrachloride)
[Em] Entry month:1601
[Cu] Class update date: 161125
[Lr] Last revision date:161125
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:150321
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 25656001
[Au] Autor:Noguerón-Merino MC; Jiménez-Ferrer E; Román-Ramos R; Zamilpa A; Tortoriello J; Herrera-Ruiz M
[Ad] Address:Centro de Investigación Biomédica del Sur (CIBIS), Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), Argentina No. 1, Col. Centro, C.P. 62790 Xochitepec, Morelos, Mexico; Programa de Doctorado de Ciencias Biológicas y de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco No.
[Ti] Title:Interactions of a standardized flavonoid fraction from Tilia americana with Serotoninergic drugs in elevated plus maze.
[So] Source:J Ethnopharmacol;164:319-27, 2015 Apr 22.
[Is] ISSN:1872-7573
[Cp] Country of publication:Ireland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Tilia americana var. mexicana (Schltdl) Hardin (Tiliaceae) aerial parts (bracts and flowers) are used in the traditional Mexican medicine to treat nervous disorders, as sedative and to treat insomnia. A fraction of this species called FC1 (organic fraction from this plant) was proposed, described as anxiolytic and characterized by the presence of flavonoids. In the present work, this fraction was standardized, and its interaction with different serotonergic drugs was tested. We used the elevated plus maze model as anxiety test and the open field test so as to observe a possible effect on mice׳s motor behavior. MATERIAL AND METHODOLOGY: HPLC technique was used to quantify the flavonoids contained in a fraction called F1C. Different doses of F1C were administered to ICR mice (12.5, 25, 37.5 and 50mg/kg, oral pathway) then they were exposed to elevated plus maze or open field test. After, each dose of F1C fraction was co-administered with different drugs, in order to evaluate the animal׳s behavior: DOI agonist (2.0mg/kg) and KET antagonist (0.03mg/kg) of 5-HT2A receptors; 8-OH-DPAT (0.1mg/kg) selective agonist and WAY100635 (0.5mg/kg) antagonist of 5HT1 receptors. RESULTS: The HPLC quantitative analysis revealed the F1C composition (mg/g of extract): tiliroside (28.56), glucoside of quercetin (16.25), quercitrin (7.96), rutin (3.93), Kaempferol (2.83). The Emax for F1C curve was 80.6% for time to open arms with an ED50 of 15.09 mg/kg. The combination of F1C with DOI gives a significant increase of the F1C anxiolytic effect (Emax=111% and ED50=13.51 mg/kg), while KET blocks it completely (Emax=12.25% and ED50=2.4 mg/kg). The administration of F1C with 8-OH-DPAT does not generate significant changes on the time to open arms, although it does induce a decrement in F1C potency (Emax=83.3% and ED50=33.3mg/kg). When F1C and WAY-100365 are combined, the anxiolytic activity of the fraction decreases (Emax=33.3% and ED50=102.10mg/kg). CONCLUSIONS: The medicinal use attributed to Tilia americana for their effect on central nervous system, could be in part in the flavonoid fraction (F1C) with anxiolytic activity which is dose dependent, and has the ability to interact with the serotonergic system. It is necessary to advance in the study of the mechanism of action, using other techniques such in vitro analysis.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Anti-Anxiety Agents/pharmacology
Flavonoids/pharmacology
Plant Extracts/pharmacology
Serotonin Agents/pharmacology
Tilia
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Anti-Anxiety Agents/analysis
Anxiety/drug therapy
Behavior, Animal/drug effects
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Flavonoids/analysis
Male
Mice, Inbred ICR
Phytotherapy
Plant Extracts/chemistry
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Anti-Anxiety Agents); 0 (Flavonoids); 0 (Plant Extracts); 0 (Serotonin Agents)
[Em] Entry month:1601
[Cu] Class update date: 150325
[Lr] Last revision date:150325
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:150207
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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