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[PMID]: 29501689
[Au] Autor:Kaur H; Dize L; Munoz B; Gaydos C; West SK
[Ad] Address:Dana Center for Preventive Ophthalmology, Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States.
[Ti] Title:Evaluation of the reproducibility of a serological test for antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis pgp3: A potential surveillance tool for trachoma programs.
[So] Source:J Microbiol Methods;147:56-58, 2018 Mar 01.
[Is] ISSN:1872-8359
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:PURPOSE: Serological testing for antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis pgp3 is being evaluated as a tool to use for trachoma surveillance. There are limited data on the reproducibility of the test results using a multiplex platform. METHODS: We tested the reproducibility of a serologic test for C. trachomatis pgp3 in 6 dried blood spots collected from a random sample of 45 children from a trachoma endemic area. The spots were tested on a multiplex bead array platform, using one bead set twice, using another bead set at the same time as the first, and using the same bead set twice on different days separated by several months. Seropositivity was defined using ROC analyses from the same external controls for both bead sets. We compared the mean fluorescent intensity unit minus background (MFI-BG) results using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and analyzed the concordance of seropositivity designation using the kappa statistic. RESULTS: The tests using the same bead set were highly correlated, ICC = 0.997 (0.995-1.00). Even tested months apart, the slight loss of signal was not statistically significant (p = 0.06). The test of the two different bead sets showed high correlation, but the differences in MFI-BG was statistically significant. However, the serostatus of the children was unchanged comparing the seropositivity using one bead set compared to a second bead set. CONCLUSION: The reproducibility of the multiplex bead array for serological testing of antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis pgp3 is high when the same bead set is used for testing.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 29523810
[Au] Autor:Wiegand RE; Cooley G; Goodhew B; Banniettis N; Kohlhoff S; Gwyn S; Martin DL
[Ad] Address:Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta GA, USA.
[Ti] Title:Latent class modeling to compare testing platforms for detection of antibodies against the Chlamydia trachomatis antigen Pgp3.
[So] Source:Sci Rep;8(1):4232, 2018 Mar 09.
[Is] ISSN:2045-2322
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Latent class modeling can be used to combine the results of multiple tests to compare the sensitivity and specificity of those tests in the absence of a gold standard. Seroepidemiology for chlamydia infection may be useful for determining the cumulative risk of infection within a population. Initial studies using the Chlamydia trachomatis immunodominant antigen Pgp3 have shown utility for seroepidemiology of sexually transmitted chlamydia and the eye disease trachoma. We present our latent class modeling results for comparison of antibody data obtained from three different Pgp3-based platforms - multiplex bead array, ELISA, and lateral flow assay. Sensitivity and specificity estimates from the best fitting latent class models were similar to estimates derived from those previously obtained using a nucleic acid amplification test as a gold standard for sensitivity and non-endemic pediatric specimens for specificity, although the estimates from latent class models had wider confidence intervals. The modeling process and evaluation highlighted the importance of including as many antibody tests as possible when fitting a latent class model to ensure that as many patterns as possible are available for evaluation. Future studies designed to evaluate antibody test performance in the absence of a gold standard should utilize as many tests as possible.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1038/s41598-018-22708-9

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[PMID]: 29513663
[Au] Autor:PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases Staff
[Ti] Title:Correction: Prevalence of Active and Latent Yaws in the Solomon Islands 18 Months after Azithromycin Mass Drug Administration for Trachoma.
[So] Source:PLoS Negl Trop Dis;12(3):e0006308, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1935-2735
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004927.].
[Pt] Publication type:PUBLISHED ERRATUM
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180307
[Lr] Last revision date:180307
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0006308

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[PMID]: 29504955
[Au] Autor:AlDarrab A; Al-Faky YH; Mousa A; Alsuhaibani AH
[Ad] Address:Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Al kharj, Saudi Arabia.
[Ti] Title:Meibography of Eyes With Sequelae of Trachoma.
[So] Source:Cornea;37(4):416-420, 2018 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1536-4798
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:PURPOSE: To study the effect of trachoma on meibomian glands using infrared meibography and to correlate the results with tear film parameters. METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study in which 86 eyes of healthy volunteers and 90 eyes with trachoma were included. Clinical assessment was performed including the following: slit-lamp examination looking for signs of sequelae of trachoma, tear breakup time (TBUT), superficial punctate keratopathy (SPK), Schirmer II test (with anesthesia), and meibum score. Noncontact meibography was performed on both upper and lower eyelids separately using the meibograde system, which involved distortion of the meibomian gland, shortening, and dropout. RESULTS: Lid margin abnormalities (telangiectasia, lid margin swelling, and hyperemia) were all significantly higher in the trachoma group. The mean SPK (1.36), meibum score (1.76), meibography dropout, distortion, shortening, and total meibography (8.19 for upper eyelids and 3.81 for lower eyelids) were all significantly higher in the trachoma group (P < 0.001) compared with the normal group were SPK (0.88), meibum score (0.16), and total meibography (1.24 for upper eyelids and 0.92 for lower eyelids). Mean TBUT (4.2 s) was significantly shorter in the trachoma group than in the normal group (10.3 s) (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference between both groups in the Schirmer II test. CONCLUSIONS: Meibography of patients with sequelae of trachoma was in agreement with the histopathologic studies. Upper eyelids were much more affected than the lower eyelids. TBUT, SPK, and meibum score were correlated with the status of meibomian glands and meibography, which were significantly different in the trachoma group.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180305
[Lr] Last revision date:180305
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1097/ICO.0000000000001490

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[PMID]: 29504385
[Au] Autor:Gallenga PE; Del Boccio M; Gallenga CE; Neri G; Pennelli A; Toniato E; Lobefalo L; Maritati M; Perri P; Contini C; Del Boccio G
[Ad] Address:European Board Ophthalmology (FEBO) and Bioethical Committee Republic of San Marino.
[Ti] Title:Diagnosis of a neonatal ophthalmic discharge, Ophthalmia neonatorum, in the molecular age: investigation for a correct therapy.
[So] Source:J Biol Regul Homeost Agents;32(1):177-184, 2018 Jan-Feb.
[Is] ISSN:0393-974X
[Cp] Country of publication:Italy
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:An early double case of acute Ophthalmia neonatorum in 3-day-old twins is reported. Culture of eye swabs showed a wide bacterial polymorphism, in which common bacteria, such as Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Corynebacterium ulcerans and other Enterobacteriaceae, coexisted with atypical Mycoplasmataceae and Chlamydiaceae from resident cervical-vaginal maternal microbiota. The neonates were in an apparently healthy state, but showed red eyes with abundant greenish-yellow secretion, mild chemosis and lid edema. The maternal cervical-vaginal ecosystem resulted differently positive to the same common cultivable, atypical bacteria culturally and molecularly determined. This suggested a direct maternal-foetal transmission or a further foetal contamination before birth. An extended culture analysis for common bacteria to atypical ones was decisive to describe the involvement of Mycoplasmas (M. hominis and U. urealyticum) within the scenario of the Ophthalmia neonatorum in a Caucasian couple. The introduction of a routine PCR molecular analysis for Chlamydiaceae and N. gonorrhoeae allowed to establish which of these were present at birth, and contributed to determine the correct laboratory diagnosis and to define an adequate therapeutic protocol obtaining a complete resolution after one year for culture and atypical bacteria controls. This study suggests to improve the quality of laboratory diagnosis as unavoidable support to a correct clinical diagnosis and therapy, in a standardized modality both for swabbing and scraping, to check the new-born microbial programming starting in uterus, overtaking the cultural age to the molecular age, and to revise the WHO guidelines of SAFE Strategy for trachoma eye disease, transforming it into SAFES Strategy where the S letter is the acronym of Sexual ecosystem and behavioural valuation/education.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180305
[Lr] Last revision date:180305
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  6 / 3424 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29503448
[Au] Autor:Chin SA; Alemayehu W; Melese M; Lakew T; Cevallos V; Lietman TM; Keenan JD
[Ad] Address:Francis I Proctor Foundation, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.
[Ti] Title:Association of Chlamydia trachomatis ompA genovar with trachoma phenotypes.
[So] Source:Eye (Lond);, 2018 Mar 05.
[Is] ISSN:1476-5454
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Pt] Publication type:LETTER
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180305
[Lr] Last revision date:180305
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1038/s41433-018-0069-4

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[PMID]: 29501483
[Au] Autor:Charoenrook V; Michael R; de la Paz MF; Temprano J; Barraquer RI
[Ad] Address:Centro de Oftalmologa Barraquer, Universitat Internacional de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain; Institut Universitari Barraquer, Universitat Autnoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
[Ti] Title:Comparison of long-term results between osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis and tibial bone keratoprosthesis.
[So] Source:Ocul Surf;, 2018 Feb 28.
[Is] ISSN:1937-5913
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:PURPOSE: To compare the anatomical and the functional results between osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis (OOKP) and keratoprosthesis using tibial bone autograft (Tibial bone KPro). METHODS: We reviewed the charts of 258 patients; 145 had OOKP whereas 113 had Tibial bone KPro implanted. Functional success was defined as best corrected visual acuity ≥0.05 on decimal scale and anatomical success as retention of the keratoprosthesis lamina. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were calculated for anatomical and functional survival as well as to estimate the probability of post-op complications. RESULTS: The anatomical survival for both KPro groups was not significantly different and was estimated as 67% for OOKP and 54% for Tibial bone KPro at 10 years after surgery. There was also no difference found after subdividing for primary diagnosis groups such as chemical injury, thermal burn, trachoma and all autoimmune cases combined. Estimated functional survival at 10 years post-surgery was 49% for OOKP and 25% for Tibial bone KPro, which was significantly different. The probability of patients with Tibial bone KPro developing one or more post-operative complications at 10 years after surgery (65%) was significantly higher than those with OOKP (40%). Mucous membrane necrosis and retroprosthetic membrane formation were more common in Tibial bone KPro than OOKP. CONCLUSION: Both types of autologous biological KPro, OOKP and Tibial bone KPro, had statistically similar rate of keratoprosthesis extrusion. Although functional success rate was significantly higher in OOKP, it may have been influenced by a better visual potential in the patients in this group.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180304
[Lr] Last revision date:180304
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 29456191
[Au] Autor:Marks M; Mitj O; Bottomley C; Kwakye C; Houinei W; Bauri M; Adwere P; Abdulai AA; Dua F; Boateng L; Wangi J; Ohene SA; Wangnapi R; Simpson SV; Miag H; Addo KK; Basing LA; Danavall D; Chi KH; Pillay A; Ballard R; Solomon AW; Chen CY; Bieb SV; Adu-Sarkodie Y; Mabey DCW; Asiedu K; study team
[Ad] Address:Clinical Research Department, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK; Hospital for Tropical Diseases, London, UK. Electronic address: michael.marks@lshtm.ac.uk.
[Ti] Title:Comparative efficacy of low-dose versus standard-dose azithromycin for patients with yaws: a randomised non-inferiority trial in Ghana and Papua New Guinea.
[So] Source:Lancet Glob Health;, 2018 Feb 15.
[Is] ISSN:2214-109X
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: A dose of 30 mg/kg of azithromycin is recommended for treatment of yaws, a disease targeted for global eradication. Treatment with 20 mg/kg of azithromycin is recommended for the elimination of trachoma as a public health problem. In some settings, these diseases are co-endemic. We aimed to determine the efficacy of 20 mg/kg of azithromycin compared with 30 mg/kg azithromycin for the treatment of active and latent yaws. METHODS: We did a non-inferiority, open-label, randomised controlled trial in children aged 6-15 years who were recruited from schools in Ghana and schools and the community in Papua New Guinea. Participants were enrolled based on the presence of a clinical lesion that was consistent with infectious primary or secondary yaws and a positive rapid diagnostic test for treponemal and non-treponemal antibodies. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either standard-dose (30 mg/kg) or low-dose (20 mg/kg) azithromycin by a computer-generated random number sequence. Health-care workers assessing clinical outcomes in the field were not blinded to the patient's treatment, but investigators involved in statistical or laboratory analyses and the participants were blinded to treatment group. We followed up participants at 4 weeks and 6 months. The primary outcome was cure at 6 months, defined as lesion healing at 4 weeks in patients with active yaws and at least a four-fold decrease in rapid plasma reagin titre from baseline to 6 months in patients with active and latent yaws. Active yaws was defined as a skin lesion that was positive for Treponema pallidum ssp pertenue in PCR testing. We used a non-inferiority margin of 10%. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02344628. FINDINGS: Between June 12, 2015, and July 2, 2016, 583 (651%) of 895 children screened were enrolled; 292 patients were assigned a low dose of azithromycin and 291 patients were assigned a standard dose of azithromycin. 191 participants had active yaws and 392 had presumed latent yaws. Complete follow-up to 6 months was available for 157 (822%) of 191 patients with active yaws. In cases of active yaws, cure was achieved in 61 (803%) of 76 patients in the low-dose group and in 68 (840%) of 81 patients in the standard-dose group (difference 37%; 95% CI -84 to 157%; this result did not meet the non-inferiority criterion). There were no serious adverse events reported in response to treatment in either group. The most commonly reported adverse event at 4 weeks was gastrointestinal upset, with eight (27%) participants in each group reporting this symptom. INTERPRETATION: In this study, low-dose azithromycin did not meet the prespecified non-inferiority margin compared with standard-dose azithromycin in achieving clinical and serological cure in PCR-confirmed active yaws. Only a single participant (with presumed latent yaws) had definitive serological failure. This work suggests that 20 mg/kg of azithromycin is probably effective against yaws, but further data are needed. FUNDING: Coalition for Operational Research on Neglected Tropical Diseases.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180305
[Lr] Last revision date:180305
[Cl] Clinical Trial:ClinicalTrial
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 28747198
[Au] Autor:Harding-Esch EM; Kadimpeul J; Sarr B; Sane A; Badji S; Laye M; Sillah A; Burr SE; MacLeod D; Last AR; Holland MJ; Mabey DC; Bailey RL
[Ad] Address:Department of Clinical Research, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK. eharding@sgul.ac.uk.
[Ti] Title:Population-based prevalence survey of follicular trachoma and trachomatous trichiasis in the Casamance region of Senegal.
[So] Source:BMC Public Health;18(1):62, 2017 07 26.
[Is] ISSN:1471-2458
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Trachoma, caused by ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, is the leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide. We conducted the first population-based trachoma prevalence survey in the Casamance region of Senegal to enable the Senegalese National Eye Care Programme (NECP) to plan its trachoma control activities. The World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines state that any individual with trachomatous trichiasis (TT) should be offered surgery, but that surgery should be prioritised where the prevalence is >0.1%, and that districts and communities with a trachomatous inflammation, follicular (TF) prevalence of ≥10% in 1-9year-olds should receive mass antibiotic treatment annually for a minimum of three years, along with hygiene promotion and environmental improvement, before re-assessing the prevalence to determine whether treatment can be discontinued (when TF prevalence in 1-9year-olds falls <5%). METHODS: Local healthcare workers conducted a population-based household survey in four districts of the Bignona Department of Casamance region to estimate the prevalence of TF in 1-9year-olds, and TT in ≥15year-olds. Children's facial cleanliness (ocular and/or nasal discharge, dirt on the face, flies on the face) was measured at time of examination. Risk factor questionnaires were completed at the household level. RESULTS: Sixty communities participated with a total censused population of 5580 individuals. The cluster-, age- and sex-adjusted estimated prevalence of TF in 1-9year-olds was 2.5% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.8-3.6) (38/1425) at the regional level and <5% in all districts, although the upper 95%CI exceeded 5% in all but one district. The prevalence of TT in those aged ≥15years was estimated to be 1.4% (95%CI 1.0-1.9) (40/2744) at the regional level and >1% in all districts. CONCLUSION: With a prevalence <5%, TF does not appear to be a significant public health problem in this region. However, TF monitoring and surveillance at sub-district level will be required to ensure that elimination targets are sustained and that TF does not re-emerge as a public health problem. TT surgery remains the priority for trachoma elimination efforts in the region, with an estimated 1819 TT surgeries to conduct.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Trachoma/epidemiology
Trichiasis/epidemiology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adolescent
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
Child
Child, Preschool
Cross-Sectional Studies
Drug Administration Schedule
Female
Health Promotion
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Prevalence
Public Health
Risk Factors
Senegal/epidemiology
Trachoma/drug therapy
Trichiasis/therapy
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents)
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180304
[Lr] Last revision date:180304
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170728
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12889-017-4605-0

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[PMID]: 29476106
[Au] Autor:West SK; Munoz B; Kaur H; Dize L; Mkocha H; Gaydos CA; Quinn TC
[Ad] Address:Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Ophthalmology Department, Baltimore, 21287, USA. shwest@jhmi.edu.
[Ti] Title:Longitudinal change in the serology of antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis pgp3 in children residing in a trachoma area.
[So] Source:Sci Rep;8(1):3520, 2018 Feb 23.
[Is] ISSN:2045-2322
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:A serologic test for antibodies to chlamydial antigen pgp3 may be a useful tool for trachoma surveillance. However, little is known about the stability of antibody status over time, or factors associated with seroreversion/conversion. A cohort of 2,111 children ages 1-9 years in Tanzania were followed for one year in the absence of mass azithromycin. At baseline and follow-up, they were evaluated for trachoma, chlamydial infection, and antibodies to chlamydial antigen pgp3. At baseline, 31% of children were seropositive for pgp3 antibodies and 6.4% seroreverted to negative over one year. Of those seronegative, 9.8% seroconverted over the year. The seroreverters had lower baseline mean fluorescence intensity (MFI-BG) values compared to the seropositives who remained positive (Odds Ratio = 0.04 for every unit increase in log MFI-BG, 95% CI = 0.02-0.09), and were more likely to live in communities with trachoma <5% (p < 0.008). While seroconversion was expected, seroreversion was unexpected. The low seroprevalence rate reported from low endemic areas may be due to seroreversion as well as lack of exposure.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180303
[Lr] Last revision date:180303
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1038/s41598-018-21127-0


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