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[PMID]: 28810849
[Au] Autor:Olanlokun JO; David OM; Afolayan AJ
[Ad] Address:Laboratories for Biomembrane Research and Biotechnology, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. jodel72000@yahoo.com.
[Ti] Title:In vitro antiplasmodial activity and prophylactic potentials of extract and fractions of Trema orientalis (Linn.) stem bark.
[So] Source:BMC Complement Altern Med;17(1):407, 2017 Aug 15.
[Is] ISSN:1472-6882
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Trema orientalis (T. orientalis Linn) has been used in the management of malaria in the western part of Nigeria and despite its application in ethnomedicine, there is dearth of scientific evidence to justify the acclaimed prophylactic antimalarial usage of the plant. The aim of this study is to assess the in vitro antiplasmodial cell-free assay and chemopreventive efficacy of the methanol extract of the stem bark of T. orientalis and its fractions as a prophylactic regimen for malaria prevention. Also, the antimicrobial activities of the extract and the fractions were investigated. METHOD: Vacuum liquid chromatography was used to obtain dichloromethane, ethylacetate and methanol fractions from the methanol extract of T. orientalis. The fractions were tested for their prophylactic and cell-free antimalarial activity using murine models and ß-hematin formation assay respectively. Disc diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial activity of the extract and its fractions against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. RESULTS: In the prophylactic experiment, dichloromethane (DCMF), methanol fraction (MF) and extract (ME) (in this order) showed significant chemopreventive effects against P. berghei invasion of the red blood cells when compared with both Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine (SP) and untreated controls. Results of the in vitro study showed that the DCMF had the highest effect in preventing the formation of ß-hematin when compared with other fractions. The DCMF also had the highest percentage inhibition of ß-hematin formation when compared with chloroquine. The extract and fractions showed a concentration dependent antibacterial activity. Methanol extract had a pronounced inhibitory effect on Enterobacter cloaca ATCC 13047 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212. Serratia mercescens ATCC 9986 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 19582 were the most susceptible bacteria. CONCLUSION: The results obtained showed that both extract and fractions of T. orientalis possessed antiplasmodial and antimicrobial activity.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Antimalarials/therapeutic use
Malaria/prevention & control
Phytotherapy
Plant Extracts/therapeutic use
Plasmodium berghei/drug effects
Trema
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
Antimalarials/pharmacology
Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects
Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects
Hemeproteins/metabolism
Malaria/blood
Malaria/parasitology
Male
Mice
Plant Bark
Plant Extracts/pharmacology
Plant Stems
Plasmodium berghei/growth & development
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents); 0 (Antimalarials); 0 (Hemeproteins); 0 (Plant Extracts); 39404-00-7 (hemozoin)
[Em] Entry month:1709
[Cu] Class update date: 170901
[Lr] Last revision date:170901
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170817
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12906-017-1914-x

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[PMID]: 28805273
[Au] Autor:Lorenzett MP; Pereira PR; Bassuino DM; Konradt G; Panziera W; Bianchi MV; Argenta FF; Hammerschmitt ME; Caprioli RA; de Barros CSL; Pavarini SP; Driemeier D
[Ad] Address:Setor de Patologia Veterinária, Faculdade de Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
[Ti] Title:Neurotoxicosis in horses associated with consumption of Trema micrantha.
[So] Source:Equine Vet J;, 2017 Aug 14.
[Is] ISSN:2042-3306
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Trema micrantha is a tree widely distributed throughout the Americas. The tree produces highly palatable leaves that have been associated with natural poisoning in goats, sheep and horses, in which hepatic necrosis and hepatic encephalopathy have been observed. OBJECTIVES: This study describes malacia and haemorrhage in the central nervous system (CNS) due to T. micrantha consumption, with minimal to absent hepatic lesions. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: A total of 14 horses with a history of neurological signs and spontaneous consumption of T. micrantha leaves were submitted to necropsy and multiple samples were collected for histopathology. Details of clinical history and signs of the horses were obtained through inquiries to the owners and attending veterinarians. RESULTS: All the 14 horses had neurological signs of ataxia, severe sialorrhoea, involuntary running movements, sternal and lateral recumbency, and death after a clinical course that lasted from 24 h to 9 days. For a few days prior to onset of clinical signs, all horses had spontaneously consumed, potentially toxic doses of T. micrantha leaves. All 14 brains had diffuse yellowish discoloration affecting the rhombencephalon, mesencephalon, diencephalon, telencephalon and corpus striatum. In all cases, the most severe lesions were observed in the pons. Spinal cord lesions were observed affecting the lumbar intumescence, which was swollen with darken and depressed areas at the dorsal and ventral horns, and at the sacral level, which on cut surface displayed a friable and yellowish grey matter. The lesions observed grossly in brain and spinal cord consisted microscopically of severe vasculitis and liquefactive necrosis of white and grey matter of the brainstem, cerebellum and spinal cord. MAIN LIMITATIONS: This is a small retrospective series relying on clinical observations reported by owners and attending veterinarians. The mechanism of action of the plant toxin in the CNS is still unidentified. CONCLUSION: T. micrantha poisoning in horses causes predominantly a neurological disease, with minimal to absent hepatic lesions.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1708
[Cu] Class update date: 170908
[Lr] Last revision date:170908
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1111/evj.12741

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[PMID]: 28615849
[Au] Autor:Oyebola OE; Morenikeji OA; Ademola IO
[Ad] Address:Parasitology Unit, Department of Zoology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.
[Ti] Title:In-vivo antimalarial activity of aqueous leaf and bark extracts of against in mice.
[So] Source:J Parasit Dis;41(2):398-404, 2017 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:0971-7196
[Cp] Country of publication:India
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The control of malaria relies on the use of chemical antimalarial, but the development of resistance necessitates research into alternatives. (L.) Blume is used in Nigerian folklore medicine for the treatment of malaria. This study investigates the in vivo antiplasmodial activity of aqueous leaf and bark extracts of in rodent model. Swiss Albino mice weighing 23-27 g were intraperitoneally infected with . The lethal dose in mice was estimated to be greater than 5000 mg/kg based on toxicity signs and death. Aqueous crude leaf and bark extracts were administered at 400, 800 and 1600 mg/kg. Chloroquine was used as positive control while the negative control was treated with distilled water. Parasitemia, parasite inhibition, body weight and packed cell volume (PCV) were determined. The parasite inhibition of the leaf extracts at 400, 800 and 1600 mg/kg was 51.55, 62.78 and 76.08 % while that of the bark extract was 44.3, 65.82 and 74.23 % respectively. The percentage parasitemia of the leaf extract at 400, 800 and 1600 mg/kg decreased by 45.0, 70.3 and 74.7 % while that of the bark decreased by 37.4, 53.0 and 52.0 % respectively. The PCV of mice treated with 400, 800 and 1600 mg/kg leaf extract were 48.85, 49.88 and 50.99 % while that of the bark extract was 49.38, 48.88 and 51.94 % respectively. The results indicate that the plant has a promising antiplasmodial activity against , which validates its folkloric use.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1706
[Cu] Class update date: 170816
[Lr] Last revision date:170816
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s12639-016-0815-0

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Wouters, Flademir
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[PMID]: 28363257
[Au] Autor:Wouters ATB; Wouters F; Boabaid FM; Watanabe TTN; Fredo G; Varaschin MS; Driemeier D
[Ad] Address:Department of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Lavras, Lavras, Minas Gerais State, Brazil (A Wouters, F Wouters, Varaschin).
[Ti] Title:Brain lesions associated with acute toxic hepatopathy in cattle.
[So] Source:J Vet Diagn Invest;29(3):287-292, 2017 May.
[Is] ISSN:1943-4936
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Samples of the liver, telencephalon, brainstem, and cerebellum were obtained from 22 bovids suffering from spontaneous or experimental acute toxic liver disease. Perreyia flavipes larvae, and leaves of Cestrum corymbosum, Cestrum intermedium, Dodonaea viscosa, Trema micrantha, and Xanthium cavanillesii were the causal agents in the disorders studied. Hematoxylin and eosin and periodic acid-Schiff staining, as well as anti-S100 protein (anti-S100), anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein (anti-GFAP), and anti-vimentin immunostaining were used to evaluate the brain sections. Astrocytic changes were observed in all samples and were characterized by swollen vesicular nuclei in gray (Alzheimer type II astrocytes) and white matter; and by abundant eosinophilic or vacuolated cytoplasm with pyknotic nuclei in the white matter. These changes were evidenced by anti-S100 and anti-GFAP immunostaining. Our study demonstrates major changes in astrocytes of cattle that died with neurologic clinical signs as the result of acute toxic liver disease.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Cattle Diseases/diagnosis
Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/veterinary
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Astrocytes/cytology
Brain/metabolism
Cattle
Cattle Diseases/metabolism
Cattle Diseases/pathology
Cerebellum/metabolism
Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/diagnosis
Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein/metabolism
Immunohistochemistry/veterinary
Liver/metabolism
Staining and Labeling
[Pt] Publication type:EVALUATION STUDIES; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein)
[Em] Entry month:1707
[Cu] Class update date: 170713
[Lr] Last revision date:170713
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170402
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1177/1040638717699242

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[PMID]: 28317110
[Au] Autor:Bello C; Galetti M; Montan D; Pizo MA; Mariguela TC; Culot L; Bufalo F; Labecca F; Pedrosa F; Constantini R; Emer C; Silva WR; da Silva FR; Ovaskainen O; Jordano P
[Ad] Address:Departamento de Ecologia, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, São Paulo, 13506-900, Brazil.
[Ti] Title:Atlantic frugivory: a plant-frugivore interaction data set for the Atlantic Forest.
[So] Source:Ecology;98(6):1729, 2017 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:0012-9658
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The data set provided here includes 8,320 frugivory interactions (records of pairwise interactions between plant and frugivore species) reported for the Atlantic Forest. The data set includes interactions between 331 vertebrate species (232 birds, 90 mammals, 5 fishes, 1 amphibian, and 3 reptiles) and 788 plant species. We also present information on traits directly related to the frugivory process (endozoochory), such as the size of fruits and seeds and the body mass and gape size of frugivores. Data were extracted from 166 published and unpublished sources spanning from 1961 to 2016. While this is probably the most comprehensive data set available for a tropical ecosystem, it is arguably taxonomically and geographically biased. The plant families better represented are Melastomataceae, Myrtaceae, Moraceae, Urticaceae, and Solanaceae. Myrsine coriacea, Alchornea glandulosa, Cecropia pachystachya, and Trema micrantha are the plant species with the most animal dispersers (83, 76, 76, and 74 species, respectively). Among the animal taxa, the highest number of interactions is reported for birds (3,883) followed by mammals (1,315). The woolly spider monkey or muriqui, Brachyteles arachnoides, and Rufous-bellied Thrush, Turdus rufiventris, are the frugivores with the most diverse fruit diets (137 and 121 plants species, respectively). The most important general patterns that we note are that larger seeded plant species (>12 mm) are mainly eaten by terrestrial mammals (rodents, ungulates, primates, and carnivores) and that birds are the main consumers of fruits with a high concentration of lipids. Our data set is geographically biased, with most interactions recorded for the southeast Atlantic Forest.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1703
[Cu] Class update date: 170530
[Lr] Last revision date:170530
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1002/ecy.1818

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AIDAR, MARCOS PEREIRA MARINHO
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[PMID]: 28288402
[Au] Autor:Oliveira HC; da Silva LM; de Freitas LD; Debiasi TV; Marchiori NM; Aidar MP; Bianchini E; Pimenta JA; Stolf-Moreira R
[Ad] Address:Department of Animal and Plant Biology, UEL - University of Londrina, Londrina, PR, Brazil. Electronic address: halley@uel.br.
[Ti] Title:Nitrogen use strategies of seedlings from neotropical tree species of distinct successional groups.
[So] Source:Plant Physiol Biochem;114:119-127, 2017 May.
[Is] ISSN:1873-2690
[Cp] Country of publication:France
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Few studies have analyzed the strategies of neotropical tree seedlings for absorbing, translocating and assimilating the nitrogen. Here, we compared the nitrogen use strategies of seedlings from six tree species that are native to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and that belong to different successional groups: Trema micrantha, Heliocarpus popayanensis and Cecropia pachystachya (pioneers), Cariniana estrellensis, Eugenia brasiliensis and Guarea kunthiana (non-pioneers). The effects of cultivating seedlings with nitrate or ammonium on the growth, physiology and nitrogen metabolism were analyzed. Nitrate-grown pioneer species had much higher leaf nitrate reductase activity than non-pioneer ones, but non-pioneer seedlings were also able to use nitrate as a nitrogen source. In addition to this remarkable difference between the groups in the capacity for leaf nitrate assimilation, substantial variations in the nitrogen use strategies were observed within the successional classes. Differently from the other non-pioneers, the canopy species C. estrellensis seemed to assimilate nitrate mainly in the leaves. Morphophysiological analyses showed a gradient of ammonium toxicity response, with E. brasiliensis as the most tolerant species, and T. micrantha and H. popayanensis as the most sensitive ones. Guarea kunthiana showed a relatively low tolerance to ammonium and an unusual high translocation of this cation in the xylem sap. In contrast to the other pioneers, C. pachystachya had a high plasticity in the use of nitrogen sources. Overall, these results suggest that nitrogen use strategies of neotropical tree seedlings were not determined solely by their successional position.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Nitrogen/metabolism
Seedlings/metabolism
Trees/metabolism
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Ammonium Compounds/metabolism
Biological Transport
Brazil
Climate
Ecosystem
Nitrate Reductase/metabolism
Plant Leaves/metabolism
Plant Proteins/metabolism
Plant Roots/metabolism
Seedlings/physiology
Xylem/metabolism
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Ammonium Compounds); 0 (Plant Proteins); EC 1.7.99.4 (Nitrate Reductase); N762921K75 (Nitrogen)
[Em] Entry month:1706
[Cu] Class update date: 170620
[Lr] Last revision date:170620
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170314
[St] Status:MEDLINE

  7 / 71 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28028635
[Au] Autor:Fomum SW; Nsahlai IV
[Ad] Address:Animal and Poultry Science, College of Agriculture, Engineering and Science, 127 Rabie Saunders Building, Private bag X01, Scottsville, KY, 3209, USA.
[Ti] Title:In vitro control of parasitic nematodes of small ruminants using some plant species containing flavonoids.
[So] Source:Trop Anim Health Prod;49(2):375-382, 2017 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1573-7438
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:This study determined in vitro anthelmintic efficacy of three plant species: Trema orientalis, Urtica dioica and Zanthozylum capense on nematode larvae of small ruminants. Dried leaf samples (40 g) were extracted in 70% ethanol, in portions of 10 g and concentrated to 100 ml. Half and one quarter of the original crude extract were both made to 100 ml. Rectal faecal material from 10 Merino sheep and 25 Nguni goats was pooled within species and thoroughly hand-mixed. Dung samples, each of 5 g were cultured for 12 days at 27 °C. On day 13, 4 plates were watered and 4 others treated with ethanol to correct for solvent effect on mortality. The design was 2 (animal species) × 3 (plant species) × 3 (extract concentrations). In each of three runs, three plates were treated with each crude extract in three incremental concentrations. Surviving L3 larvae were isolated, counted and mortalities became indices of anthelmintic efficacy. Data from nematode larval mortality were analysed to determine the effect of animal species, plant species, concentration and their interactions. Efficacy was affected by concentration (P = 0.0001), animal species (P = 0.0046), plant species (P = 0.0572), the interactions of animal species and concentration (P = 0.0010), plant species and concentration (P = 0.0123) and concentration × animal × plant species (P = 0.0435).
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Antinematodal Agents/therapeutic use
Goat Diseases/drug therapy
Nematode Infections/veterinary
Plant Extracts/therapeutic use
Sheep Diseases/drug therapy
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Antinematodal Agents/administration & dosage
Feces/parasitology
Goats
Nematode Infections/drug therapy
Parasite Egg Count
Phytotherapy
Plant Extracts/administration & dosage
Plant Leaves
Sheep
Treatment Outcome
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Antinematodal Agents); 0 (Plant Extracts)
[Em] Entry month:1704
[Cu] Class update date: 171102
[Lr] Last revision date:171102
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:161229
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s11250-016-1203-6

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[PMID]: 27857187
[Au] Autor:Sun Z; Wang J; Ren H; Guo Q; Shu J; Liu N
[Ad] Address:Guangdong Open Laboratory of Geospatial Information Technology and Application, Guangzhou Institute of Geography, Guangzhou, 510070, China.
[Ti] Title:To What Extent Local Forest Soil Pollen Can Assist Restoration in Subtropical China?
[So] Source:Sci Rep;6:37188, 2016 Nov 18.
[Is] ISSN:2045-2322
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Long-term ecological data play a vital role in ecological conservation and restoration, however, using information from local forest soil pollen data to assist restoration remains a challenge. This study analyzed two data sets, including 1) surface soil pollen (0-5 cm) and current vegetation data from four near-natural communities and four plantations, and 2) fossil pollen from soil profiles (0-80 cm) from a regional climax community and a degraded land. The pollen representativeness and similarity indexes were calculated. The results showed a low similarity between soil pollen and current vegetation (about 20%) thus forest soil pollen data should be used with caution when defining reference ecosystems. Pollen from Gironniera and Rutaceae which were abundant in broadleaved forest, were also detected in the 40-80 cm layer of a soil profile from the degraded land, which indicates its restoration possibility. Our study considered that the early restoration stage of the study area may benefit from using plant taxa of Pinus, Poaceae, Lonicera, Casuarina, Trema and Quercus. As Pinus, Castanopsis, Gironniera, Rutaceae, Helicia, Randia, Poaceae, Dicranopteris and Pteris always existed during succession, for regional forest restoration under global climate change, the roles of such "stable species" should be considered.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1611
[Cu] Class update date: 170220
[Lr] Last revision date:170220
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1038/srep37188

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SciELO Brazil full text

[PMID]: 26628236
[Au] Autor:Simeão CM; Silveira FA; Sampaio IB; Bastos EM
[Ad] Address:Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.
[Ti] Title:Pollen analysis of honey and pollen collected by Apis mellifera linnaeus, 1758 (Hymenoptera, Apidae), in a mixed environment of Eucalyptus plantation and native cerrado in Southeastern Brazil.
[So] Source:Braz J Biol;75(4):821-9, 2015 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1678-4375
[Cp] Country of publication:Brazil
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Eucalyptus plantations are frequently used for the establishment of bee yards. This study was carried on at Fazenda Brejão, northwestern region of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This farm is covered both with native Cerrado vegetation (Brazilian savanna) and eucalyptus plantations. This paper reports on the botanic origin of pollen pellets and honey collected from honeybee (Apis mellifera) hives along a thirteen-month period (January 2004 to January 2005). The most frequent pollen types found in the pollen pellets during the rainy season were Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae), Copaifera langsdorffii (Fabaceae), an unidentified Poaceae, unidentified Asteraceae-2, Cecropia sp. 1 (Cecropiaceae) and Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae); during the dry season the most frequent pollen types were Acosmium dasycarpum (Fabaceae), Cecropia sp. 1 (Cecropiaceae) and Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae). Pollen grains of Baccharis sp. (Asteraceae), Cecropia sp. 1 (Cecropiaceae), Copaifera langsdorffii (Fabaceae), Mimosa nuda (Fabaceae), Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae) and Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae) were present in the honey samples throughout the study period.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Bees/physiology
Environment
Honey/analysis
Pollen/chemistry
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Brazil
Eucalyptus/growth & development
Forestry
Grassland
Seasons
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Entry month:1608
[Cu] Class update date: 151218
[Lr] Last revision date:151218
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:151203
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 26297846
[Au] Autor:Prescott TA; Briggs M; Kiapranis R; Simmonds MS
[Ad] Address:Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3AB, UK. Electronic address: t.prescott@kew.org.
[Ti] Title:Medicinal plants of Papua New Guinea's Miu speaking population and a focus on their use of plant-slaked lime mixtures.
[So] Source:J Ethnopharmacol;174:217-23, 2015 Nov 04.
[Is] ISSN:1872-7573
[Cp] Country of publication:Ireland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Here we present the results of an ethnobotanical survey of the medicinal plants used by the Miu, a virtually unresearched ethnolinguistic group who live in the mountainous interior of Papua New Guinea's West New Britain Province. We compare the findings for those previously reported for the neighbouring inland Kaulong speaking population. Three species, Trema orientalis, Spondias dulcis and Ficus botryocarpa are used in combination with locally prepared slaked lime to produce intensely coloured mixtures which are applied to dermatological infections. Their effects on dermal fibroblast viability with and without slaked lime are examined. The sap of F. botryocarpa which is used to treat tropical ulcers was examined further with assays relevant to wound healing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Focus groups and semi-structured interviews were used to acquire information on the uses of plants, vouchers of which were collected and identified by comparison with authentic herbarium specimens. LC-MS and NMR were used to identify chemical components. Cell viability assays were used to examine the effects of added slaked lime on dermal fibroblasts. For the sap of F. botryocarpa, fibroblast stimulation assays and antibacterial growth inhibition with Bacillus subtilis were carried out. RESULTS: The survey identified 33 plants and one fungal species, and clear differences with the inland Kaulong group despite their close proximity. Added slaked lime does not greatly increase the cytotoxicity of plant material towards dermal fibroblasts. The sap of F. botryocarpa contains the alkaloid ficuseptine as a single major component and displays antibacterial activity. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate the potential for variation in medicinal plant use amongst Papua New Guinea's numerous language groups. The addition of slaked lime to plant material does not appear to present a concern for wound healing in the amounts used. The sap of F. botryocarpa displays antibacterial activity at concentrations that would occur at the wound surface and could be used as a highly accessible alternative to conventional antiseptics for remote communities in Papua New Guinea.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Calcium Compounds/chemistry
Calcium Compounds/pharmacology
Ethnobotany/methods
Oxides/chemistry
Oxides/pharmacology
Plants, Medicinal
Population Surveillance
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Bacillus subtilis/drug effects
Calcium Compounds/isolation & purification
Cells, Cultured
Fibroblasts/drug effects
Fibroblasts/physiology
Humans
Oxides/isolation & purification
Papua New Guinea/ethnology
Plant Extracts/chemistry
Plant Extracts/isolation & purification
Plant Extracts/pharmacology
Plant Preparations
Surveys and Questionnaires
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Calcium Compounds); 0 (Oxides); 0 (Plant Extracts); 0 (Plant Preparations); C7X2M0VVNH (lime)
[Em] Entry month:1608
[Cu] Class update date: 151106
[Lr] Last revision date:151106
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:150823
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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