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[PMID]: 28747198
[Au] Autor:Harding-Esch EM; Kadimpeul J; Sarr B; Sane A; Badji S; Laye M; Sillah A; Burr SE; MacLeod D; Last AR; Holland MJ; Mabey DC; Bailey RL
[Ad] Address:Department of Clinical Research, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK. eharding@sgul.ac.uk.
[Ti] Title:Population-based prevalence survey of follicular trachoma and trachomatous trichiasis in the Casamance region of Senegal.
[So] Source:BMC Public Health;18(1):62, 2017 07 26.
[Is] ISSN:1471-2458
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Trachoma, caused by ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, is the leading infectious cause of blindness worldwide. We conducted the first population-based trachoma prevalence survey in the Casamance region of Senegal to enable the Senegalese National Eye Care Programme (NECP) to plan its trachoma control activities. The World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines state that any individual with trachomatous trichiasis (TT) should be offered surgery, but that surgery should be prioritised where the prevalence is >0.1%, and that districts and communities with a trachomatous inflammation, follicular (TF) prevalence of ≥10% in 1-9 year-olds should receive mass antibiotic treatment annually for a minimum of three years, along with hygiene promotion and environmental improvement, before re-assessing the prevalence to determine whether treatment can be discontinued (when TF prevalence in 1-9 year-olds falls <5%). METHODS: Local healthcare workers conducted a population-based household survey in four districts of the Bignona Department of Casamance region to estimate the prevalence of TF in 1-9 year-olds, and TT in ≥15 year-olds. Children's facial cleanliness (ocular and/or nasal discharge, dirt on the face, flies on the face) was measured at time of examination. Risk factor questionnaires were completed at the household level. RESULTS: Sixty communities participated with a total censused population of 5580 individuals. The cluster-, age- and sex-adjusted estimated prevalence of TF in 1-9 year-olds was 2.5% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.8-3.6) (38/1425) at the regional level and <5% in all districts, although the upper 95%CI exceeded 5% in all but one district. The prevalence of TT in those aged ≥15 years was estimated to be 1.4% (95%CI 1.0-1.9) (40/2744) at the regional level and >1% in all districts. CONCLUSION: With a prevalence <5%, TF does not appear to be a significant public health problem in this region. However, TF monitoring and surveillance at sub-district level will be required to ensure that elimination targets are sustained and that TF does not re-emerge as a public health problem. TT surgery remains the priority for trachoma elimination efforts in the region, with an estimated 1819 TT surgeries to conduct.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Trachoma/epidemiology
Trichiasis/epidemiology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adolescent
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
Child
Child, Preschool
Cross-Sectional Studies
Drug Administration Schedule
Female
Health Promotion
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Prevalence
Public Health
Risk Factors
Senegal/epidemiology
Trachoma/drug therapy
Trichiasis/therapy
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents)
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180304
[Lr] Last revision date:180304
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170728
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12889-017-4605-0

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[PMID]: 29466424
[Au] Autor:Singalavanija T; Ausayakhun S; Tangmonkongvoragul C
[Ad] Address:Ophthalmology department, Chiang Mai University Hospital, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
[Ti] Title:Anterior segment and external ocular disorders associated with HIV infections in the era of HAART in Chiang Mai University Hospital, a prospective descriptive cross sectional study.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(2):e0193161, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes impairment to the human immune system which leads to immunocompromised conditions, including ocular complications. Several important HIV-associated disorders may involve the anterior segment, ocular surface, and adnexae organ such as dry eye, blepharitis which reduce quality of life of patients. In present, potent antiretroviral therapies HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy) has improved the length and quality of life which may lead to an increased prevalence of anterior segment ocular disorders. Hence, this study has been undertaken to identify the prevalence and associated factors of anterior segment and external ocular disorder in HIV infected patients in the era of HAART. A prospective descriptive cross sectional study was carried out in HIV positive patients conducted at the Department of Ophthalmology, Chiang Mai University Hospital, from February 2014 to October 2015. Detail history and ocular examination was carried out to examine for anterior segment and external ocular disorders. A total number of 363 patients were included for this prospective cross-sectional study. From the total of 363 patients, 123 patients had an anterior segment and external ocular disorder which account as the prevalence of 33.9%. The most common anterior segment manifestations was dry eye seen in 36 patients (9.9%), followed by posterior blepharitis (Meibomian gland dysfunction) seen in 23 patients (6.3%) and anterior blepharitis seen in 12 patients (3.3%). Other ocular complications included microvasculopathy, immune recovery uveitis, conjunctivitis, papilloma, anterior uveitis, corneal ulcer, nevus, trichiasis, molluscum contangiosum, Kaposi sarcoma, interstitial keratitis, conjunctival lymphangiectasia, dacryocystitis, vernal keratoconjunctivitis and eyelid penicilosis. In this study, the prevalance of anterior segment disorders was higher than in the preHAART era. Dry eye, blepharitis and uveitis were the top three most common anterior segment disorders in the HAART era. The statistical analysis showed no association between age, sex, CD4 count, duration of infection or receiving HAART and anterior segment disorders. Anterior segment abnormalities reduce the quality of life of patients, so ophthalmologists have to be aware and complete ocular examination should be performed in all HIV infected patients.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180304
[Lr] Last revision date:180304
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0193161

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[PMID]: 29432434
[Au] Autor:Traoré L; Dembele B; Keita M; Reid SD; Dembéle M; Mariko B; Coulibaly F; Goldman W; Traoré D; Coulibaly D; Guindo B; Amon JJ; Knieriemen M; Zhang Y
[Ad] Address:Programme National de la Santé Oculaire, Ministère de la Santé, Bamako, Mali.
[Ti] Title:Prevalence of trachoma in the Kayes region of Mali eight years after stopping mass drug administration.
[So] Source:PLoS Negl Trop Dis;12(2):e0006289, 2018 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1935-2735
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: In 2009, three years after stopping mass treatment with azithromycin, a trachoma impact survey in four health districts in the Kayes region of Mali found a prevalence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) among children aged 1 to 9 years of >5% and a trachomatous trichiasis (TT) prevalence within the general population (≥1-year-old) of <1%. As a result, the government's national trachoma program expanded trichiasis surgery and related activities required to achieve trachoma elimination. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In 2015, to assess progress towards elimination, a follow-up impact survey was conducted in the Kayes, Kéniéba, Nioro and Yélimané health districts. The survey used district level two-stage cluster random sampling methodology with 20 clusters of 30 households in each evaluation unit. Subjects were eligible for examination if they were ≥1 year. TF and TT cases were identified and confirmed by experienced ophthalmologists. In total 14,159 people were enumerated and 11,620 (82%) were examined. TF prevalence (95% confidence interval (CI)) was 0.5% (0.3-1%) in Kayes, 0.8% (0.4-1.7%) in Kéniéba, 0.2% (0-0.9%) in Nioro and 0.3% (0.1-1%) in Yélimané. TT prevalence (95% CI) was 0.04% (0-0.25%) in Kayes, 0.29% (0.11-0.6%) in Kéniéba, 0.04% (0-0.25%) in Nioro and 0.07% (0-0.27%) in Yélimané. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Eight years after stopping MDA and intensifying trichiasis surgery outreach campaigns, all four districts reached the TF elimination threshold of <5% and three of four districts reached the TT elimination threshold of <0.1%.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180223
[Lr] Last revision date:180223
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0006289

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[PMID]: 29422758
[Au] Autor:Liu TS; Meskin S
[Ad] Address:Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.
[Ti] Title:Localized Trichiasis Causing Focal Full-Thickness Corneal Edema, Endothelial Cell Loss, and Corneal Scarring Requiring Penetrating Keratoplasty.
[So] Source:Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol;24(4):216-218, 2017 Oct-Dec.
[Is] ISSN:0975-1599
[Cp] Country of publication:India
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The purpose of the study was to report a case of focal trichiasis causing full-thickness corneal edema, scarring, and endothelial cell loss requiring penetrating keratoplasty (PK). A 66-year-old male was referred for trichiasis of the right upper eyelid corresponding to an area of full-thickness corneal edema. No keratic precipitates or guttata was noted. Specular microscopy showed diffuse endothelial cell loss. He was treated with topical steroids and acyclovir with epilation of lashes. Anterior chamber paracentesis was negative for varicella-zoster virus, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus. The patient developed diffuse stromal scarring with a decrease in vision and ultimately underwent PK with preceding eyelid repair. To the best of our knowledge, we present the first reported case of chronic trichiasis causing full-thickness corneal edema, scarring, and endothelial cell loss requiring PK.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Corneal Edema/etiology
Corneal Endothelial Cell Loss/etiology
Corneal Injuries/etiology
Keratoplasty, Penetrating
Trichiasis/complications
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Aged
Corneal Edema/surgery
Corneal Endothelial Cell Loss/surgery
Corneal Injuries/surgery
Humans
Male
[Pt] Publication type:CASE REPORTS; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180223
[Lr] Last revision date:180223
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:180210
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.4103/meajo.MEAJO_304_16

  5 / 715 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29232708
[Au] Autor:Debrah O; Mensah EO; Senyonjo L; de Souza DK; Hervie TE; Agyemang D; Bakajika D; Marfo B; Ahorsu F; Wanye S; Bailey R; Koroma JB; Aboe A; Biritwum NK
[Ad] Address:Eye Care, Ghana Health Service, Accra, Ghana.
[Ti] Title:Elimination of trachoma as a public health problem in Ghana: Providing evidence through a pre-validation survey.
[So] Source:PLoS Negl Trop Dis;11(12):e0006099, 2017 12.
[Is] ISSN:1935-2735
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: In order to achieve elimination of trachoma, a country needs to demonstrate that the elimination prevalence thresholds have been achieved and then sustained for at least a two-year period. Ghana achieved the thresholds in 2008, and since 2011 has been implementing its trachoma surveillance strategy, which includes community and school screening for signs of follicular trachoma and trichiasis, in trachoma-endemic districts. In 2015-2016, the country conducted a district level population-based survey to validate elimination of trachoma as a public health problem. METHODS: As per WHO recommendations, a cross-sectional survey, employing a two-stage cluster random sampling methodology, was used across 18 previously trachoma endemic districts (evaluation units (EUs) in the Upper West and Northern Regions of Ghana. In each EU 24 villages were selected based on probability proportional to estimated size. A minimum of 40 households were targeted per village and all eligible residents were examined for clinical signs of trachoma, using the WHO simplified grading system. The number of trichiasis cases unknown to the health system was determined. Household environmental risk factors for trachoma were also assessed. RESULTS: Data from 45,660 individuals were examined from 11,099 households across 18 EUs, with 27,398 (60.0%) children aged 1-9 years and 16,610 (36.4%) individuals 15 years and above All EUs had shown to have maintained the WHO elimination threshold for Trachomatous inflammation-Follicular (TF) (<5.0% prevalence) in children aged 1-9 years old. The EU TF prevalence in children aged 1-9 years old ranged from between 0.09% to 1.20%. Only one EU (Yendi 0.36%; 95% CI: 0.0-1.01) failed to meet the WHO TT elimination threshold (< 0.2% prevalence in adults aged 15 and above). The EU prevalence of trichiasis (TT) unknown to the health system in adults aged ≥15 years, ranged from 0.00% to 0.36%. In this EU, the estimated TT backlog is 417 All TT patients identified in the study, as well as through on-going surveillance efforts will require further management. A total of 75.9% (95% CI 72.1-79.3, EU range 29.1-92.6) of households defecated in the open but many households had access to an improved water source 75.9% (95%CI: 71.5-79.8, EU range 47.4-90.1%), with 45.5% (95% CI 41.5-49.7%, EU range 28.4-61.8%) making a round trip of water collection < 30 minutes. CONCLUSION: The findings from this survey indicate elimination thresholds have been maintained in Ghana in 17 of the 18 surveyed EUs. Only one EU, Yendi, did not achieve the TT elimination threshold. A scheduled house-by-house TT case search in this EU coupled with surgery to clear the backlog of cases is necessary in order for Ghana to request validation of elimination of trachoma as a public health problem.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Disease Eradication
Endemic Diseases/prevention & control
Trachoma/prevention & control
Trichiasis/prevention & control
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adolescent
Child
Child, Preschool
Cross-Sectional Studies
Demography
Family Characteristics
Female
Ghana/epidemiology
Health Surveys
Humans
Infant
Male
Prevalence
Trachoma/epidemiology
Trichiasis/epidemiology
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S.
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180212
[Lr] Last revision date:180212
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:171213
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0006099

  6 / 715 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 27775463
[Au] Autor:Mpyet C; Muhammad N; Adamu MD; Muazu H; Umar MM; Goyol M; Onyebuchi U; Chima I; Idris H; William A; Isiyaku S; Nwobi B; Flueckiger RM; Willis R; Pavluck A; Chu BK; Olobio N; Solomon AW
[Ad] Address:a Department of Ophthalmology , University of Jos , Jos , Nigeria.
[Ti] Title:Prevalence of Trachoma in Katsina State, Nigeria: Results of 34 District-Level Surveys.
[So] Source:Ophthalmic Epidemiol;23(sup1):55-62, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:1744-5086
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:PURPOSE: To determine the local government area (LGA)-level prevalence of trachoma in all 34 LGAs of Katsina State. METHODS: A population-based prevalence survey was conducted in each LGA of Katsina State, using the Global Trachoma Mapping Project methodology. We used a 3-stage cluster random sampling strategy to select 25 households from each of 25 clusters. We examined all residents of selected households aged 1 year and older for the clinical signs of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF), trachomatous inflammation-intense and trichiasis, using the World Health Organization (WHO) simplified grading scheme. RESULTS: We examined 129,281 persons. Six LGAs had a TF prevalence ≥10%, and another six LGAs had a TF prevalence between 5% and 9.9%; all 12 require mass drug administration with azithromycin plus other interventions. The prevalence of trichiasis was ≥1.0% in 13 LGAs, and there is a need to perform trichiasis surgery in over 26,000 persons to reach targets set by the WHO for elimination of trichiasis. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of TF is generally low in Katsina state, but urgent steps must be taken to implement the full SAFE strategy (surgery, antibiotics, facial cleanliness, environmental improvement) in at least 12 LGAs while also stepping up efforts to provide community-based trichiasis surgery throughout the whole state, in order to make trachoma elimination by 2020 a reality.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Trachoma/epidemiology
Trichiasis/epidemiology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
Child
Child, Preschool
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Health Surveys
Humans
Hygiene/standards
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Middle Aged
Nigeria/epidemiology
Prevalence
Sanitation/standards
Trachoma/prevention & control
Water Supply/standards
Young Adult
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S.
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents)
[Em] Entry month:1707
[Cu] Class update date: 180123
[Lr] Last revision date:180123
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:161025
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1080/09286586.2016.1236975

  7 / 715 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29198484
[Au] Autor:Sharma R; Singh S; Patrikar S
[Ad] Address:Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Armed Forces Medical College, Pune. Electronic address: capt_rohit7@yahoo.com.
[Ti] Title:Retroseptal transconjunctival approach for fractures of the zygomaticomaxillary complex: a retrospective study.
[So] Source:Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg;56(1):29-33, 2018 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1532-1940
[Cp] Country of publication:Scotland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:We designed a retrospective study to evaluate the efficacy of retroseptal transconjunctival approaches in the management of fractures of the zygomaticomaxillary complex (ZMC). The patients were from a single institution, and had had three-point fixation of fractures of the ZMC between 2008 and 2016. A total of 77 patients (56 men and 21 women with a mean (range) age of 28 (18-54) years), were divided into two groups. Group I (n=51) had had reduction and fixation of the infraorbital rim using a retroseptal transconjunctival approach. In group II (n=26) the same approach had been used with lateral canthotomy and inferior canthlolysis for both the infraorbital rim and the zygomaticofrontal region. We analysed the association of both approaches with the outcomes of reduction, fixation, and complications. Suboptimal results were found in 13 patients in group I and one in group II (p=0.017). There were also three patients with trichiasis and two with entropion in group I, and one each of both complications in group II. There was only one patient with a malopposed lateral canthus in group II. All 26 patients in group II had no perceptible scar along the extended line of incision. The risk of a suboptimal outcome was reduced by 20% (relative risk=0.8) in group II. The retroseptal transconjunctival approach with lateral canthotomy and inferior cantholysis is safe, aesthetic, and effective in the management of fractures of the ZMC.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 180112
[Lr] Last revision date:180112
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  8 / 715 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29300517
[Au] Autor:Owji N
[Ad] Address:a Ophthalmology Department , Poostchi Ophthalmology Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences , Shiraz , Iran.
[Ti] Title:Re: 'outcomes of two surgical techniques for major trichiasis treatment'.
[So] Source:Orbit;:1, 2018 Jan 04.
[Is] ISSN:1744-5108
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180104
[Lr] Last revision date:180104
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1080/01676830.2017.1423089

  9 / 715 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 27775455
[Au] Autor:Mwingira UJ; Kabona G; Kamugisha M; Kirumbi E; Kilembe B; Simon A; Nshala A; Damas D; Nanai A; Malecela M; Chikawe M; Mbise C; Mkocha H; Massae P; Mkali HR; Rotondo L; Crowley K; Willis R; Solomon AW; Ngondi JM
[Ad] Address:a Neglected Tropical Disease Control Program , Ministry of Health and Social Welfare , Dar es Salaam , Tanzania.
[Ti] Title:Progress of Trachoma Mapping in Mainland Tanzania: Results of Baseline Surveys from 2012 to 2014.
[So] Source:Ophthalmic Epidemiol;23(6):373-380, 2016 12.
[Is] ISSN:1744-5086
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:PURPOSE: Following surveys in 2004-2006 in 50 high-risk districts of mainland Tanzania, trachoma was still suspected to be widespread elsewhere. We report on baseline surveys undertaken from 2012 to 2014. METHODS: A total of 31 districts were surveyed. In 2012 and 2013, 12 at-risk districts were selected based on proximity to known trachoma endemic districts, while in 2014, trachoma rapid assessments were undertaken, and 19 of 55 districts prioritized for baseline surveys. A multi-stage cluster random sampling methodology was applied whereby 20 villages (clusters) and 36 households per cluster were surveyed. Eligible participants, children aged 1-9 years and people aged 15 years and older, were examined for trachoma using the World Health Organization simplified grading system. RESULTS: A total of 23,171 households were surveyed and 104,959 participants (92.3% of those enumerated) examined for trachoma signs. A total of 44,511 children aged 1-9 years and 65,255 people aged 15 years and older were examined for trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF) and trichiasis, respectively. Prevalence of TF varied by district, ranging from 0.0% (95% confidence interval, CI 0.0-0.1%) in Mbinga to 11.8% (95% CI 6.8-16.5%) in Chunya. Trichiasis prevalence was lowest in Urambo (0.03%, 95% CI 0.00-0.24%) and highest in Kibaha (1.08%, 95% CI 0.74-1.43%). CONCLUSION: Only three districts qualified for mass drug administration with azithromycin. Trichiasis is still a public health problem in many districts, thus community-based trichiasis surgery should be considered to prevent blindness due to trachoma. These findings will facilitate achievement of trachoma elimination objectives.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Azithromycin/therapeutic use
Trachoma/drug therapy
Trachoma/epidemiology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adolescent
Child
Child, Preschool
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Health Surveys
Humans
Infant
Male
Population Surveillance
Prevalence
Tanzania/epidemiology
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S.
[Nm] Name of substance:83905-01-5 (Azithromycin)
[Em] Entry month:1708
[Cu] Class update date: 171226
[Lr] Last revision date:171226
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:161025
[St] Status:MEDLINE

  10 / 715 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 27775454
[Au] Autor:Omar FJ; Kabona G; Abdalla KM; Mohamed SJ; Ali SM; Ame SM; Ngwalle A; Mbise C; Rotondo L; Willis R; Flueckiger RM; Massae PA; Bakhtiari A; Solomon AW; Ngondi JM
[Ad] Address:a Department of Eye Care , Ministry of Health , Zanzibar , Tanzania.
[Ti] Title:Baseline Trachoma Surveys in Kaskazini A and Micheweni Districts of Zanzibar: Results of Two Population-Based Prevalence Surveys Conducted with the Global Trachoma Mapping Project.
[So] Source:Ophthalmic Epidemiol;23(6):412-417, 2016 12.
[Is] ISSN:1744-5086
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:PURPOSE: Based on health care records and trachoma rapid assessments, trachoma was suspected to be endemic in Kaskazini A and Micheweni districts of Zanzibar. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF), and trachomatous trichiasis (TT) in each of those districts. METHODS: The survey was undertaken in Kaskazini A and Micheweni districts on Unguja and Pemba Islands, respectively. A multi-stage cluster random sampling design was applied, whereby 25 census enumeration areas (clusters) and 30 households per cluster were included. Consenting eligible participants (children aged 1-9 years and people aged 15 years and older) were examined for trachoma using the World Health Organization simplified grading system. RESULTS: A total of 1673 households were surveyed and 6407 participants (98.0% of those enumerated) were examined for trachoma. Examinees included a total of 2825 children aged 1-9 years and 3582 people aged 15 years and older. TF prevalence in 1-9-year-olds was 2.7% (95% confidence interval, CI, 2.7-4.1%) in Kazkazini A and 11.4% (95% CI 6.6-16.5%) in Micheweni. Among people aged 15 years and older, TT prevalence was 0.01% (95% CI 0.00-0.04%) in Kazkazini A and 0.21% (95% CI 0.08-0.39%) in Micheweni. CONCLUSION: Trachoma is a public health problem in Micheweni district, where implementation of all four components of the SAFE strategy (surgery, antibiotics, facial cleanliness, and environmental improvement), including mass drug administration with azithromycin, is required. These findings will facilitate planning for trachoma elimination.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Trachoma/epidemiology
Trichiasis/epidemiology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adolescent
Child
Child, Preschool
Cluster Analysis
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Health Surveys
Humans
Infant
Male
Prevalence
Tanzania/epidemiology
Young Adult
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S.
[Em] Entry month:1708
[Cu] Class update date: 171226
[Lr] Last revision date:171226
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:161025
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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