Database : MEDLINE
Search on : Typhoid and Fever [Words]
References found : 8158 [refine]
Displaying: 1 .. 10   in format [Detailed]

page 1 of 816 go to page                         

  1 / 8158 MEDLINE  
              next record last record
select
to print
Photocopy
Full text

[PMID]: 29463654
[Au] Autor:Klemm EJ; Shakoor S; Page AJ; Qamar FN; Judge K; Saeed DK; Wong VK; Dallman TJ; Nair S; Baker S; Shaheen G; Qureshi S; Yousafzai MT; Saleem MK; Hasan Z; Dougan G; Hasan R
[Ad] Address:Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, United Kingdom.
[Ti] Title:Emergence of an Extensively Drug-Resistant Serovar Typhi Clone Harboring a Promiscuous Plasmid Encoding Resistance to Fluoroquinolones and Third-Generation Cephalosporins.
[So] Source:MBio;9(1), 2018 Feb 20.
[Is] ISSN:2150-7511
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Antibiotic resistance is a major problem in serovar Typhi, the causative agent of typhoid. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates are prevalent in parts of Asia and Africa and are often associated with the dominant H58 haplotype. Reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones is also widespread, and sporadic cases of resistance to third-generation cephalosporins or azithromycin have also been reported. Here, we report the first large-scale emergence and spread of a novel  Typhi clone harboring resistance to three first-line drugs (chloramphenicol, ampicillin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) as well as fluoroquinolones and third-generation cephalosporins in Sindh, Pakistan, which we classify as extensively drug resistant (XDR). Over 300 XDR typhoid cases have emerged in Sindh, Pakistan, since November 2016. Additionally, a single case of travel-associated XDR typhoid has recently been identified in the United Kingdom. Whole-genome sequencing of over 80 of the XDR isolates revealed remarkable genetic clonality and sequence conservation, identified a large number of resistance determinants, and showed that these isolates were of haplotype H58. The XDR  Typhi clone encodes a chromosomally located resistance region and harbors a plasmid encoding additional resistance elements, including the extended-spectrum ß-lactamase, and carrying the fluoroquinolone resistance gene. This antibiotic resistance-associated IncY plasmid exhibited high sequence identity to plasmids found in other enteric bacteria isolated from widely distributed geographic locations. This study highlights three concerning problems: the receding antibiotic arsenal for typhoid treatment, the ability of  Typhi to transform from MDR to XDR in a single step by acquisition of a plasmid, and the ability of XDR clones to spread globally. Typhoid fever is a severe disease caused by the Gram-negative bacterium serovar Typhi. Antibiotic-resistant  Typhi strains have become increasingly common. Here, we report the first large-scale emergence and spread of a novel extensively drug-resistant (XDR)  Typhi clone in Sindh, Pakistan. The XDR  Typhi is resistant to the majority of drugs available for the treatment of typhoid fever. This study highlights the evolving threat of antibiotic resistance in  Typhi and the value of antibiotic susceptibility testing and whole-genome sequencing in understanding emerging infectious diseases. We genetically characterized the XDR  Typhi to investigate the phylogenetic relationship between these isolates and a global collection of  Typhi isolates and to identify multiple genes linked to antibiotic resistance. This  Typhi clone harbored a promiscuous antibiotic resistance plasmid previously identified in other enteric bacteria. The increasing antibiotic resistance in  Typhi observed here adds urgency to the need for typhoid prevention measures.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  2 / 8158 MEDLINE  
              first record previous record next record last record
select
to print
Photocopy
Full text

[PMID]: 29344690
[Au] Autor:Wilhelm TJ; Post S
[Ad] Address:Chirurgische Klinik, Universitätsklinikum Mannheim, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167, Mannheim, Deutschland. torsten.wilhelm@umm.de.
[Ti] Title:Globalisierung: abdominalchirurgische Herausforderungen bei Patienten mit Migrationshintergrund. [Globalization: challenges in abdominal surgery for migrants and refugees].
[So] Source:Chirurg;89(3):197-204, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1433-0385
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:ger
[Ab] Abstract:The increasing number of refugees, migrants and international travelers influences the surgical spectrum of abdominal diseases. The aim of this review is to familiarize surgeons with specific diseases which are endemic in the patients' countries of origin and are likely to be diagnosed with increasing incidence in Germany. Low levels of hygiene in the countries of origin or refugee camps is associated with a high incidence of numerous infections, such as helminth infections, typhoid fever or amoebiasis, which if untreated can cause surgical emergencies. Historically, some of them were common in Germany but have been more or less eradicated because of the high socioeconomic standard. Echinococcosis and Chagas disease are frequently treated surgically while schistosomiasis can mimic intestinal cancer. Abdominal tuberculosis presents in a variety of abdominal pathologies and frequently causes diagnostic uncertainty. Sigmoid volvulus has a very low incidence among Europeans, but is one of the most common abdominal surgical conditions of adults in endemic countries. The number of patients who eventually undergo surgery for these conditions might be relatively low; however, surgeons must be aware of them and consider them as differential diagnoses in refugees and migrants with acute or chronic abdominal symptoms.
[Pt] Publication type:ENGLISH ABSTRACT; JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00104-017-0584-z

  3 / 8158 MEDLINE  
              first record previous record next record last record
select
to print
Photocopy
Full text

[PMID]: 29229736
[Au] Autor:Johnson R; Ravenhall M; Pickard D; Dougan G; Byrne A; Frankel G
[Ad] Address:MRC Centre for Molecular Bacteriology and Infection, Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.
[Ti] Title:Comparison of Salmonella enterica Serovars Typhi and Typhimurium Reveals Typhoidal Serovar-Specific Responses to Bile.
[So] Source:Infect Immun;86(3), 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1098-5522
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:serovars Typhi and Typhimurium cause typhoid fever and gastroenteritis, respectively. A unique feature of typhoid infection is asymptomatic carriage within the gallbladder, which is linked with Typhi transmission. Despite this, Typhi responses to bile have been poorly studied. Transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) of Typhi Ty2 and a clinical Typhi isolate belonging to the globally dominant H58 lineage (strain 129-0238), as well as Typhimurium 14028, revealed that 249, 389, and 453 genes, respectively, were differentially expressed in the presence of 3% bile compared to control cultures lacking bile. genes, the operon, and putative sialic acid uptake and metabolism genes (t1787 to t1790) were upregulated in all strains following bile exposure, which may represent adaptation to the small intestine environment. Genes within the pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1), those encoding a type IIII secretion system (T3SS), and motility genes were significantly upregulated in both Typhi strains in bile but downregulated in Typhimurium. Western blots of the SPI-1 proteins SipC, SipD, SopB, and SopE validated the gene expression data. Consistent with this, bile significantly increased Typhi HeLa cell invasion, while Typhimurium invasion was significantly repressed. Protein stability assays demonstrated that in Typhi the half-life of HilD, the dominant regulator of SPI-1, is three times longer in the presence of bile; this increase in stability was independent of the acetyltransferase Pat. Overall, we found that Typhi exhibits a specific response to bile, especially with regard to virulence gene expression, which could impact pathogenesis and transmission.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  4 / 8158 MEDLINE  
              first record previous record next record last record
select
to print
Photocopy
Full text

[PMID]: 29444257
[Au] Autor:Lo NC; Gupta R; Stanaway JD; Garrett DO; Bogoch II; Luby SP; Andrews JR
[Ad] Address:Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine, California.
[Ti] Title:Comparison of Strategies and Incidence Thresholds for Vi Conjugate Vaccines Against Typhoid Fever: A Cost-effectiveness Modeling Study.
[So] Source:J Infect Dis;, 2018 Feb 12.
[Is] ISSN:1537-6613
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Background: Typhoid fever remains a major public health problem globally. While new Vi conjugate vaccines hold promise for averting disease, the optimal programmatic delivery remains unclear. We aimed to identify the strategies and associated epidemiologic conditions under which Vi conjugate vaccines would be cost-effective. Methods: We developed a dynamic, age-structured transmission and cost-effectiveness model that simulated multiple vaccination strategies with a typhoid Vi conjugate vaccine from a societal perspective. We simulated 10-year vaccination programs with (1) routine immunization of infants (aged <1 year) through the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) and (2) routine immunization of infants through the EPI plus a 1-time catch-up campaign in school-aged children (aged 5-14 years). In the base case analysis, we assumed a 0.5% case-fatality rate for all cases of clinically symptomatic typhoid fever and defined strategies as highly cost-effective by using the definition of a low-income country (defined as a country with a gross domestic product of $1045 per capita). We defined incidence as the true number of clinically symptomatic people in the population per year. Results: Vi conjugate typhoid vaccines were highly cost-effective when administered by routine immunization activities through the EPI in settings with an annual incidence of >50 cases/100000 (95% uncertainty interval, 40-75 cases) and when administered through the EPI plus a catch-up campaign in settings with an annual incidence of >130 cases/100000 (95% uncertainty interval, 50-395 cases). The incidence threshold was sensitive to the typhoid-related case-fatality rate, carrier contribution to transmission, vaccine characteristics, and country-specific economic threshold for cost-effectiveness. Conclusions: Typhoid Vi conjugate vaccines would be highly cost-effective in low-income countries in settings of moderate typhoid incidence (50 cases/100000 annually). These results were sensitive to case-fatality rates, underscoring the need to consider factors contributing to typhoid mortality (eg, healthcare access and antimicrobial resistance) in the global vaccination strategy.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1093/infdis/jix598

  5 / 8158 MEDLINE  
              first record previous record next record last record
select
to print
Photocopy
Full text

[PMID]: 29432657
[Au] Autor:Khatun H; Islam SB; Naila NN; Islam SA; Nahar B; Alam NH; Ahmed T
[Ad] Address:Nutrition and Clinical Services Division, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
[Ti] Title:Clinical profile, antibiotic susceptibility pattern of bacterial isolates and factors associated with complications in culture-proven typhoid patients admitted to an urban hospital in Bangladesh.
[So] Source:Trop Med Int Health;, 2018 Feb 12.
[Is] ISSN:1365-3156
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVES: Typhoid fever is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in typhoid endemic countries like Bangladesh. However, data on the clinical and microbiological profile as well as factors associated with complications of typhoid in Bangladesh are scarce. We intended to characterise the clinical and microbiological profile of culture-proven typhoid fever and to identify factors associated with complications. METHODOLOGY: Retrospective analysis of clinical data from 431 patients with culture-confirmed typhoid fever admitted to Dhaka hospital of International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, between January 2010 and December 2014. Clinical and microbiological profiles of the patients including age, sex, and duration of illness prior to hospital admission, haematological parameters and the antimicrobial resistance profile of the infecting isolate, duration of hospital stay and defervescence time were examined by logistic regression to identify the factors associated with complications. RESULT: About one of three patients were children under 5 years, and 21.5% of them were severely malnourished. During hospitalisation, 17.4% patients developed complications; mainly encephalopathy (6.7%), ileus (6.5%) and pneumonia (3.5%). Among culture-positive cases, 28.3% isolates showed multidrug resistant (MDR) and more than 90% of isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid and had intermediate sensitivity to ciprofloxacin. Five isolates were resistant to azithromycin; all isolates were sensitive to cefixime and ceftriaxone. Complication was independently associated with duration of fever before admission (adjusted odds ratio: 0.85; 95% CI: 0.074-0.97; P < 0.05), thrombocytopenia on admission (AOR: 2.84; 95% CI: 01.06-7.57; P < 0.05), duration of hospital stay (AOR: 1.34; 95% CI: 1.15-1.57; P < 0.01) and defervescence time (AOR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.70-0.99; P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The high prevalence of typhoid fever among under-five children and complications among hospitalised patients are matters of concern. Sensitivity of Salmonella Typhi to ceftriaxone and cefixime was better than to other conventional antibiotics. Shorter duration of fever and thrombocytopenia on admission can be considered as early signs of complications.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1111/tmi.13037

  6 / 8158 MEDLINE  
              first record previous record next record last record
select
to print
Photocopy
Full text

[PMID]: 29394383
[Au] Autor:Huber F; Ehrensperger B; Hatz C; Chappuis F; Bühler S; Eperon G
[Ad] Address:Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Prevention Institute, Department of Public Health, Division of Infectious Diseases/Travel Clinic, University of Zurich, Hirschengraben 84, 8001 Zurich, Switzerland.
[Ti] Title:Safety of live vaccines on immunosuppressive or immunomodulatory therapy-a retrospective study in three Swiss Travel Clinics.
[So] Source:J Travel Med;25(1), 2018 Jan 01.
[Is] ISSN:1708-8305
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Background: Patients increasingly benefit from immunosuppressive/immunomodulatory medications for a range of conditions allowing them a lifestyle similar to healthy individuals, including travel. However, the administration of live vaccines to immunodeficient patients bears the risk of replication of the attenuated vaccine microorganism. Therefore, live vaccines are generally contraindicated on immunosuppression. Data on live vaccinations on immunosuppressive/immunomodulatory medication are scarce. We identified all travellers seeking pre-travel advice in three Swiss travel clinics with a live vaccine during immunosuppressive/immunomodulatory therapy to ascertain experienced side effects. A retrospective and multi-centre study design was chosen to increase the sample size. Methods: This study was conducted in the travel clinics of the University of Zurich; the Swiss TPH, Basel; and Geneva University Hospitals. Travellers on immunosuppressive/immunomodulatory therapy who received live vaccines [yellow fever vaccination (YFV), measles/mumps/rubella (MMR), varicella and/ or oral typhoid vaccination (OTV)] between 2008 and 2015 were identified and interviewed. A total of 60 age- and sex-matched controls (matched to Basel/Zurich travel clinics travellers) were included. Results: Overall, 197 patients were identified. And 116 patients (59%) and 60 controls were interviewed. YFV was administered 92 times, MMR 21 times, varicella 4 times and OTV 6 times to patients on immunosuppressive/immunomodulatory therapy. Most common medications were corticosteroids (n = 45), mesalazine (n = 28) and methotrexate (n = 19). Live vaccines were also administered on biological treatment, e.g. TNF-alpha inhibitors (n = 8). Systemic reactions were observed in 12.2% of the immunosuppressed vs 13.3% of controls; local reactions in 7.8% of the immunosuppressed vs 11.7% of controls. In controls, all reactions were mild/moderate. In the immunosuppressed, 2/21 severe reactions occurred: severe local pain on interferon-beta and severe muscle/joint pain on sulfasalazine. Conclusion: Safety of live vaccines given to immunosuppressed patients cannot be concluded. However, it is re-assuring that in the examined patient groups no serious side effects or infections by the attenuated vaccine strain occurred.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1093/jtm/tax082

  7 / 8158 MEDLINE  
              first record previous record next record last record
select
to print
Photocopy
Full text

[PMID]: 29351594
[Au] Autor:Voysey M; Pollard AJ
[Ad] Address:Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
[Ti] Title:Sero-efficacy of Vi-polysaccharide tetanus-toxoid typhoid conjugate vaccine (Typbar-TCV).
[So] Source:Clin Infect Dis;, 2018 Jan 17.
[Is] ISSN:1537-6591
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Background: Salmonella Typhi is the major cause of enteric fever in lower income countries. New conjugate vaccines show promise as public health interventions, however there are no efficacy data available from endemic areas. Methods: Data were obtained from a previously published phase 3 randomised controlled trial comparing Vi-polysaccharide tetanus-toxoid conjugate vaccine (Typbar-TCV; Bharat Biotech Intl Ltd, India): (Vi-TT) with Vi-polysaccharide (Typbar; Bharat Biotech Intl Ltd, India): (Vi-PS) in participants aged 2- 45 years. An additional open-label arm administered Vi-TT to children aged 6 months to 23 months. The proportion of participants with presumed clinical or subclinical infection ('seroincidence'), was determined using mixture models and compared using relative risks. Results: 81/387 (21%) participants were classified as having presumed typhoid infection during the 2 year period post-vaccination. Seroincidence was lower in those randomised to Vi-TT than Vi-PS in those aged 2-45 years; 21/155 (13.5%) vs 47/129 (36.4%); RR 0.372 (95%CI 0.235-0.588), p<0.0001 and in those aged 2-15 years RR 0.424 (95%CI 0.231-0.778), p=0.0039. There was no difference in seroincidence in those receiving Vi-TT aged 2-45 years and those aged 6-23 months; 21/155 (13.5%) vs 13/103 (12.6%); RR 1.073 (0.563, 2.046), p=0.8293. Vaccine seroefficacy was 85% (95%CI 80-88%). Conclusion: This is the first field estimate of the seroefficacy of a Vi-TT vaccine and shows that Typbar TCV substantially reduces the number of serologically defined (sub)clinical infections in infants, children and adults. These results support the recent World Health Organisation recommendations for deployment of typhoid conjugate vaccines in high burden areas.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1093/cid/cix1145

  8 / 8158 MEDLINE  
              first record previous record next record last record
select
to print
Photocopy
Full text

[PMID]: 29503227
[Au] Autor:Hirata K; Ogawa T; Fujikura H; Ogawa Y; Hirai N; Nakagawa-Onishi T; Uno K; Takeyama M; Kasahara K; Nakamura-Uchiyama F; Konishi M; Mikasa K
[Ad] Address:Center for Infectious Diseases, Nara Medical University, Nara, Japan.
[Ti] Title:Characteristics of health problems in returned overseas travelers at a tertiary teaching hospital in a suburban area in Japan.
[So] Source:J Infect Chemother;, 2018 Mar 01.
[Is] ISSN:1437-7780
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Few studies have analyzed the characteristics of patients who develop physical disorders after overseas travel. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 183 patients who visited Nara Medical University Hospital from 2008 to 2016 because of physical problems after traveling abroad. The main travel destinations were Southeast Asia (n = 100), Africa (n = 27), and South Asia (n = 23). The main reasons for the travel were leisure (n = 96), business (n = 51), and volunteer work (n = 19). The most common final diagnosis was gastrointestinal disease (n = 72), followed by febrile disease (n = 59) and respiratory disease (n = 19). There were eight malaria cases, including one patient who was infected after <14 days of overseas travel. Additionally, 61 of 71 cases of travelers' diarrhea and 15 of 21 cases of dengue fever occurred after <14 days travel. 26 cases of vaccine preventable diseases, such as hepatitis A, typhoid fever, and influenza, were observed. Consequently, healthcare providers should notify Japanese overseas travelers that there is a non-negligible health risk inherent to short-term travel, while stressing on the importance of pre-travel medical consultation.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180305
[Lr] Last revision date:180305
[St] Status:Publisher

  9 / 8158 MEDLINE  
              first record previous record next record last record
select
to print
Photocopy
Full text

[PMID]: 29495943
[Au] Autor:Bandyopadhyay R; Balaji V; Yadav B; Jasmine S; Sathyendra S; Rupali P
[Ad] Address:1 Assistant Professor, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.
[Ti] Title:Effectiveness of treatment regimens for Typhoid fever in the nalidixic acid-resistant S. typhi (NARST) era in South India.
[So] Source:Trop Doct;:49475518758884, 2018 Jan 01.
[Is] ISSN:1758-1133
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The epidemiology of typhoid fever in South Asia has changed. Multi-drug resistant (MDR) Salmonella typhi ( S. typhi) is now frequently resistant to nalidixic acid and thus labelled NARST. Treatment failure with the use of fluoroquinolones has been widely noted, forcing clinicians to adopt alternative treatment strategies. In this observational study, we looked at various treatment regimens and correlated clinical and microbiological outcomes. In 146 hospitalised adults, the median minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for ciprofloxacin was 0.38 µg/mL with a median fever clearance time (FCT) of eight days (range = 2-35 days). Of the regimens used, gatifloxacin and azithromycin had a shorter FCT of six days compared to ceftriaxone (ten days; P < 0.001). Though mortality and relapse in our cohort was low, NARST seemed to correlate with mortality ( P = 0.006). Gatifloxacin or azithromycin clearly emerge as the drugs of choice for treatment of typhoid in South India.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180302
[Lr] Last revision date:180302
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1177/0049475518758884

  10 / 8158 MEDLINE  
              first record previous record
select
to print
Photocopy
Full text

[PMID]: 29444431
[Au] Autor:Hiyoshi H; Wangdi T; Lock G; Saechao C; Raffatellu M; Cobb BA; Bäumler AJ
[Ad] Address:Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA.
[Ti] Title:Mechanisms to Evade the Phagocyte Respiratory Burst Arose by Convergent Evolution in Typhoidal Salmonella Serovars.
[So] Source:Cell Rep;22(7):1787-1797, 2018 Feb 13.
[Is] ISSN:2211-1247
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Typhoid fever caused by Salmonella enterica serovar (S.) Typhi differs in its clinical presentation from gastroenteritis caused by S. Typhimurium and other non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars. The different clinical presentations are attributed in part to the virulence-associated capsular polysaccharide (Vi antigen) of S. Typhi, which prevents phagocytes from triggering a respiratory burst by preventing antibody-mediated complement activation. Paradoxically, the Vi antigen is absent from S. Paratyphi A, which causes a disease that is indistinguishable from typhoid fever. Here, we show that evasion of the phagocyte respiratory burst by S. Paratyphi A required very long O antigen chains containing the O2 antigen to inhibit antibody binding. We conclude that the ability to avoid the phagocyte respiratory burst is a property distinguishing typhoidal from non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars that was acquired by S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A independently through convergent evolution.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180301
[Lr] Last revision date:180301
[St] Status:In-Data-Review


page 1 of 816 go to page                         
   


Refine the search
  Database : MEDLINE Advanced form   

    Search in field  
1  
2
3
 
           



Search engine: iAH v2.6 powered by WWWISIS

BIREME/PAHO/WHO - Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences Information