Database : MEDLINE
Search on : Unconsciousness [Words]
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[PMID]: 29524782
[Au] Autor:Nagasaka H; Hirano KI; Yorifuji T; Komatsu H; Takatani T; Morioka I; Hirayama S; Miida T
[Ad] Address:Department of Pediatrics, Takarazuka City Hospital, Takarazuka, Japan. Electronic address: Nagasaka@cnt-osaka.com.
[Ti] Title:Treatment with medium chain fatty acids milk of CD36-deficient preschool children.
[So] Source:Nutrition;50:45-48, 2017 Nov 29.
[Is] ISSN:1873-1244
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE: CD36 deficiency is characterized by limited cellular long chain fatty acid uptake in the skeletal and cardiac muscles and often causes energy crisis in these muscles. However, suitable treatment for CD36 deficiency remains to be established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and metabolic effects of medium chain triacylglycerols (MCTs) in two CD36-deficient preschool children who often developed fasting hypoglycemia and exercise-induced myalgia. METHODS: Fasting blood glucose, total ketone bodies, and free fatty acids were examined and compared for usual supper diets and for diets with replacement of one component with 2 g/kg of 9% MCT-containing milk (MCT milk). Changes in serum creatine kinase and alanine aminotransferase levels, resulting from replacement of glucose water intake with 1 g/kg of MCT milk and determined by using bicycle pedaling tasks, were examined and compared. Hypoglycemic and/or myalgia episodes in daily life were also investigated. RESULTS: Biochemically, participants' blood glucose and total ketone bodies levels after overnight fasting substantially increased after dietary suppers containing MCT milk. Increases in serum creatine kinase and alanine aminotransferase levels resulting from the bicycle pedaling task were suppressed by MCT milk. Hypoglycemia leading to unconsciousness and tachycardia before breakfast decreased after introduction of dietary suppers containing MCT milk. Occurrence of myalgia in the lower limbs also decreased after intakes of MCT milk before long and/or strenuous exercising. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that MCTs can prevent fasting hypoglycemia and exercise-induced myalgia in CD36-deficient young children.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  2 / 5965 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29421324
[Au] Autor:Lichtner G; Auksztulewicz R; Kirilina E; Velten H; Mavrodis D; Scheel M; Blankenburg F; von Dincklage F
[Ad] Address:Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Klinik für Anästhesiologie mit Schwerpunkt operative Intensivmedizin (CCM, CVK), Berlin, Germany.
[Ti] Title:Effects of propofol anesthesia on the processing of noxious stimuli in the spinal cord and the brain.
[So] Source:Neuroimage;172:642-653, 2018 Feb 05.
[Is] ISSN:1095-9572
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Drug-induced unconsciousness is an essential component of general anesthesia, commonly attributed to attenuation of higher-order processing of external stimuli and a resulting loss of information integration capabilities of the brain. In this study, we investigated how the hypnotic drug propofol at doses comparable to those in clinical practice influences the processing of somatosensory stimuli in the spinal cord and in primary and higher-order cortices. Using nociceptive reflexes, somatosensory evoked potentials and functional magnet resonance imaging (fMRI), we found that propofol abolishes the processing of innocuous and moderate noxious stimuli at low to medium concentration levels, but that intense noxious stimuli evoked spinal and cerebral responses even during deep propofol anesthesia that caused profound electroencephalogram (EEG) burst suppression. While nociceptive reflexes and somatosensory potentials were affected only in a minor way by further increasing doses of propofol after the loss of consciousness, fMRI showed that increasing propofol concentration abolished processing of intense noxious stimuli in the insula and secondary somatosensory cortex and vastly increased processing in the frontal cortex. As the fMRI functional connectivity showed congruent changes with increasing doses of propofol - namely the temporal brain areas decreasing their connectivity with the bilateral pre-/postcentral gyri and the supplementary motor area, while connectivity of the latter with frontal areas is increased - we conclude that the changes in processing of noxious stimuli during propofol anesthesia might be related to changes in functional connectivity.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:Publisher

  3 / 5965 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29381392
[Au] Autor:Shaklai S; Peretz Fish R; Simantov M; Groswasser Z
[Ad] Address:a Department of Pediatric Rehabilitation , Loewenstein Rehabilitation Hospital , Ra'anana , Israel.
[Ti] Title:Prognostic factors in childhood-acquired brain injury.
[So] Source:Brain Inj;32(5):533-539, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1362-301X
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: A long-term follow-up study comparing children after anoxic brain injury (AnBI) with those after traumatic brain injury (TBI) was conducted, and prognostic factors were mapped. METHODS: A prospective historical study following long-term functional outcome after childhood brain injury was conducted in two phases. The first phase included patients suffering from moderate-severe TBI. The second phase assessed children after AnBI, and the results were compared. Functional outcome was recorded and factors influencing prognosis were outlined. RESULTS: On admission vegetative state (VS) was twice as prevalent in the AnBI subgroup. Approximately 90% of children with TBI and 60% of patients with AnBI gained independency in activities of daily living (ADL) and mobility. Long-term positive outcome, i.e., return to school and open-market employment, were higher in patients with TBI when compared with AnBI (61% and 48.1%, respectively). Significant outcome-predicting factors were VS at admission to rehabilitation, length of loss of consciousness (LOC) up to 11 days and functional independence measure (FIM) score at admission and discharge. Aetiology was not found to be a predicting factor. CONCLUSIONS: Duration of unconsciousness is the main long-term negative prognostic outcome factor. Anoxic brain damage, associated with longer periods of unconsciousness also heralds a less favourable outcome.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1080/02699052.2018.1431843

  4 / 5965 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29329371
[Au] Autor:Mahedy L; Field M; Gage S; Hammerton G; Heron J; Hickman M; Munafò MR
[Ad] Address:Population Health Sciences, Bristol Medical School, University of Bristol, Oakfield Grove, Bristol BS8 2BN, UK.
[Ti] Title:Alcohol Use in Adolescence and Later Working Memory: Findings From a Large Population-Based Birth Cohort.
[So] Source:Alcohol Alcohol;, 2018 Jan 10.
[Is] ISSN:1464-3502
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Aims: The study aimed to examine the association between adolescent alcohol use and working memory (WM) using a large population sample. Methods: Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children were used to investigate the association between alcohol use at age 15 years and WM 3 years later, assessed using the N-back task (N ~ 3300). A three-category ordinal variable captured mutually exclusive alcohol groupings ranging in order of severity (i.e. low alcohol users, frequent drinkers and frequent/binge drinkers). Differential dropout was accounted for using multiple imputation and inverse probability weighting. Adjustment was made for potential confounders. Results: There was evidence of an association between frequent/binge drinking (compared to the low alcohol group) and poorer performance on the 3-back task after adjusting for sociodemographic confounding variables, WM at age 11 years, and experience of a head injury/unconsciousness before age 11 years (ß = -0.23, 95% CI = -0.37 to -0.09, P = 0.001). However, this association was attenuated (ß = -0.12, 95% CI = -0.27 to 0.03, P = 0.11) when further adjusted for baseline measures of weekly cigarette tobacco and cannabis use. Weaker associations were found for the less demanding 2-back task. We found no evidence to suggest frequent drinking was associated with performance on either task. Conclusions: We found weak evidence of an association between sustained heavy alcohol use in mid-adolescence and impaired WM 3 years later. Although we cannot fully rule out the possibility of reverse causation, several potential confounding variables were included to address the directionality of the relationship between WM and alcohol use problems.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1093/alcalc/agx113

  5 / 5965 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29510112
[Au] Autor:Mashour GA; Kelz MB
[Ad] Address:Department of Anesthesiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA; Center for Consciousness Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA; Neuroscience Graduate Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA. Electronic address: gmashour@umich.edu.
[Ti] Title:Systems Neuroscience: The Exciting Journey to Oblivion.
[So] Source:Curr Biol;28(5):R223-R224, 2018 Mar 05.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0445
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The mechanisms of anesthetic-induced unconsciousness remain incompletely understood. A recent study reveals that activation of glutamatergic neurons in the lateral habenula plays a causal role in general anesthesia. We explore the systems neuroscience implications of this finding.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180306
[Lr] Last revision date:180306
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  6 / 5965 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29409683
[Au] Autor:Mashour GA; Hudetz AG
[Ad] Address:Neuroscience Graduate Program, Center for Consciousness Science, Department of Anesthesiology, University of Michigan Medical School, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA. Electronic address: gmashour@umich.edu.
[Ti] Title:Neural Correlates of Unconsciousness in Large-Scale Brain Networks.
[So] Source:Trends Neurosci;41(3):150-160, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1878-108X
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The biological basis of consciousness is one of the most challenging and fundamental questions in 21st century science. A related pursuit aims to identify the neural correlates and causes of unconsciousness. We review current trends in the investigation of physiological, pharmacological, and pathological states of unconsciousness at the level of large-scale functional brain networks. We focus on the roles of brain connectivity, repertoire, graph-theoretical techniques, and neural dynamics in understanding the functional brain disconnections and reduced complexity that appear to characterize these states. Persistent questions in the field, such as distinguishing true correlates, linking neural scales, and understanding differential recovery patterns, are also addressed.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180307
[Lr] Last revision date:180307
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  7 / 5965 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29452809
[Au] Autor:Kuizenga MH; Colin PJ; Reyntjens KMEM; Touw DJ; Nalbat H; Knotnerus FH; Vereecke HEM; Struys MMRF
[Ad] Address:University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Anesthesiology, Groningen, The Netherlands. Electronic address: m.h.kuizenga@umcg.nl.
[Ti] Title:Test of neural inertia in humans during general anaesthesia.
[So] Source:Br J Anaesth;120(3):525-536, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1471-6771
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Neural inertia is defined as the tendency of the central nervous system to resist transitions between arousal states. This phenomenon has been observed in mice and Drosophila anaesthetized with volatile anaesthetics: the effect-site concentration required to induce anaesthesia in 50% of the population (C ) was significantly higher than the effect-site concentration for 50% of the population to recover from anaesthesia. We evaluated this phenomenon in humans using propofol or sevoflurane (both with or without remifentanil) as anaesthetic agents. METHODS: Thirty-six healthy volunteers received four sessions of anaesthesia with different drug combinations in a step-up/step-down design. Propofol or sevoflurane was administered with or without remifentanil. Serum concentrations of propofol and remifentanil were measured from arterial blood samples. Loss and return of responsiveness (LOR-ROR), response to pain (PAIN), Patient State Index (PSI) and spectral edge frequency (SEF) were modeled with NONMEM®. RESULTS: For propofol, the C for induction and recovery of anaesthesia was not significantly different across the different endpoints. For sevoflurane, for all endpoints except SEF, significant differences were found. For some endpoints (LOR and PAIN) the difference was significant only when sevoflurane was combined with remifentanil. CONCLUSIONS: Our results nuance earlier findings with volatile anaesthetics in mice and Drosophila. Methodological aspects of the study, such as the measured endpoint, influence the detection of neural inertia. A more thorough definition of neural inertia, with a robust methodological framework for clinical studies is required to advance our knowledge of this phenomenon. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT 02043938.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180301
[Lr] Last revision date:180301
[Cl] Clinical Trial:ClinicalTrial
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  8 / 5965 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29386261
[Au] Autor:Huang Z; Liu X; Mashour GA; Hudetz AG
[Ad] Address:Department of Anesthesiology and Center for Consciousness Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 and huangzu@umich.edu ahudetz@med.umich.edu.
[Ti] Title:Timescales of Intrinsic BOLD Signal Dynamics and Functional Connectivity in Pharmacologic and Neuropathologic States of Unconsciousness.
[So] Source:J Neurosci;38(9):2304-2317, 2018 Feb 28.
[Is] ISSN:1529-2401
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Environmental events are processed on multiple timescales via hierarchical organization of temporal receptive windows (TRWs) in the brain. The dependence of neural timescales and TRWs on altered states of consciousness is unclear. States of reduced consciousness are marked by a shift toward slowing of neural dynamics (<1 Hz) in EEG/ECoG signals. We hypothesize that such prolongation of intrinsic timescales are also seen in blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signals. To test this hypothesis, we measured the timescales of intrinsic BOLD signals using mean frequency (MF) and temporal autocorrelation (AC) in healthy volunteers ( = 23; male/female 14/9) during graded sedation with propofol. We further examined the relationship between the intrinsic timescales (local/voxel level) and its regional connectivity (across neighboring voxels; regional homogeneity, ReHo), global (whole-brain level) functional connectivity (GFC), and topographical similarity (Topo). Additional results were obtained from patients undergoing deep general anesthesia ( = 12; male/female: 5/7) and in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) ( = 21; male/female: 14/7). We found that MF, AC, and ReHo increased, whereas GFC and Topo decreased, during propofol sedation. The local alterations occur before changes of distant connectivity. Conversely, all of these parameters decreased in deep anesthesia and in patients with DOC. We conclude that propofol synchronizes local neuronal interactions and prolongs the timescales of intrinsic BOLD signals. These effects may impede communication among distant brain regions. Furthermore, the intrinsic timescales exhibit distinct dynamic signatures in sedation, deep anesthesia, and DOC. These results improve our understanding of the neural mechanisms of unconsciousness in pharmacologic and neuropathologic states. Information processing in the brain occurs through a hierarchy of temporal receptive windows (TRWs) in multiple timescales. Anesthetic drugs induce a reversible suppression of consciousness and thus offer a unique opportunity to investigate the state dependence of neural timescales. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that sedation with propofol is accompanied by the prolongation of the timescales of intrinsic BOLD signals presumably reflecting enlarged TRWs. We show that this is accomplished by an increase of local and regional signal synchronization, effects that may disrupt information exchange among distant brain regions. Furthermore, we show that the timescales of intrinsic BOLD signals exhibit distinct dynamic signatures in sedation, deep anesthesia, and disorders of consciousness.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180301
[Lr] Last revision date:180301
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2545-17.2018

  9 / 5965 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29212921
[Au] Autor:Baria AT; Centeno MV; Ghantous ME; Chang PC; Procissi D; Apkarian AV
[Ad] Address:Department of Physiology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine , Chicago, Illinois.
[Ti] Title:BOLD temporal variability differentiates wakefulness from anesthesia-induced unconsciousness.
[So] Source:J Neurophysiol;119(3):834-848, 2018 Mar 01.
[Is] ISSN:1522-1598
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Even though a number of findings, based on information content or information integration, are shown to define neural underpinnings characteristic of a conscious experience, the neurophysiological mechanism of consciousness is still poorly understood. Here, we investigated the brain activity and functional connectivity changes that occur in the isoflurane-anesthetized unconscious state in contrast to the awake state in rats (awake and/or anesthetized, n = 68 rats). We examined nine information measures previously shown to distinguish between conscious states: blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) variability, functional connectivity strength, modularity, weighted modularity, efficiency, clustering coefficient, small-worldness, and spatial and temporal Lempel-Ziv complexity measure. We also identified modular membership, seed-based network connectivity, and absolute and normalized power spectrums to assess the integrity of the BOLD functional networks between awake and anesthesia. fMRI BOLD variability and related absolute power were the only information measures significantly higher during the awake state compared with isoflurane anesthesia across animals, and with varying levels of anesthesia, after correcting for motion and respiration confounds. Thus, we conclude that, at least under the specific conditions examined here, global measures of information integration/sharing do not properly distinguish the anesthetized state from wakefulness, and heightened overall, global and local, BOLD variability is the most reliable determinant of conscious brain activity relative to isoflurane anesthesia. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Multiple metrics previously suggested to be able to distinguish between states of consciousness were compared, within and across rats in awake and isoflurane anesthesia-induced unconsciousness. All measures tested showed sensitivity to confounds, correcting for motion and for respiration changes due to anesthesia. Resting state local BOLD variability and the related absolute power were the only information measures that robustly differentiated wakefulness states. These results caution against the general applicability of global information measures in identifying levels of consciousness, thus challenging the popular concept that these measures reflect states of consciousness, and also pointing to local signal variability as a more reliable indicator of states of wakefulness.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 180301
[Lr] Last revision date:180301
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1152/jn.00714.2017

  10 / 5965 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29477880
[Au] Autor:Oliveira SEO; Gregory NG; Dalla Costa FA; Gibson TJ; Dalla Costa OA; Paranhos da Costa MJR
[Ad] Address:Programa de Pós-graduação em Zootecnia, Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Jaboticabal, SP 14.884-900, Brazil; Grupo de Estudos e Pesquisas em Etologia e Ecologia Animal, Departamento de Zootecnia, Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, Universidad
[Ti] Title:Effectiveness of pneumatically powered penetrating and non-penetrating captive bolts in stunning cattle.
[So] Source:Meat Sci;140:9-13, 2018 Feb 15.
[Is] ISSN:1873-4138
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:This study assessed the effectiveness of penetrating (PCB; 190 psi; N = 363) and non-penetrating captive bolt guns (NPCB; 210-220 psi; N = 92) to stun a total of 455 cattle (Zebu and Zebu Cross). Physical bolt parameters (momentum, kinetic energy and energy density) were evaluated. Clinical indicators of brain function were recorded after stunning (GR), after being hoisted (HO) and at the bleeding rail (BL). Physical bolt parameters (bolt velocity, momentum, kinetic energy, energy density and sectional density) were significantly higher (P < 0.001) for PCB. The need for two or more shots was more frequent for NPCB (210-220 psi; 29% vs. 12%, P < 0.001). Cattle were more likely to collapse at first shot with PCB (190 psi; 99%) compared to NPCB (91%; P < 0.002) which can be attributed to the higher values of bolt physical parameters. Incidence of eyeball rotation (5% vs. 1%) and righting behaviour (7% vs. 1%) were higher (P < 0.001) for NPCB (210-220 psi) at GR than PCB. The NPCB with 210-220 psi had a higher frequency of response to nostril stimulation (2% vs. 0%; P < 0.001) than PCB. Rhythmic respiration was more frequently found for NPCB with 210-220 psi at GR, HO and BL. Therefore, PCB with 190 psi was more effective in ensuring unconsciousness in cattle.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180225
[Lr] Last revision date:180225
[St] Status:Publisher


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