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[PMID]: 29069042
[Au] Autor:Ren S; Chen Z; Liu M; Wang Z
[Ad] Address:aDepartment of Neurology bDepartment of Radiology, Dongfang Hospital, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China.
[Ti] Title:The radiological findings of hypoglycemic encephalopathy: A case report with high b value DWI analysis.
[So] Source:Medicine (Baltimore);96(43):e8425, 2017 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1536-5964
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:RATIONALE: Hypoglycemic encephalopathy is a metabolic encephalopathy. Clinical risk is mixed with acute cerebrovascular disease, so it is critical to identify and make the correct diagnosis of the disease as early as possible. PATIENT CONCERNS: Here, we report a case of a 51-year-old male patient with hypoglycemic encephalopathy, who presented confusion and unconsciousness for 1 day. DIAGNOSES: In addition to blood-related indicators and medical histories, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), especially diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), can be valuable to the diagnosis of hypoglycemic encephalopathy, which showed diffuse high-signal intensity in the cerebral cortex, and also the hippocampus, head of the caudate nucleus, the lentiform nucleus, and corpus callosum. INTERVENTIONS: Intravenous glucose injection and drip was performed repeatedly. The blood glucose levels were gradually corrected, and the resulting blood glucose was 6.5 mmol/L. OUTCOMES: The prognosis depends on the degree of hypoglycemia, duration, and condition of the organism. Due to the long duration of hypoglycemia, unfortunately, the patient died. LESSONS: It is critical to diagnose hypoglycemic encephalopathy as early as possible. MRI reveals diffuse abnormal intensity in the cortex and basal ganglia region. DWI using high b values provides important information for diagnosis.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Brain Diseases, Metabolic/diagnostic imaging
Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods
Hypoglycemia/complications
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Brain Diseases, Metabolic/drug therapy
Brain Diseases, Metabolic/etiology
Cerebral Cortex/diagnostic imaging
Fatal Outcome
Hippocampus/diagnostic imaging
Humans
Hypoglycemia/drug therapy
Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use
Male
Middle Aged
[Pt] Publication type:CASE REPORTS; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Hypoglycemic Agents)
[Em] Entry month:1711
[Cu] Class update date: 171102
[Lr] Last revision date:171102
[Js] Journal subset:AIM; IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:171025
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1097/MD.0000000000008425

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[PMID]: 28535865
[Au] Autor:de Souza Dyer C; Brice AK; Marx JO
[Ad] Address:University Laboratory Animal Resources, Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
[Ti] Title:Intraperitoneal Administration of Ethanol as a Means of Euthanasia for Neonatal Mice ( ).
[So] Source:J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci;56(3):299-306, 2017 May 01.
[Is] ISSN:1559-6109
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The humane euthanasia of animals in research is of paramount importance. Neonatal mice frequently respond differently to euthanasia agents when compared with adults. The AVMA's Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals includes intraperitoneal injection of ethanol as "acceptable with conditions," and recent work confirmed that this method is appropriate for euthanizing adult mice, but neonatal mice have not been tested. To explore this method in neonatal mice, mouse pups (C57BL/6 and CD1, 162 total) were injected with 100% ethanol, a pentobarbital-phenytoin combination, or saline at 7, 14, 21, 28, or 35 d of age. Electrocardiograms, respiratory rates, and times to loss of righting reflex and death were recorded. Time to death (TTD) differed significantly between ethanol and pentobarbital-phenytoin at 7, 14, and 21 d and between ethanol groups at 7, 14, and 21 d compared with 35 d. The average TTD (± 1 SD) for ethanol-injected mice were: 7 d, 70.3 ± 39.8 min; 14 d, 51.7 ± 30.5 min; 21 d, 32.3 ± 20.8 min, 28 d, 14.0 ± 15.2; and 35 d, 4.9 ± 1.4. Mean TTD in pentobarbital-phenytoin-injected mice were: 7 d, 2.8 ± 0.4 min; 14 d, 2.9 ± 0.5 min; 21 d, 3.9 ± 1.2 min; 28 d, 3.9 ± 0.7 min; and 35 d, 4.4 ± 0.5. Although TTD did not differ between ethanol and pentobarbital-phenytoin at 28 d of age, the TTD in 3 of 12 mice was longer than 15 min after ethanol administration at this age. Therefore, ethanol should not be used as a method of euthanasia for mice younger than 35 d, because the criteria for humane euthanasia were met only in mice 35 d or older.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Animals, Newborn
Ethanol/administration & dosage
Euthanasia, Animal/methods
Mice
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animal Welfare
Animals
Injections, Intraperitoneal
Mice, Inbred C57BL
Pentobarbital/administration & dosage
Phenytoin/administration & dosage
Unconsciousness/chemically induced
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:3K9958V90M (Ethanol); 6158TKW0C5 (Phenytoin); I4744080IR (Pentobarbital)
[Em] Entry month:1709
[Cu] Class update date: 171101
[Lr] Last revision date:171101
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170524
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 28107666
[Au] Autor:McLean D; Meers L; Ralph J; Owen JS; Small A
[Ad] Address:Advanced Microwave Technologies, University of Wollongong, Northfields Avenue, Wollongong, NSW 2500, Australia.
[Ti] Title:Development of a microwave energy delivery system for reversible stunning of cattle.
[So] Source:Res Vet Sci;112:13-17, 2017 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1532-2661
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Stunning prior to slaughter is commonly used to render the animal insensible to pain. However, for certain markets, stunning is disallowed, unless the animal can fully recover if not slaughtered. There are very few available methods of inducing a fully recoverable stun. This paper describes the development of a microwave energy application system for stunning cattle. Cadaver heads were used to demonstrate that brain temperature could be raised to a point at which insensibility would be expected to occur (44°C), and to calculate the power and time combinations required to achieve this in a range of cattle weights. Surface heating was identified as a cause for potential concern, which was mitigated by the development of another type of microwave applicator. Although the applicator and process variables require validation in animal studies, this technology shows promise as a method of inducing a recoverable stun.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Animal Welfare
Cattle
Microwaves
Pain/veterinary
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Abattoirs
Animals
Cadaver
Hot Temperature
Pain/prevention & control
Unconsciousness/veterinary
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1711
[Cu] Class update date: 171101
[Lr] Last revision date:171101
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170120
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 29050394
[Au] Autor:Altwegg-Boussac T; Schramm AE; Ballestero J; Grosselin F; Chavez M; Lecas S; Baulac M; Naccache L; Demeret S; Navarro V; Mahon S; Charpier S
[Ad] Address:Inserm U 1127, CNRS UMR 7225, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06 UMR S 1127, Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle épinière, ICM, F-75013, Paris, France.
[Ti] Title:Cortical neurons and networks are dormant but fully responsive during isoelectric brain state.
[So] Source:Brain;140(9):2381-2398, 2017 Sep 01.
[Is] ISSN:1460-2156
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:A continuous isoelectric electroencephalogram reflects an interruption of endogenously-generated activity in cortical networks and systematically results in a complete dissolution of conscious processes. This electro-cerebral inactivity occurs during various brain disorders, including hypothermia, drug intoxication, long-lasting anoxia and brain trauma. It can also be induced in a therapeutic context, following the administration of high doses of barbiturate-derived compounds, to interrupt a hyper-refractory status epilepticus. Although altered sensory responses can be occasionally observed on an isoelectric electroencephalogram, the electrical membrane properties and synaptic responses of individual neurons during this cerebral state remain largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to characterize the intracellular correlates of a barbiturate-induced isoelectric electroencephalogram and to analyse the sensory-evoked synaptic responses that can emerge from a brain deprived of spontaneous electrical activity. We first examined the sensory responsiveness from patients suffering from intractable status epilepticus and treated by administration of thiopental. Multimodal sensory responses could be evoked on the flat electroencephalogram, including visually-evoked potentials that were significantly amplified and delayed, with a high trial-to-trial reproducibility compared to awake healthy subjects. Using an analogous pharmacological procedure to induce prolonged electro-cerebral inactivity in the rat, we could describe its cortical and subcortical intracellular counterparts. Neocortical, hippocampal and thalamo-cortical neurons were all silent during the isoelectric state and displayed a flat membrane potential significantly hyperpolarized compared with spontaneously active control states. Nonetheless, all recorded neurons could fire action potentials in response to intracellularly injected depolarizing current pulses and their specific intrinsic electrophysiological features were preserved. Manipulations of the membrane potential and intracellular injection of chloride in neocortical neurons failed to reveal an augmented synaptic inhibition during the isoelectric condition. Consistent with the sensory responses recorded from comatose patients, large and highly reproducible somatosensory-evoked potentials could be generated on the inactive electrocorticogram in rats. Intracellular recordings revealed that the underlying neocortical pyramidal cells responded to sensory stimuli by complex synaptic potentials able to trigger action potentials. As in patients, sensory responses in the isoelectric state were delayed compared to control responses and exhibited an elevated reliability during repeated stimuli. Our findings demonstrate that during prolonged isoelectric brain state neurons and synaptic networks are dormant rather than excessively inhibited, conserving their intrinsic properties and their ability to integrate and propagate environmental stimuli.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Cerebral Cortex/cytology
Cerebral Cortex/physiology
Neurons/physiology
Status Epilepticus/physiopathology
Thiopental/pharmacology
Unconsciousness/physiopathology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Action Potentials/physiology
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Animals
Brain/drug effects
Brain/physiology
Case-Control Studies
Electric Stimulation
Electroencephalography
Evoked Potentials/physiology
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Neural Pathways/physiology
Pyramidal Cells/physiology
Rats
Status Epilepticus/drug therapy
Thiopental/therapeutic use
Unconsciousness/chemically induced
Young Adult
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:76-75-5 (Thiopental)
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171030
[Lr] Last revision date:171030
[Js] Journal subset:AIM; IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:171020
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1093/brain/awx175

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[PMID]: 28185079
[Au] Autor:Baumann S; Roeger S; Becher T; Akin I; Borggrefe M; Kuschyk J
[Ad] Address:I. Medizinische Klinik, Abteilung für Kardiologie, Pneumologie, Angiologie und internistische Intensivmedizin, Universitätsklinikum Mannheim, Universität Heidelberg und Deutsches Zentrum für Herz-Kreislauf-Forschung (DZHK), Standort Mannheim/Heidelberg, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167, Mannheim, Deut
[Ti] Title:Lebensrettender Schock durch einen subkutanen ICD während eines Fallschirmsprungs. [A life-saving shock from a subcutaneous ICD during skydiving].
[So] Source:Herzschrittmacherther Elektrophysiol;28(1):64-66, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1435-1544
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:ger
[Ab] Abstract:We report the case of a 38-year-old man who was implanted a subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (S-ICD) and then performed a skydive from a height of 3000 m. During the jump, he lost consciousness due to ventricular fibrillation (VF). The S­ICD detected the VF properly and successfully shocked the arrhythmia. Our illustrative case emphasizes the S­ICD as an appropriate therapy in patient with life-threatening arrhythmias even under extreme conditions.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Aircraft
Death, Sudden, Cardiac/prevention & control
Defibrillators, Implantable
Unconsciousness/prevention & control
Ventricular Fibrillation/diagnosis
Ventricular Fibrillation/prevention & control
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adult
Humans
Male
Treatment Outcome
Unconsciousness/diagnosis
Unconsciousness/etiology
Ventricular Fibrillation/complications
[Pt] Publication type:CASE REPORTS; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171030
[Lr] Last revision date:171030
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170210
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00399-017-0487-1

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[PMID]: 28938106
[Au] Autor:Meichtry C; Glauser U; Glardon M; Ross SG; Lechner I; Kneubuehl BP; Gascho D; Spadavecchia C; von Rotz A; Stojiljkovic A; Stoffel MH
[Ad] Address:Division of Veterinary Anatomy, University of Berne, Berne, Switzerland.
[Ti] Title:Assessment of a specifically developed bullet casing gun for the stunning of water buffaloes.
[So] Source:Meat Sci;135:74-78, 2018 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1873-4138
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Water buffaloes and cattle differ considerably with respect to the anatomy of the head. As a result, captive bolt stunners often fail to reliably produce adequate loss of consciousness in water buffaloes and, thus, do not fulfill animal welfare requirements. The goal of the present study was to assess and validate a new stunning device for water buffaloes meeting animal welfare and occupational safety requirements. The newly designed bullet casing gun uses .357Mag/10.2g hollow point bullets and has additional safety features. Its effectiveness and usability were assessed under practical conditions in an abattoir as based on widely accepted criteria. Stunning resulted in deep unconsciousness in 19 out of 20 water buffaloes. One 9-year old male did not immediately collapse. Except for very old bulls, the device presented herewith provides a means to stun water buffaloes of both sexes effectively and reliably while keeping occupational hazards to a minimum.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1709
[Cu] Class update date: 171028
[Lr] Last revision date:171028
[St] Status:In-Process

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[PMID]: 28479395
[Au] Autor:Harrison NL; Skelly MJ; Grosserode EK; Lowes DC; Zeric T; Phister S; Salling MC
[Ad] Address:Departments of Anesthesiology and Pharmacology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, N.Y., 10032, United States. Electronic address: nh2298@columbia.edu.
[Ti] Title:Effects of acute alcohol on excitability in the CNS.
[So] Source:Neuropharmacology;122:36-45, 2017 Aug 01.
[Is] ISSN:1873-7064
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Alcohol has many effects on brain function and hence on human behavior, ranging from anxiolytic and mild disinhibitory effects, sedation and motor incoordination, amnesia, emesis, hypnosis and eventually unconsciousness. In recent years a variety of studies have shown that acute and chronic exposure to alcohol can modulate ion channels that regulate excitability. Modulation of intrinsic excitability provides another way in which alcohol can influence neuronal network activity, in addition to its actions on synaptic inputs. In this review, we review "low dose" effects [between 2 and 20 mM EtOH], and "medium dose"; effects [between 20 and 50 mM], by considering in turn each of the many networks and brain regions affected by alcohol, and thereby attempt to integrate in vitro physiological studies in specific brain regions (e.g. amygdala, ventral tegmental area, prefrontal cortex, thalamus, cerebellum etc.) within the context of alcohol's behavioral actions in vivo (e.g. anxiolysis, euphoria, sedation, motor incoordination). This article is part of the Special Issue entitled "Alcoholism".
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1705
[Cu] Class update date: 171027
[Lr] Last revision date:171027
[St] Status:In-Process

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[PMID]: 29060819
[Au] Autor:Shoorangiz R; Weddell SJ; Jones RD
[Ti] Title:Bayesian multi-subject factor analysis to predict microsleeps from EEG power spectral features.
[So] Source:Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc;2017:4183-4186, 2017 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1557-170X
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Prediction of an imminent microsleep has the potential to save lives and prevent catastrophic accidents. A microsleep is a brief episode of unintentional unconsciousness and, hence, loss of responsiveness. In this study, prediction of imminent microsleeps using EEG data from 8 subjects was examined. A novel Bayesian algorithm was proposed to identify common components of pre-microsleep activity in the EEG in all subjects and predict microsleeps 0.25 s ahead. To avoid overfitting, this model incorporates sparsity-promoting priors to automatically find the minimum number of components. Due to intractability of full Bayesian treatment, variational Bayesian was integrated to approximate posterior probabilities. To predict microsleeps, EEG log-power spectral features were extracted from a 5-s window. Bayesian multi-subject factor analysis was used to extract common microsleep patterns and transform all features into lower-dimension common-space features. Discrimination between responsive and microsleep instances was done with a single linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier. Performance of the proposed method was evaluated using leave-one-subject-out cross-validation. Our prediction system achieved moderate AUC and GM of 0.90 and 0.80, respectively, but with a relatively low precision of 0.29.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171024
[Lr] Last revision date:171024
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1109/EMBC.2017.8037778

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[PMID]: 29060491
[Au] Autor:Xiaofeng Yang; Guanghao Sun; Ishibashi K
[Ti] Title:Non-contact acquisition of respiration and heart rates using Doppler radar with time domain peak-detection algorithm.
[So] Source:Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc;2017:2847-2850, 2017 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1557-170X
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The non-contact measurement of the respiration rate (RR) and heart rate (HR) using a Doppler radar has attracted more attention in the field of home healthcare monitoring, due to the extremely low burden on patients, unconsciousness and unconstraint. Most of the previous studies have performed the frequency-domain analysis of radar signals to detect the respiration and heartbeat frequency. However, these procedures required long period time (approximately 30 s) windows to obtain a high-resolution spectrum. In this study, we propose a time-domain peak detection algorithm for the fast acquisition of the RR and HR within a breathing cycle (approximately 5 s), including inhalation and exhalation. Signal pre-processing using an analog band-pass filter (BPF) that extracts respiration and heartbeat signals was performed. Thereafter, the HR and RR were calculated using a peak position detection method, which was carried out via LABVIEW. To evaluate the measurement accuracy, we measured the HR and RR of seven subjects in the laboratory. As a reference of HR and RR, the persons wore contact sensors i.e., an electrocardiograph (ECG) and a respiration band. The time domain peak-detection algorithm, based on the Doppler radar, exhibited a significant correlation coefficient of HR of 0.92 and a correlation coefficient of RR of 0.99, between the ECG and respiration band, respectively.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171024
[Lr] Last revision date:171024
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1109/EMBC.2017.8037450

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[PMID]: 29060032
[Au] Autor:Minji Lee; Sanders RD; Seul-Ki Yeom; Dong-Ok Won; Hwi-Jae Kim; Bo-Ram Lee; Kwang-Suk Seo; Hyun Jeong Kim; Tononi G; Seong-Whan Lee
[Ti] Title:Change in functional networks for transitions between states of consciousness during midazolam-induced sedation.
[So] Source:Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc;2017:958-961, 2017 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1557-170X
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:How brain dynamics change across conscious states, including reliable signatures of the transitions between unconsciousness and consciousness, remains unclear. In this work, we addressed the changes in functional brain networks during self-titrated midazolam sedation using high-density electroencephalography (EEG) in ten subjects. We were particularly interested in the underlying network alterations, identified with graph theory, associated with transitions between states of consciousness. The weighted Phase Lag Index (wPLI) was used as the connectivity estimator between two signals. Based on wPLI, we calculated network properties such as characteristic path length, clustering coefficient, and small-worldness for measuring the integration and segregation of the brain network. We found significant changes in power and wPLI at different levels of consciousness. During unconsciousness, wPLI over the parietal region was higher in the delta band (1-4Hz). The frontal-parietal interaction in the delta band was also stronger during the transition from consciousness to unconsciousness. There was the significant difference of wPLI over the frontal region between consciousness and unconsciousness in the sigma band (12-15Hz). The topological properties across conscious states were significantly changed in the delta band and sigma band. Our results showed parietal brain dynamics is associated with consciousness. Our data also suggest that reversible changes in delta power and connectivity underlie changes in conscious state.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171024
[Lr] Last revision date:171024
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1109/EMBC.2017.8036984


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