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[PMID]: 26976663
[Au] Autor:Chiang B; Kim YC; Edelhauser HF; Prausnitz MR
[Ad] Address:Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering at Georgia Tech and Emory University, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, 30332, United States....
[Ti] Title:Circumferential flow of particles in the suprachoroidal space is impeded by the posterior ciliary arteries.
[So] Source:Exp Eye Res;145:424-31, 2016 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1096-0007
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Microneedle injection into the suprachoroidal space (SCS) enables targeted drug delivery for treatment of posterior segment diseases. This study sought to identify and characterize anatomical barriers to circumferential spread of particles in the SCS of rabbit and human cadaver eyes. These barriers could make targeting specific regions within the SCS challenging. A hollow microneedle (33-gauge, 750 µm long) was used to inject fluorescent particles into albino New Zealand White rabbit eyes ex vivo at six different positions around the limbus and a limited number of conditions in vivo. SCS injections were also performed in human cadaver eyes 8 mm and 2 mm from the optic nerve (ON). Eyes were dissected and particle distribution was quantified. In rabbit eyes, injections made in the superior or inferior hemispheres (even when injected temporally immediately adjacent to the long posterior ciliary artery (LPCA)) did not significantly cross into the other hemisphere, apparently due to a barrier formed by the LPCA. The vortex veins had a minor effect on particle deposition, limited to only around the vortex vein root. In human eyes, the short posterior ciliary arteries (SPCAs) prevented circumferential spread towards the macula and ON. In conclusion, the rabbit LPCA and the human SPCA were anatomical barriers to particle spread within the SCS. Therefore, design of drug delivery protocols targeting the SCS need to account for barriers formed by anatomical structures in order for injected drug to reach target tissues.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1604
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  2 / 164963 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26948455
[Au] Autor:Takir S; Gürel-Gürevin E; Toprak A; Demirci-Tansel C; Uydes-Dogan BS
[Ad] Address:Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey; Department of Medical Pharmacology, Section of Internal Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Giresun University, Giresun, Turkey. Electronic address: selcuk_takir@yahoo.com....
[Ti] Title:The elevation of intraocular pressure is associated with apoptosis and increased immunoreactivity for nitric oxide synthase in rat retina whereas the effectiveness of retina derived relaxing factor is unaffected.
[So] Source:Exp Eye Res;145:401-11, 2016 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1096-0007
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Glaucoma is a progressive ocular disease that stands in the upper rank for the cause of blindness in worldwide. In the present study, we aimed to elucidate the possible disturbances occurred in the layers of retina due to an increase in intraocular pressure (IOP) and to verify the effectiveness of retina derived relaxing factor, i.e., RRF in this pathologic condition. The increase in IOP was induced by cauterization of the three of episcleral veins simultaneously in rats. After 8 weeks period, the retinas excised from the vein cauterized eyes were evaluated for the possible histopathological and ultrastructural alterations as well as for the relaxing effects on isolated bovine retinal and rat mesenteric arteries, in comparison with the retinas obtained from contralateral sham-operated eyes. In the retinas of IOP-elevated eyes, profound morphological deteriorations were determined in the ganglion and outer nuclear cell layers which were associated with an increased number of TUNEL positive cells in the ganglion and inner nuclear cell layers. Increased immunohistochemical stainings for three isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) were defined in almost all layers of the retinas of IOP-elevated eyes, in which eNOS was abundant particularly in the inner plexiform and ganglion cell layers. An irregular basal folding of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and an increased inter lamellar space of photoreceptor cell layer furtherly characterized the prominent degeneration of those layers in the retinas of IOP-elevated eyes. On the other hand, the relaxing effects of the retina obtained from IOP-elevated eyes were determined to be unchanged on the retinal and mesenteric arteries precontracted either with prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α, 30 µM) or potassium chloride (K(+), 100 mM), when compared with the relaxations of control retina obtained from contralateral sham-operated eyes. Overall, these findings suggested that the elevation of IOP induces prominent structural changes in rat retina particularly in the ganglion and inner layers that is associated with marked apoptosis and increased immunoreactivity for NOS, while the functional effectiveness of retina derived relaxing factor, i.e., RRF is unaffected.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1604
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  3 / 164963 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26892807
[Au] Autor:Lam J; Chan G; Morgan WH; Hazelton M; Betz-Stablein B; Cringle SJ; Yu DY
[Ad] Address:Lions Eye Institute, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia....
[Ti] Title:Structural characteristics of the optic nerve head influencing human retinal venous pulsations.
[So] Source:Exp Eye Res;145:341-6, 2016 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1096-0007
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The relationship between structural characteristics of the optic nerve head and venous pulsations in the human eye remain unknown. Using photoplethysmographic techniques we investigated whether properties of the human retinal veins and their surrounding structures influence venous pulsation. 448 locations of venous pulsation were analysed from 26 normal human eyes. Green channel densitometry derived from video recordings of venous pulsations were used to generate a map of venous pulsation amplitudes along retinal veins. Optical coherence tomography was used to perform quantitative measurements of tissue characteristics at sites of high and low amplitude points as well as in a second analysis, at maximal amplitude pulsation sites from superior and inferior halves of the eyes. Structural characteristics measured included venous diameter, distance from pulsation point to cup margin, vessel length from pulsation point to vein exit, tissue thickness overlying vein, optic disc diameter and presence of a proximal arteriovenous crossing. Increasing venous pulsation amplitudes were associated with larger applied ophthalmodynamometry force, increasing venous diameter, and decreasing absolute cup margin distance (all p < 0.001). Increasing distance of maximal amplitude pulsation point to cup margin was associated with the presence of a proximal arteriovenous crossing, increasing venous diameter, and decreasing tissue depth (all p ≤ 0.001). Venous diameter and tissue depth alter venous compliance, which is likely to be a major factor determining sites of venous pulsation.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1604
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

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[PMID]: 26500195
[Au] Autor:Pazos M; Yang H; Gardiner SK; Cepurna WO; Johnson EC; Morrison JC; Burgoyne CF
[Ad] Address:Hospital de l'Esperança, Parc de Salut Mar, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain....
[Ti] Title:Expansions of the neurovascular scleral canal and contained optic nerve occur early in the hypertonic saline rat experimental glaucoma model.
[So] Source:Exp Eye Res;145:173-86, 2016 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1096-0007
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:PURPOSE: To characterize early optic nerve head (ONH) structural change in rat experimental glaucoma (EG). METHODS: Unilateral intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation was induced in Brown Norway rats by hypertonic saline injection into the episcleral veins and animals were sacrificed 4 weeks later by perfusion fixation. Optic nerve cross-sections were graded from 1 (normal) to 5 (extensive injury) by 5 masked observers. ONHs with peripapillary retina and sclera were embedded, serial sectioned, 3-D reconstructed, delineated, and quantified. Overall and animal-specific EG versus Control eye ONH parameter differences were assessed globally and regionally by linear mixed effect models with significance criteria adjusted for multiple comparisons. RESULTS: Expansions of the optic nerve and surrounding anterior scleral canal opening achieved statistical significance overall (p < 0.0022), and in 7 of 8 EG eyes (p < 0.005). In at least 5 EG eyes, significant expansions (p < 0.005) in Bruch's membrane opening (BMO) (range 3-10%), the anterior and posterior scleral canal openings (8-21% and 5-21%, respectively), and the optic nerve at the anterior and posterior scleral canal openings (11-30% and 8-41%, respectively) were detected. Optic nerve expansion was greatest within the superior and inferior quadrants. Optic nerve expansion at the posterior scleral canal opening was significantly correlated to optic nerve damage (R = 0.768, p = 0.042). CONCLUSION: In the rat ONH, the optic nerve and surrounding BMO and neurovascular scleral canal expand early in their response to chronic experimental IOP elevation. These findings provide phenotypic landmarks and imaging targets for detecting the development of experimental glaucomatous optic neuropathy in the rat eye.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1604
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  5 / 164963 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 27107318
[Au] Autor:Adjedj J; Meert V; Vanderheyden M; Van Mieghem C
[Ad] Address:Cardiovascular Centre Aalst, OLV Clinic Aalst, Aalst, Belgium.
[Ti] Title:Direct coronary drainage to the left ventricle via Thebesian veins: series report with histologic and cardiac CT analysis.
[So] Source:EuroIntervention;11(13):1564, 2016 Apr 20.
[Is] ISSN:1969-6213
[Cp] Country of publication:France
[La] Language:eng
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1604
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  6 / 164963 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 27099229
[Au] Autor:Afzal A; Wong I; Korniyenko A; Ivanov A; Worku B; Gulkarov I
[Ad] Address:Department of Internal Medicine, New York Methodist Hospital affiliate of Weill Medical College of Cornell University, Brooklyn, NY, USA....
[Ti] Title:Superior vena cava syndrome from an invasive thymoma with transcaval invasion to the right atrium.
[So] Source:J Surg Case Rep;2016(4), 2016.
[Is] ISSN:2042-8812
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Invasive thymoma with transcaval extension to the right atrium is a rare cause of superior vena cava syndrome. We present a case on a 74-year-old female presenting with dyspnea on exertion, and facial and upper extremity swelling. Physical examination revealed mild facial swelling, non-pitting edema involving the upper extremities and distention of superficial veins of the anterior chest wall and jugular veins. An echocardiogram showed moderate right atrial dilation with a mobile mass in the atrial cavity prolapsing through the tricuspid valve. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 9.9 × 4.3 cm heterogeneous mass in the anterior mediastinum compressing the superior vena cava and endovenously extending into the right atrium. Tissue biopsy of the mediastinal mass revealed a type B1 thymoma, further staged as a Masaoka IVa invasive thymoma that underwent successfulen blocresection followed by removal of intracaval and right atrial mass.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1604
[Cu] Class update date: 160423
[Lr] Last revision date:160423
[Da] Date of entry for processing:160421
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE

  7 / 164963 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 27097872
[Au] Autor:Bandara AR; Wimalarathna H; Kalupahana R; Gunathilake SS
[Ad] Address:Teaching Hospital, Kandy, 20000, Sri Lanka. arbandara86@gmail.com....
[Ti] Title:Internal jugular venous thrombosis due to Trousseau's syndrome as the presenting feature of metastatic prostate carcinoma: a case report.
[So] Source:J Med Case Rep;10(1):104, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:1752-1947
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Internal jugular vein thrombosis is a rare vascular event with a potentially fatal outcome. Of the known etiologies, internal malignancies, either known or occult, are well described. Even though malignancies are known to present with internal jugular vein thrombosis, it rarely occurs due to prostate carcinoma. Many cases of jugular vein and superior vena cava thrombosis secondary to malignancies are due to metastatic compression of veins. Recurrent and unusual vascular thrombosis due to hypercoagulability associated with malignancies is also known as Trousseau's syndrome. Here we report a rare case of a patient with internal jugular vein thrombosis as a presenting feature of metastatic prostate carcinoma, which is a case of Trousseau's syndrome. CASE PRESENTATION: A 75-year-old Sri Lankan man with hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and past history of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage presented with a short history of painless swelling in his left supraclavicular fossa. An examination revealed the swelling was due to a thickened left external jugular vein. A duplex ultrasound scan revealed left-sided internal jugular, external jugular, and brachiocephalic venous thrombosis. Surveillance into underlying malignancies showed an irregular, hard prostate gland suspicious of prostate carcinoma, which was proven with histology, and biochemically. A computed tomography scan found extensive vertebral, pelvic bone, intra-abdominal lymph node metastasis, and a single right-sided lower lung metastatic lesion, with no direct involvement of the jugular vein. CONCLUSIONS: Spontaneous thrombosis of the internal jugular vein due to Trousseau's syndrome is rare and unusual. Clinicians should promptly investigate for malignancies as it can be the first presentation of underlying occult malignancies. Although prostate carcinomas are rare to present with internal jugular vein thrombosis, this case illustrates the importance of having a high degree of suspicion in the appropriate clinical setting.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1604
[Cu] Class update date: 160423
[Lr] Last revision date:160423
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1186/s13256-016-0884-9

  8 / 164963 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 27074136
[Au] Autor:Bar-Sinai Y; Julien JD; Sharon E; Armon S; Nakayama N; Adda-Bedia M; Boudaoud A
[Ad] Address:Department of Chemical Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel....
[Ti] Title:Mechanical Stress Induces Remodeling of Vascular Networks in Growing Leaves.
[So] Source:PLoS Comput Biol;12(4):e1004819, 2016 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1553-7358
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Differentiation into well-defined patterns and tissue growth are recognized as key processes in organismal development. However, it is unclear whether patterns are passively, homogeneously dilated by growth or whether they remodel during tissue expansion. Leaf vascular networks are well-fitted to investigate this issue, since leaves are approximately two-dimensional and grow manyfold in size. Here we study experimentally and computationally how vein patterns affect growth. We first model the growing vasculature as a network of viscoelastic rods and consider its response to external mechanical stress. We use the so-called texture tensor to quantify the local network geometry and reveal that growth is heterogeneous, resembling non-affine deformations in composite materials. We then apply mechanical forces to growing leaves after veins have differentiated, which respond by anisotropic growth and reorientation of the network in the direction of external stress. External mechanical stress appears to make growth more homogeneous, in contrast with the model with viscoelastic rods. However, we reconcile the model with experimental data by incorporating randomness in rod thickness and a threshold in the rod growth law, making the rods viscoelastoplastic. Altogether, we show that the higher stiffness of veins leads to their reorientation along external forces, along with a reduction in growth heterogeneity. This process may lead to the reinforcement of leaves against mechanical stress. More generally, our work contributes to a framework whereby growth and patterns are coordinated through the differences in mechanical properties between cell types.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1604
[Cu] Class update date: 160423
[Lr] Last revision date:160423
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004819

  9 / 164963 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26211878
[Au] Autor:Chen KH; Huang CC; Siow TF; Chio UC; Chen SD; Chen YD; Lin TC; Huang SY; Wu JM; Jeng KS
[Ad] Address:Division of General Surgery, Department of Surgery, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, New Taipei City, Taiwan. Electronic address: chen.kuohsin@gmail.com....
[Ti] Title:Totally laparoscopic living donor right hepatectomy in a donor with trifurcation of bile duct.
[So] Source:Asian J Surg;39(1):51-5, 2016 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:0219-3108
[Cp] Country of publication:China
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Donor operation in adult living donor liver transplantation is associated with significant postoperative morbidity. To avoid laparotomy wound complications and shorten postoperative recovery, laparoscopic liver graft harvest has been developed recently. However, to determine the cut point of bile duct is challenging. Herein, we report the application of totally laparoscopic approach for right liver graft harvest in a donor with trifurcation of the bile duct. A19-year-old man volunteered for living donation to his father who suffered from hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis of liver and hepatocellular carcinoma. The graft was 880 mL with a single right hepatic artery and portal vein. The graft to recipient weight ratio was 1.06. The middle hepatic vein was preserved for the donor and the liver remnant was 42.3%. Two branches of middle hepatic veins were > 5 mm in diameter and needed reconstruction with cryopreserved allograft. Ductoplasty using laparoscopic intracorporeal suture technique was done to achieve single orifice of the graft bile duct. The postoperative course was uneventful for the donor. This report adds evidence of the feasibility of pure laparoscopic right donor hepatectomy and describes the necessary steps for bile duct division in donors with trifurcation of bile duct.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1601
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Process

  10 / 164963 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26468260
[Au] Autor:Petersen LG; Petersen JC; Andresen M; Secher NH; Juhler M
[Ad] Address:Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Heath Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; lonnie@sund.ku.dk....
[Ti] Title:Postural influence on intracranial and cerebral perfusion pressure in ambulatory neurosurgical patients.
[So] Source:Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol;310(1):R100-4, 2016 Jan 1.
[Is] ISSN:1522-1490
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:We evaluated postural effects on intracranial pressure (ICP) and cerebral perfusion pressure [CPP: mean arterial pressure (MAP) - ICP] in neurosurgical patients undergoing 24-h ICP monitoring as part of their diagnostic workup. We identified nine patients (5 women, age 44 ± 20 yr; means ± SD), who were "as normal as possible," i.e., without indication for neurosurgical intervention (e.g., focal lesions, global edema, abnormalities in ICP-profile, or cerebrospinal fluid dynamics). ICP (tip-transducer probe; Raumedic) in the brain parenchyma (n = 7) or in the lateral ventricles (n = 2) and cardiovascular variables (Nexfin) were determined from 20° head-down tilt to standing up. Compared with the supine position, ICP increased during 10° and 20° of head-down tilt (from 9.4 ± 3.8 to 14.3 ± 4.7 and 19 ± 4.7 mmHg; P < 0.001). Conversely, 10° and 20° head-up tilt reduced ICP to 4.8 ± 3.6 and 1.3 ± 3.6 mmHg and ICP reached -2.4 ± 4.2 mmHg in the standing position (P < 0.05). Concordant changes in MAP maintained CPP at 77 ± 7 mmHg regardless of body position (P = 0.95). During head-down tilt, the increase in ICP corresponded to a hydrostatic pressure gradient with reference just below the heart, likely reflecting the venous hydrostatic indifference point. When upright, the decrease in ICP was attenuated, corresponding to formation of a separate hydrostatic gradient with reference to the base of the skull, likely reflecting the site of venous collapse. ICP therefore seems to be governed by pressure in the draining veins and collapse of neck veins may protect the brain from being exposed to a large negative pressure when upright. Despite positional changes in ICP, MAP keeps CPP tightly regulated.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Entry month:1601
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1152/ajpregu.00302.2015


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