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[PMID]: 29222720
[Au] Autor:Yule KM; Bronstein JL
[Ad] Address:Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, 1041 E Lowell St, Tucson, AZ, 85721, USA. kyule@email.arizona.edu.
[Ti] Title:Reproductive ecology of a parasitic plant differs by host species: vector interactions and the maintenance of host races.
[So] Source:Oecologia;186(2):471-482, 2018 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1432-1939
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Parasitic plants often attack multiple host species with unique defenses, physiology, and ecology. Reproductive phenology and vectors of parasitic plant genes (pollinators and dispersers) can contribute to or erode reproductive isolation of populations infecting different host species. We asked whether desert mistletoe, Phoradendron californicum (Santalaceae tribe Visceae syn. Viscaceae), differs ecologically across its dominant leguminous hosts in ways affecting reproductive isolation. Parasite flowering phenology on one host species (velvet mesquite, Prosopis velutina) differed significantly from that on four others, and phenology was not predicted by host species phenology or host individual. Comparing mistletoe populations on mesquite and another common host species (catclaw acacia, Senegalia greggii) for which genetically distinct host races are known, we tested for differences in interactions with vectors by quantifying pollinator visitation, reward production, pollen receipt, and fruit consumption. Mistletoes on mesquite produced more pollinator rewards per flower (1.86 times the nectar and 1.92 times the pollen) and received ~ 2 more pollen grains per flower than those on acacia. Mistletoes on the two host species interacted with distinct but overlapping pollinator communities, and pollinator taxa differed in visitation according to host species. Yet, mistletoes of neither host showed uniformly greater reproductive success. Fruit set (0.70) did not differ by host, and the rates of fruit ripening and removal differed in contrasting ways. Altogether, we estimate strong but asymmetric pre-zygotic isolating barriers between mistletoes on the two hosts. These host-associated differences in reproduction have implications for interactions with mutualist vectors and population genetic structure.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 180206
[Lr] Last revision date:180206
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00442-017-4038-6

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[PMID]: 29026168
[Au] Autor:Li Y; Zhou JG; Chen XL; Cui YX; Xu ZC; Li YH; Song JY; Duan BZ; Yao H
[Ad] Address:The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Resources Utilization of Chinese Herbal Medicine, Ministry of Education, Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100193, China.
[Ti] Title:Gene losses and partial deletion of small single-copy regions of the chloroplast genomes of two hemiparasitic Taxillus species.
[So] Source:Sci Rep;7(1):12834, 2017 Oct 12.
[Is] ISSN:2045-2322
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Numerous variations are known to occur in the chloroplast genomes of parasitic plants. We determined the complete chloroplast genome sequences of two hemiparasitic species, Taxillus chinensis and T. sutchuenensis, using Illumina and PacBio sequencing technologies. These species are the first members of the family Loranthaceae to be sequenced. The complete chloroplast genomes of T. chinensis and T. sutchuenensis comprise circular 121,363 and 122,562 bp-long molecules with quadripartite structures, respectively. Compared with the chloroplast genomes of Nicotiana tabacum and Osyris alba, all ndh genes as well as three ribosomal protein genes, seven tRNA genes, four ycf genes, and the infA gene of these two species have been lost. The results of the maximum likelihood and neighbor-joining phylogenetic trees strongly support the theory that Loranthaceae and Viscaceae are monophyletic clades. This research reveals the effect of a parasitic lifestyle on the chloroplast structure and genome content of T. chinensis and T. sutchuenensis, and enhances our understanding of the discrepancies in terms of assembly results between Illumina and PacBio.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171019
[Lr] Last revision date:171019
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1038/s41598-017-13401-4

  3 / 52 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28640349
[Au] Autor:Bastos IVGA; Oliveira TB; Rodrigues MD; Militão GCG; Silva TGD; Turatti ICC; Lopes NP; Melo SJ
[Ad] Address:Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Centro de Biociências, Departamento de Antibióticos, Av. Prof. Artur de Sá, s/n, Cidade Universitária, 50740-520 Recife, PE, Brazil.
[Ti] Title:Use of GC/MS to identify chemical constituents and cytotoxic activity of the leaves of Phoradendron mucronatum and Phoradendron microphyllum (Viscaceae).
[So] Source:An Acad Bras Cienc;89(2):991-1001, 2017 Apr-Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1678-2690
[Cp] Country of publication:Brazil
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Phoradendron mucronatum and P. microphyllum are plants that found in tropical and subtropical areas, used in traditional medicine and popularly known as mistle-thrush. The aim of this study was to identify the chemical constituents of different leaf extracts from P. mucronatum and P. microphyllum and assess cytotoxic activity against strains from a human tumour cells. Extracts obtained with hexane, dichloromethane, chloroform and ethyl acetate from the leaves were analysed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and the cytotoxicity was assessed by the MTT method (bromide (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide)). The tested human tumour cells were NCI-H292 (human pulmonar mucoepidermoid carcinoma), MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma) and HEp-2 (epidermoid carcinoma of the larynx). Analysis by GC/MS of the extracts from leaves of P. microphyllum and P. mucronatum detected 51 different compounds, such as alkaloids, diterpenes, triterpenes, sterols, alcohols, aldehydes, fatty acids and hydrocarbons. In the cytotoxic evaluation, hexane and ethyl acetate extracts from the leaves P. microphyllum inhibited cell growth of NCI-H292 strains (72.97%) and HEp-2 (87.53%), respectively. The extracts of P. mucronatum species showed an inhibitory effect towards NCI-H292 (83.19%/hexane), MCF-7 (88.69%/dichloromethane) and HEp-2 (93.40%/hexane). The extracts showed cytotoxic activity against the tested strains, especially the P. mucronatum, which presented the highest percentages of inhibition of cell growth.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1706
[Cu] Class update date: 170622
[Lr] Last revision date:170622
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  4 / 52 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28533204
[Au] Autor:Sadowski EM; Seyfullah LJ; Wilson CA; Calvin CL; Schmidt AR
[Ad] Address:Department of Geobiology, University of Göttingen, Goldschmidtstraße 3, 37077 Göttingen, Germany eva-maria.sadowski@geo.uni-goettingen.de.
[Ti] Title:Diverse early dwarf mistletoes ( ), ecological keystones of the Eocene Baltic amber biota.
[So] Source:Am J Bot;104(5):694-718, 2017 May.
[Is] ISSN:1537-2197
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Extant dwarf mistletoes ( M. Bieb., Viscaceae) are hemiparasites with complex roles in nature. They are one of the most severe pests in northern hemisphere conifer forests, but they also enhance the structural complexity and species diversity of the forests. Here, we describe the first pre-Miocene macrofossils of dwarf mistletoes. The fossils from Eocene Baltic amber provide new insights into the morphological evolution of the lineage and its paleobiogeography. METHODS: The amber inclusions were investigated with light microscopy and compared with extant Viscaceae and to historic descriptions of lost Baltic amber fossils with affinities to Viscaceae. KEY RESULTS: Six fossil species of the lineage, comb. nov., comb. nov., sp. nov., sp. nov., comb. nov. and sp. nov., occurred in source forests of Baltic amber, representing the oldest macrofossil evidence of dwarf mistletoes. They share morphological features of their bracts, internodes, fruits, and stomata with extant . Differences from extant dwarf mistletoes, such as the perianth merosity, the nonfusion of squamate bracts and presence of oblanceolate expanded leaves, indicate their affiliation to an ancient lineage of the genus. CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of six species of dwarf mistletoes in a single amber deposit suggests was a keystone taxon of the Baltic amber source area. As in extant conifer forests, they probably influenced the structural complexity of the forest, not only leading to more open woodlands but also increasing species diversity, at least at a microhabitat scale.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Amber
Viscaceae/classification
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Baltic States
Biota
Fossils
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Amber)
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171019
[Lr] Last revision date:171019
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170524
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3732/ajb.1600390

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[PMID]: 28057689
[Au] Autor:Suaza-Gaviria V; González F; Pabón-Mora N
[Ad] Address:Universidad de Antioquia, Instituto de Biología, Medellín, AA 1226, Colombia.
[Ti] Title:Comparative inflorescence development in selected Andean Santalales.
[So] Source:Am J Bot;104(1):24-38, 2017 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1537-2197
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Loranthaceae, Santalaceae, and Viscaceae are the most diversified hemiparasitic families of Santalales in the Andes. Their partial inflorescences (PIs) vary from solitary flowers, or dichasia in most Santalales, to congested floral groups along articles in most Viscaceae. The atypical articled inflorescences in Phoradendreae (Viscaceae), a phylogenetic novelty restricted to this tribe, have been variously described as racemes, spikes, fascicles, or as intercalary inflorescences, but no developmental studies have been performed to compare them with the construction of PIs across Santalales. METHODS: We used standard light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy to record the inflorescence development in members of Phoradendreae (Viscaceae) in comparison to those in species of Aetanthus, Gaiadendron, Oryctanthus, Passovia, and Peristethium (Loranthaceae) and Antidaphne (Santalaceae). KEY RESULTS: Morphological and developmental comparisons as well as optimization onto a phylogenetic framework indicate that individual inflorescences in Santalales are indeterminate and are formed by axillary cymose PIs. The latter correspond to dichasia, either simple, compound, or variously reduced by abortion of lateral flowers, abortion of the terminal flower, or loss of bracteoles. CONCLUSIONS: Dichasia are plesiomorphic in Santalales. These results favor the interpretation that inflorescences in Phoradendreae are formed by the fusion of serial dichasia (=floral rows) with the main inflorescence axis via syndesmy. We compared this interpretation with the competing one based on the co-occurrence of collateral and serial floral buds.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Flowers/anatomy & histology
Inflorescence/anatomy & histology
Magnoliopsida/anatomy & histology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Flowers/growth & development
Flowers/ultrastructure
Inflorescence/growth & development
Inflorescence/ultrastructure
Loranthaceae/anatomy & histology
Loranthaceae/classification
Loranthaceae/ultrastructure
Magnoliopsida/classification
Magnoliopsida/ultrastructure
Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
Santalaceae/anatomy & histology
Santalaceae/classification
Santalaceae/ultrastructure
Species Specificity
Viscaceae/anatomy & histology
Viscaceae/classification
Viscaceae/ultrastructure
[Pt] Publication type:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1708
[Cu] Class update date: 171116
[Lr] Last revision date:171116
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170107
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3732/ajb.1600253

  6 / 52 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 27716052
[Au] Autor:Wang Y; Li X; Zhou W; Li T; Tian C
[Ad] Address:The Key Laboratory for Silviculture and Conservation of Ministry of Education, College of Forestry, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, China. ylwang@bjfu.edu.cn.
[Ti] Title:De novo assembly and transcriptome characterization of spruce dwarf mistletoe Arceuthobium sichuanense uncovers gene expression profiling associated with plant development.
[So] Source:BMC Genomics;17(1):771, 2016 10 01.
[Is] ISSN:1471-2164
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: The parasitic flowering plant dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium spp., Viscaceae) is one of the most destructive forest pests, posing a major threat to numerous conifer species worldwide. Arceuthobium sichuanense (spruce dwarf mistletoe, SDM) infects Qinghai spruce (Picea crassifolia) and causes severe damage to spruce forests in Northwest China. SDM is a Chinese native parasitic plant and acquires carbohydrates and mineral nutrition from its hosts. However, underlying molecular basis of the physiological development is largely unknown. Investigations of these physiological traits have been hampered by the lack of genomic resources for this species. RESULTS: In this study, to investigate the transcriptomic processes underlying physiological traits and development in SDM, we used RNA from four major tissues (i.e., shoots, flowers, fruits, and seeds) for de novo assembly and to annotate the transcriptome of this species. We uncovered the annotated transcriptome and performed whole genome expression profiling to uncover transcriptional dynamics during physiological development, and we identified key gene categories involved in the process of sexual development. The assembled SDM transcriptome reported in this work contains 331,347 assembled transcripts; 226,687 unigenes were functionally annotated by Gene Ontology analysis. RNA-Seq analysis using this reference transcriptome identified 22,641 differentially expressed genes from shoots, flowers, fruits, and seeds. These genes are enriched in processes including organic substance metabolism, cellular metabolism, biosynthesis, and cellular component. In addition, genes related to transport, transcription, hormone biosynthesis and signaling, carbohydrate metabolism, and photosynthesis were differentially expressed between tissues. CONCLUSION: This work reveals tissue-specific gene expression patterns and pathways of SDM and implied to a difference between photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic tissues in plants. The data can potentially be used for future investigations on endophytic parasitism and SDM-spruce interaction, and it dramatically increases the available genomic resources for Arceuthobium and dwarf mistletoe communities. This preliminary study of the Arceuthobium transcriptome provides excellent opportunities for characterizing plant parasitic genes with unknown functions.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Gene Expression Profiling
Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
Mistletoe/genetics
Plant Development/genetics
Transcriptome
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: China
Cluster Analysis
Computational Biology/methods
Genes, Plant
High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing
Molecular Sequence Annotation
Organ Specificity/genetics
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Entry month:1708
[Cu] Class update date: 171119
[Lr] Last revision date:171119
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:161008
[St] Status:MEDLINE

  7 / 52 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 27154249
[Au] Autor:Yule KM; Koop JA; Alexandre NM; Johnston LR; Whiteman NK
[Ad] Address:Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, 1041 E Lowell St, Tucson, AZ, 85721, USA.
[Ti] Title:Population structure of a vector-borne plant parasite.
[So] Source:Mol Ecol;25(14):3332-43, 2016 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1365-294X
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Parasites are among the most diverse groups of life on Earth, yet complex natural histories often preclude studies of their speciation processes. The biology of parasitic plants facilitates in situ collection of data on both genetic structure and the mechanisms responsible for that structure. Here, we studied the role of mating, dispersal and establishment in host race formation of a parasitic plant. We investigated the population genetics of a vector-borne desert mistletoe (Phoradendron californicum) across two legume host tree species (Senegalia greggii and Prosopis velutina) in the Sonoran desert using microsatellites. Consistent with host race formation, we found strong host-associated genetic structure in sympatry, little genetic variation due to geographic site and weak isolation by distance. We hypothesize that genetic differentiation results from differences in the timing of mistletoe flowering by host species, as we found initial flowering date of individual mistletoes correlated with genetic ancestry. Hybrids with intermediate ancestry were detected genetically. Individuals likely resulting from recent, successful establishment events following dispersal between the host species were detected at frequencies similar to hybrids between host races. Therefore, barriers to gene flow between the host races may have been stronger at mating than at dispersal. We also found higher inbreeding and within-host individual relatedness values for mistletoes on the more rare and isolated host species (S. greggii). Our study spanned spatial scales to address how interactions with both vectors and hosts influence parasitic plant structure with implications for parasite virulence evolution and speciation.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Fabaceae/parasitology
Genetics, Population
Viscaceae/genetics
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Arizona
Biological Evolution
Fabaceae/genetics
Flowers/physiology
Gene Flow
Genetic Variation
Hybridization, Genetic
Inbreeding
Insect Vectors
Microsatellite Repeats
Reproduction
Sympatry
Viscaceae/physiology
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1706
[Cu] Class update date: 170620
[Lr] Last revision date:170620
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:160508
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/mec.13693

  8 / 52 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25813519
[Au] Autor:Nazaruk J; Orlikowski P
[Ad] Address:a Department of Pharmacognosy , Medical University of Bialystok , Bialystok , Poland.
[Ti] Title:Phytochemical profile and therapeutic potential of Viscum album L.
[So] Source:Nat Prod Res;30(4):373-85, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:1478-6427
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Viscum album L., the European mistletoe, is a common species from the Viscaceae family. This evergreen hemiparasitic shrub grows on various trees and contains diverse, biologically active substances. Its chemical composition may vary depending on the time of harvest, species of the host tree and the manufacturing process. Among well-described and most active phytochemicals identified in V. album are lectins and viscotoxins, which play substantial role in cancer treatment because of their apoptotic and cytotoxic effects. Another group of compounds found in mistletoe are phenolic acids, phenylpropanoids and flavonoids with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, which decrease blood pressure. Other mistletoe components include, among others, triterpenes with cytotoxic and apoptotic properties, and phytosterols, oligo- and polysaccharides. Extracts from the plant, especially aqueous, are applied in traditional and official medicine, among others in treating hypertension or arthritis. Potentially, it can also be used as a hepatoprotective or a sedative drug.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Plant Extracts/pharmacology
Plant Extracts/therapeutic use
Viscum album/chemistry
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology
Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/therapeutic use
Antioxidants
Humans
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic); 0 (Antioxidants); 0 (Plant Extracts)
[Em] Entry month:1609
[Cu] Class update date: 160118
[Lr] Last revision date:160118
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:150328
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1080/14786419.2015.1022776

  9 / 52 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26625950
[Au] Autor:Petersen G; Cuenca A; Møller IM; Seberg O
[Ad] Address:Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Sølvgade 83, DK-1307 Copenhagen K, Denmark.
[Ti] Title:Massive gene loss in mistletoe (Viscum, Viscaceae) mitochondria.
[So] Source:Sci Rep;5:17588, 2015 Dec 02.
[Is] ISSN:2045-2322
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Parasitism is a successful survival strategy across all kingdoms and has evolved repeatedly in angiosperms. Parasitic plants obtain nutrients from other plants and some are agricultural pests. Obligate parasites, which cannot complete their lifecycle without a host, may lack functional photosystems (holoparasites), or have retained photosynthesis (hemiparasites). Plastid genomes are often reduced in parasites, but complete mitochondrial genomes have not been sequenced and their mitochondrial respiratory capacities are largely unknown. The hemiparasitic European mistletoe (Viscum album), known from folklore and postulated therapeutic properties, is a pest in plantations and forestry. We compare the mitochondrial genomes of three Viscum species based on the complete mitochondrial genome of V. album, the first from a parasitic plant. We show that mitochondrial genes encoding proteins of all respiratory complexes are lacking or pseudogenized raising several questions relevant to all parasitic plants: Are any mitochondrial gene functions essential? Do any genes need to be located in the mitochondrial genome or can they all be transferred to the nucleus? Can parasitic plants survive without oxidative phosphorylation by using alternative respiratory pathways? More generally, our study is a step towards understanding how host- and self-perception, host integration and nucleic acid transfer has modified ancestral mitochondrial genomes.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Genes, Mitochondrial
Genes, Plant
Mistletoe/genetics
Mitochondria/genetics
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Entry month:1609
[Cu] Class update date: 170220
[Lr] Last revision date:170220
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:151203
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1038/srep17588

  10 / 52 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26323940
[Au] Autor:Iloki-Assanga SB; Lewis-Luján LM; Lara-Espinoza CL; Gil-Salido AA; Fernandez-Angulo D; Rubio-Pino JL; Haines DD
[Ad] Address:Rubio Pharma y Asociados S.A. de C.V., Blvd. García Morales, Km. 6.5 # 330. El Llano, 83210, Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. ilokiasb@yahoo.com.
[Ti] Title:Solvent effects on phytochemical constituent profiles and antioxidant activities, using four different extraction formulations for analysis of Bucida buceras L. and Phoradendron californicum.
[So] Source:BMC Res Notes;8:396, 2015 Sep 01.
[Is] ISSN:1756-0500
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: The present investigation evaluated 4 different solvent compositions for their relative capacity to extract total phenolic and total flavonoid (TF) components of the leaves, trunks, and stems of Bucida buceras L. (Combretaceae), and the stems of Phoradendron californicum (Viscaceae), plus mesquite and oak species endemic to the Southwestern United States, northern Mexico, and tropical regions of Central and South America, as well as to profile the composition of these plant materials and to measure their antioxidant capacity. METHODS: The total phenolic content of plant material used in the present investigation was measured using the Folin-Ciocalteau assay. Total flavonoids were assayed by AlCl3 and 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazin colorimetry. Nitroblue tetrazolium was utilized for scavenging of superoxide anion, and in vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated using the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and Ferric Reducing/Antioxidant Power assays. RESULTS: Phytochemical screening of each plant extract evaluated revealed the following major results: (1) No evidence of alkaloids for each of the extraction phases tested was detected in the hexanic, ethanolic, or aqueous phases of Bucida buceras and Phoradendron californicum (oak and mesquite); (2) Analysis of the hexane phase of B. buceras and P. californicum (mesquite) extracts revealed the presence of carotenes, triterpenes/steroids, and lactonic groups; (3) Analysis of the ethanol and aqueous extraction phases for both plants revealed the presence of a diverse range of compounds, including tripterpenes/steroids, lactonics groups, saponins, phenols/tannins, amines and/or amino acids, and flavonoids/anthocyanins; and (4) The highest total phenolic and flavonoid content were observed in P. californicum (oak): 523.886 ± 51.457 µg GAE/mg extract and 409.651 ± 23.091 µg/mg of extract for methanol and aqueous fractions, respectively. The highest flavonoid content was 237.273 ± 21.250 µg PNE/mg extract in the acetone extract of Bucida buceras stems; while the flavonol content (260.685 ± 23.031 µg CE/mg extract) was higher in the ethanol extract of P. californicum (oak). The acetone extract of B. buceras trunk extract showed the highest levels of DPPH radical-scavenging activity (IC50 = 4.136 ± 0.446 µg/mL) and reducing power (4928.392 ± 281.427 µM AAE/mg extract). The highest superoxide radical scavenging activity (IC50) was 55.249 ± 9.829 µg/mL, observed in acetone extracts of B. buceras leaves. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present investigation demonstrated the effects of extraction solvent on phenolic and flavonoid content yield-and antioxidant activities by Bucida buceras and Phoradendron californicum. The present investigation further revealed that Bucida buceras exhibited optimal antioxidant capacity when acetone was used as extraction solvent; and the highest yield of phenols and flavonoids were obtained from the P. californicum oak, using methanol and aqueous solvents, respectively.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Antioxidants/pharmacology
Combretaceae/chemistry
Plant Extracts/chemistry
Solvents/chemistry
Viscaceae/chemistry
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Flavonoids/analysis
Phenols/analysis
Plant Structures/chemistry
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Antioxidants); 0 (Flavonoids); 0 (Phenols); 0 (Plant Extracts); 0 (Solvents)
[Em] Entry month:1606
[Cu] Class update date: 170220
[Lr] Last revision date:170220
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:150902
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s13104-015-1388-1


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