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[PMID]: 29496101
[Au] Autor:Michiels R; Van Mael E; Quinet C; Welby S; Cay AB; De Regge N
[Ad] Address:CODA-CERVA, Brussels, Belgium. Electronic address: rodolphe.michiels@coda-cerva.be.
[Ti] Title:Seroprevalence and risk factors related to small ruminant lentivirus infections in Belgian sheep and goats.
[So] Source:Prev Vet Med;151:13-20, 2018 Mar 01.
[Is] ISSN:1873-1716
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Maedi-Visna virus (MVV) and caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) are two prototype members of the group of small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs). Both result in progressive and persistent infections of sheep and goats that impact animal health and cause economic losses. In Belgium, the sheep and goat sector is small and consists mostly of hobbyist farmers keeping few animals. A voluntary control program however exists, but less than 2% of the farmers participate to the program. The current lack of SRLV seroprevalence data and knowledge on risk factors related to SRLV seropositivity in this hobbyist sector makes it difficult to evaluate the risk of SRLV transmission from non-certified to SRLV free certified farms. We performed a nationwide SRLV seroprevalence study based on a stratified sampling proportional to the number of sheep and goat holders per province. Randomly selected sheep and goat owners were invited to participate and subject to a short questionnaire to collect information about flock size, animal health condition, age, flock constitution and housing conditions. Samples were collected from maximum 7 animals per farm and tested in a commercial ELISA. In total, we received samples from 87 sheep and 76 goat farms. Sheep flocks showed an overall seroprevalence of 9% (CI : 5-15) and a between-herd seroprevalence of 17% (CI :11-27). Seroprevalence at animal level in goat flocks was 6% (CI : 3-12) and the between-herd seroprevalence was 13% (CI : 7-23). Multiple sheep and goat breeds were found SRLV seropositive. Answers provided during the questionnaire confirmed the mostly hobbyist nature of the sector and showed that more than 65% of sheep and goat farmers had never heard of the disease. The only risk factor found to be related to SRLV seroprevalence was flock size. Herds of more than 10 goats had significantly higher chance to harbor seropositive animals (OR: 4.36; CI: 1.07; 17.73). In conclusion, it was shown that participants to the SRLV free certification program are at risk for reintroduction of the disease in their herds since SRLVs are present on about 15%-20% of non-certified farms. Except from flock size, no clear risk factors were found that are helpfull to identify flocks at risk. Greater effort should be made to inform sheep and goat farmers about the existence and consequences of this disease in order to promote the voluntary control program and further reduce the disease prevalence.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180302
[Lr] Last revision date:180302
[St] Status:In-Process

  2 / 1046 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29127994
[Au] Autor:Arnarson H; Pálsson A; Gudnadóttir M; Andrésdóttir V
[Ad] Address:Department of Virology, National University Hospital, Ármúli 1a, 108 Reykjavik, Iceland; Institute for Experimental Pathology, University of Iceland, Keldur, Keldnavegi 3, 112 Reykjavik, Iceland.
[Ti] Title:Maedi-visna virus persistence: Antigenic variation and latency.
[So] Source:Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis;55:6-12, 2017 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1878-1667
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Maedi-visna virus (MVV), a lentivirus of sheep, shares with other lentiviruses the ability to establish a lifelong infection. In this study five sheep were infected intravenously with MVV and housed together with a number of uninfected sheep for natural transmission. All virus isolates from ten sheep that had been infected naturally had multiple mutations in the principal neutralization domain in Env and were antigenic variants, while three of four isolates from the carrier sheep had identical sequences to the infecting strain and were not antigenic variants. There was evidence of positive selection in the gene, particularly in amino acids comprising the neutralization epitope and some adjacent glycosylation sites. Together these results suggest that virus persistence is acquired by a reservoir of latent viruses, and that there is selection for antigenic variants of virus that is transmitted naturally.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1711
[Cu] Class update date: 171112
[Lr] Last revision date:171112
[St] Status:In-Process

  3 / 1046 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28642977
[Au] Autor:Kokawa S; Oba M; Hirata T; Tamaki S; Omura M; Tsuchiaka S; Nagai M; Omatsu T; Mizutani T
[Ad] Address:Faculty of Agriculture, Research and Education Center for Prevention of Global Infectious Diseases of Animals, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo, 183-8509, Japan.
[Ti] Title:Molecular characteristics and prevalence of small ruminant lentiviruses in goats in Japan.
[So] Source:Arch Virol;, 2017 Jun 22.
[Is] ISSN:1432-8798
[Cp] Country of publication:Austria
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs), which comprise caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) and maedi-visna virus (MVV), are prevalent in goats and sheep worldwide, including in Japan. However, little is known about the molecular characteristics of goat lentiviruses in Japan. In this study, a molecular and phylogenetic analysis of the long gag region was performed. The phylogenic tree demonstrated that all samples belonged to SRLV subtype B1. Two clusters were identified, with one cluster distinct from previously reported strains of subtype B1. In addition, several alterations in the amino acid sequence were detected in immunodominant epitopes of the gag region. To gain a deeper understanding of the genetic diversity of SRLVs in Japan, it will be necessary to increase the sample size and conduct a broader survey. The present report is important for establishing baseline information on the prevalence of SRLV in Japan and providing data to develop a new, more sensitive diagnostic test for effective control of SRLV.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1706
[Cu] Class update date: 170623
[Lr] Last revision date:170623
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00705-017-3447-5

  4 / 1046 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28438114
[Au] Autor:Highland MA
[Ad] Address:1 Animal Disease Research Unit, United States Department of Agriculture, Pullman, WA, USA.
[Ti] Title:Small Ruminant Lentiviruses: Strain Variation, Viral Tropism, and Host Genetics Influence Pathogenesis.
[So] Source:Vet Pathol;54(3):353-354, 2017 May.
[Is] ISSN:1544-2217
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1704
[Cu] Class update date: 170425
[Lr] Last revision date:170425
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1177/0300985817695517

  5 / 1046 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28216689
[Au] Autor:Heinrichs R; Wilkins W; Schroeder G; Campbell J
[Ad] Address:Living Skies Veterinary Services P.C. Ltd., Chaplin, Saskatchewan (Heinrichs); Government of Saskatchewan, Ministry of Agriculture Livestock Branch, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Wilkins); Saskatchewan Sheep Development Board, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Schroeder); Western College of Veterinary Medicine, S
[Ti] Title:Prevalence of Maedi-visna in Saskatchewan sheep.
[So] Source:Can Vet J;58(2):183-186, 2017 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:0008-5286
[Cp] Country of publication:Canada
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:A study was conducted to estimate flock and individual seroprevalence of Maedi-visna in Saskatchewan and evaluate risk factors for seropositive flocks. Thirty-five percent (24/68) of flocks and 4.6% (93/2010) of individual samples were positive. Within-flock prevalence ranged from 3.3% to 96.7%. Significant flock-level predictors of flock prevalence included large flock size, purchasing > 50 sheep and respiratory problems in the previous 5 years.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Antibodies, Viral/blood
Pneumonia, Progressive Interstitial, of Sheep/virology
Visna-maedi virus/immunology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Female
Male
Pneumonia, Progressive Interstitial, of Sheep/epidemiology
Prevalence
Saskatchewan/epidemiology
Seroepidemiologic Studies
Sheep
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Antibodies, Viral)
[Em] Entry month:1709
[Cu] Class update date: 170913
[Lr] Last revision date:170913
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170221
[St] Status:MEDLINE

  6 / 1046 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28113037
[Au] Autor:Pinczowski P; Sanjosé L; Gimeno M; Crespo H; Glaria I; Amorena B; de Andrés D; Pérez M; Reina R; Luján L
[Ad] Address:1 Department of Animal Pathology, University of Zaragoza, Spain.
[Ti] Title:Small Ruminant Lentiviruses in Sheep: Pathology and Tropism of 2 Strains Using the Bone Marrow Route.
[So] Source:Vet Pathol;54(3):413-424, 2017 May.
[Is] ISSN:1544-2217
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The objective of this work was to comparatively study the tissue tropism and the associated pathology of 2 autochthonous small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) field strains using an experimental infection in sheep through the bone marrow. Fifteen male, SRLV-free lambs of the Rasa Aragonesa breed were inoculated with strain 697 (nervous tissue origin, animals A1-A6), with strain 496 (articular origin, animals B1-B6), or with uninfected culture medium (C1-C3). Clinical, serologic, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) evaluations were performed periodically. Two lambs from each infected group and a control animal were euthanized at 134, 273, and 319 days postinfection. Tissues were analyzed by gross and histopathologic evaluation; immunohistochemistry for CD3, CD4, CD8, CD68, and FoxP3 cell markers; lung morphometric evaluation; and tissue proviral quantification by PCR. All infected animals became positive either by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and/or PCR, with group B lambs showing the highest serologic values and more consistently positive PCR reactions. Group A lambs showed representative lung lesions but only mild histopathologic changes in the central nervous system (CNS) or in carpal joints. Contrarily, group B lambs demonstrated intense carpal arthritis and interstitial pneumonia but an absence of lesions in the CNS. Proviral copies in tissues were detected only in group B lambs. Experimental infection with these SRLV strains indicates that strain 496 is more virulent than strain 697 and more prone to induce arthritis, whereas strain 697 is more likely to reproduce encephalitis in Rasa Aragonesa lambs. Host factors as well as viral factors are responsible for the final clinicopathologic picture during SRLV infections.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Bone Marrow/virology
Lentivirus Infections/veterinary
Lentiviruses, Ovine-Caprine/pathogenicity
Viral Tropism
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Bone Marrow/pathology
Central Nervous System/pathology
Central Nervous System/virology
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary
Joints/pathology
Joints/virology
Lentivirus Infections/pathology
Lentivirus Infections/virology
Lung/pathology
Lung/virology
Male
Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary
Sheep/virology
Viral Tropism/physiology
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1711
[Cu] Class update date: 171113
[Lr] Last revision date:171113
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170124
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1177/0300985816688742

  7 / 1046 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28107881
[Au] Autor:Thomann B; Falzon LC; Bertoni G; Vogt HR; Schüpbach-Regula G; Magouras I
[Ad] Address:Veterinary Public Health Institute, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Schwarzenburgstrasse 155, 3097 Liebefeld, Switzerland. Electronic address: beat.thomann@vetsuisse.unibe.ch.
[Ti] Title:A census to determine the prevalence and risk factors for caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus and visna/maedi virus in the Swiss goat population.
[So] Source:Prev Vet Med;137(Pt A):52-58, 2017 Feb 01.
[Is] ISSN:1873-1716
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:In Switzerland, viruses belonging to two different phylogenetic groups of small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) are currently circulating: the caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) and visna/maedi virus (VMV). In the past two decades, a mandatory national control program has led to a very low prevalence of seropositivity, while completely eliminating CAE as a clinical manifestation. However, in order to reduce the high costs and effort associated with this program, adjustments based on the most recent epidemiological knowledge are needed. The purpose of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of CAEV and VMV using the newest diagnostic tools available, and to identify potential risk factors for infection with these viruses in Switzerland. For the prevalence estimation, a census was carried out including 10,696 farms with a total of 85,454 goats. Blood samples were analysed using a 3-step serological testing algorithm consisting of Chekit ELISA, Western Blot and SU5 ELISA. A risk factor analysis was conducted using logistic regression models built with data obtained from a mail questionnaire, and serological results from the census. The apparent herd-level prevalences were 0.38%, 2.77%, and 3.04% for CAEV, VMV and SRLV, respectively. Animal-level prevalences were 0.06% for CAEV, 0.55% for VMV, and 0.61% for SRLV. No statistically significant risk factors associated with CAEV or VMV infection were identified. However, the proportional high number of CAEV seropositive dwarf goats, in relation to their population size, could indicate that these hobby breeds may slip through some of the official controls. For an infection with SRLV, a medium herd size (7-40 goats) was found to be protective, compared with smaller (OR=1.90, p=0.034) and larger herds (OR=1.95, p=0.038). In conclusion, considering that all CAEV positive animals were culled, these results imply that CAEV is no longer actively spreading and has successfully been controlled in Switzerland. However, given the uncertain pathogenic potential of VMV in goats, future surveillance should also be taking into account the not insignificant number of VMV circulating in the Swiss goat population.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus, Caprine
Goat Diseases/epidemiology
Lentivirus Infections/veterinary
Pneumonia, Progressive Interstitial, of Sheep/epidemiology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Female
Goat Diseases/etiology
Goat Diseases/virology
Goats/virology
Lentivirus Infections/epidemiology
Lentivirus Infections/etiology
Male
Pneumonia, Progressive Interstitial, of Sheep/etiology
Pneumonia, Progressive Interstitial, of Sheep/virology
Prevalence
Risk Factors
Seroepidemiologic Studies
Sheep
Switzerland/epidemiology
Visna-maedi virus
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1705
[Cu] Class update date: 170517
[Lr] Last revision date:170517
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170122
[St] Status:MEDLINE

  8 / 1046 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28059770
[Au] Autor:Ballandras-Colas A; Maskell DP; Serrao E; Locke J; Swuec P; Jónsson SR; Kotecha A; Cook NJ; Pye VE; Taylor IA; Andrésdóttir V; Engelman AN; Costa A; Cherepanov P
[Ad] Address:Chromatin Structure and Mobile DNA, The Francis Crick Institute, London, NW1 1AT, UK.
[Ti] Title:A supramolecular assembly mediates lentiviral DNA integration.
[So] Source:Science;355(6320):93-95, 2017 01 06.
[Is] ISSN:1095-9203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Retroviral integrase (IN) functions within the intasome nucleoprotein complex to catalyze insertion of viral DNA into cellular chromatin. Using cryo-electron microscopy, we now visualize the functional maedi-visna lentivirus intasome at 4.9 angstrom resolution. The intasome comprises a homo-hexadecamer of IN with a tetramer-of-tetramers architecture featuring eight structurally distinct types of IN protomers supporting two catalytically competent subunits. The conserved intasomal core, previously observed in simpler retroviral systems, is formed between two IN tetramers, with a pair of C-terminal domains from flanking tetramers completing the synaptic interface. Our results explain how HIV-1 IN, which self-associates into higher-order multimers, can form a functional intasome, reconcile the bulk of early HIV-1 IN biochemical and structural data, and provide a lentiviral platform for design of HIV-1 IN inhibitors.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: HIV Integrase/chemistry
HIV-1/chemistry
Virus Integration
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Catalytic Domain
Cryoelectron Microscopy
DNA, Viral/chemistry
DNA, Viral/ultrastructure
Drug Design
HIV Integrase/ultrastructure
HIV Integrase Inhibitors/chemistry
HIV-1/enzymology
HIV-1/ultrastructure
Humans
Models, Molecular
Protein Domains
Static Electricity
Virus Assembly
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (DNA, Viral); 0 (HIV Integrase Inhibitors); 0 (p31 integrase protein, Human immunodeficiency virus 1); EC 2.7.7.- (HIV Integrase)
[Em] Entry month:1708
[Cu] Class update date: 170802
[Lr] Last revision date:170802
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170107
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1126/science.aah7002

  9 / 1046 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 27795464
[Au] Autor:Suzuki K; Oguma K; Sentsui H
[Ad] Address:Laboratory of Veterinary Epizootiology, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Nihon University, 1866 Kameino, Fujisawa, Kanagawa 252-0880, Japan.
[Ti] Title:Preparation of a cell line persistently infected with maedi/visna virus and production of viral antigens.
[So] Source:J Vet Med Sci;79(1):141-143, 2017 Jan 20.
[Is] ISSN:1347-7439
[Cp] Country of publication:Japan
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:We attempted to prepare a cell line that produces maedi/visna virus (MVV) and is free of contamination by other viruses and mycoplasmas. Three cell lines, which originated from a sheep, goat and bat, were infected with MVV and passaged approximately every 5 days. The cultured cells were then subjected to polymerase chain reaction analysis for MVV provirus. As a result, a cell line persistently infected with MVV was established from ZZ-R cells, which originated from the fetal goat tongue. The 50-fold concentrated culture fluid formed a precipitation line against reference antiserum.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Antigens, Viral/biosynthesis
Cell Line/virology
Visna-maedi virus/physiology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Cell Line/immunology
Chiroptera
Goats
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Sheep
Visna-maedi virus/immunology
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Antigens, Viral)
[Em] Entry month:1711
[Cu] Class update date: 171109
[Lr] Last revision date:171109
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:161101
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1292/jvms.16-0340

  10 / 1046 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 27193350
[Au] Autor:Yoshikawa R; Izumi T; Nakano Y; Yamada E; Moriwaki M; Misawa N; Ren F; Kobayashi T; Koyanagi Y; Sato K
[Ad] Address:Laboratory of Viral Pathogenesis, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto 6068507.
[Ti] Title:Small ruminant lentiviral Vif proteins commonly utilize cyclophilin A, an evolutionarily and structurally conserved protein, to degrade ovine and caprine APOBEC3 proteins.
[So] Source:Microbiol Immunol;60(6):427-36, 2016 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1348-0421
[Cp] Country of publication:Australia
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Mammals have co-evolved with retroviruses, including lentiviruses, over a long period. Evidence supporting this contention is that viral infectivity factor (Vif) encoded by lentiviruses antagonizes the anti-viral action of cellular apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3) of the host. To orchestrate E3 ubiquitin ligase complex for APOBEC3 degradation, Vifs utilize mammalian proteins such as core-binding factor beta (CBFB; for primate lentiviruses) or cyclophilin A (CYPA; for Maedi-Visna virus [MVV]). However, the co-evolutionary relationship between lentiviral Vif and the mammalian proteins associated with Vif-mediated APOBEC3 degradation is poorly understood. Moreover, it is unclear whether Vif proteins of small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs), including MVV and caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV), commonly utilize CYPA to degrade the APOBEC3 of their hosts. In this study, molecular phylogenetic and protein homology modeling revealed that Vif co-factors are evolutionarily and structurally conserved. It was also found that not only MVV but also CAEV Vifs degrade APOBEC3 of both sheep and goats and that CAEV Vifs interact with CYPA. These findings suggest that lentiviral Vifs chose evolutionarily and structurally stable proteins as their partners (e.g., CBFB or CYPA) for APOBEC3 degradation and, particularly, that SRLV Vifs evolved to utilize CYPA as their co-factor in degradation of ovine and caprine APOBEC3.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus, Caprine/genetics
Cyclophilin A/genetics
Cyclophilin A/metabolism
Cytidine Deaminase/metabolism
Gene Products, vif/genetics
Gene Products, vif/metabolism
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus, Caprine/metabolism
Cells, Cultured
Core Binding Factor beta Subunit/genetics
Core Binding Factor beta Subunit/metabolism
Cyclophilins/genetics
Cyclophilins/metabolism
Cytidine Deaminase/genetics
Evolution, Molecular
Goats
HEK293 Cells
Host-Pathogen Interactions
Humans
Interleukin-2/genetics
Phylogeny
Sheep
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Core Binding Factor beta Subunit); 0 (Gene Products, vif); 0 (Interleukin-2); 137497-17-7 (cyclophilin B); EC 3.5.4.5 (Cytidine Deaminase); EC 5.2.1.- (Cyclophilin A); EC 5.2.1.- (Cyclophilins)
[Em] Entry month:1704
[Cu] Class update date: 170420
[Lr] Last revision date:170420
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:160520
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/1348-0421.12387


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