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[PMID]: 28843911
[Au] Autor:Öztürk E; Arslan AKK; Yerer MB; Bishayee A
[Ad] Address:Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Erciyes, 38039 Kayseri, Turkey. Electronic address: ecz_ebru_ozturk@hotmail.com.
[Ti] Title:Resveratrol and diabetes: A critical review of clinical studies.
[So] Source:Biomed Pharmacother;95:230-234, 2017 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1950-6007
[Cp] Country of publication:France
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia. The disease results from the defects of insulin secretion and/or action. Resveratrol is a non-flavonoid polyphenol that naturally occurs as phytoalexin. The shell and stem of Vitis vinifera L. (Vitaceae) are the richest source of this compound. In addition to various in vitro and in vivo studies revealing the effectiveness of resveratrol in DM, there are many clinical trials indicating that resveratrol has the potential to benefit in DM patients. The therapeutic action of this compound in relation to diabetes is complex and involves in several beneficial roles. In view of this, clinical studies are necessary to elucidate these roles. In the near future, the use of resveratrol, alone or in combination with current anti-diabetic therapies, might be a conventional approach to effectively manage DM or its complications. This mini-review provides a critical overview of currently available clinical studies examining the effects of resveratrol in DM last decade.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1708
[Cu] Class update date: 171024
[Lr] Last revision date:171024
[St] Status:In-Process

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[PMID]: 28395572
[Au] Autor:Yum MJ; Koppula S; Kim JS; Shin GM; Chae YJ; Yoon T; Chun CS; Lee JD; Song M
[Ad] Address:a Department of Applied Life Science , Graduate School of Konkuk University , Chungju-si , Chungcheongbuk-do , South Korea.
[Ti] Title:Protective effects of Ampelopsis brevipedunculata against in vitro hepatic stellate cells system and thioacetamide-induced liver fibrosis rat model.
[So] Source:Pharm Biol;55(1):1577-1585, 2017 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1744-5116
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:CONTEXT: Ampelopsis brevipedunculata Maxim (Vitaceae) is a traditional medicinal herb used for treating liver disorders. OBJECTIVE: The hepatoprotective effects of A. brevipedunculata ethanol extract (ABE) was investigated in experimental models of fibrosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) system in vitro and thioacetamide (TAA)-induced liver fibrosis rat model in vivo were used. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups of eight each (control, TAA, TAA with ABE 10 mg/kg, ABE 100 mg/kg and silymarin 50 mg/kg groups, respectively). Fibrosis was induced except to the control group by TAA (200 mg/kg, i.p.) twice per week for 13 weeks. ABE and silymarin was administered orally six times per week from the 7th week to the 13th week. RESULTS: In HSC-T6 cells, ABE (0.1 mg/mL) and silymarin (0.05 mg/mL) significantly (p < 0.01) induced apoptosis (12.94 ± 5.72% and 14.9 ± 3.8%, respectively) compared with control group (7.51 ± 1.26%). The expression of fibrosis related genes (TGF-ß, α-SMA and Col1A1) in HSC-T6 cells were significantly (p < 0.01) downregulated in ABE-treated groups compared with control group. In in vivo studies, ABE (10 and 100 mg/kg) treatment ameliorated the altered levels of serum biomarkers significantly (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001) in TAA-induced groups. Further, ABE (10 and 100 mg/kg) significantly (p < 0.01) attenuated the altered histopathological findings, glutathione content and the accumulation of hydroxyproline. CONCLUSION: These results collectively indicate that ABE can potentially be developed as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of hepatic fibrosis.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Ampelopsis/chemistry
Hepatic Stellate Cells/drug effects
Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental/drug therapy
Plant Extracts/pharmacology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Actins/genetics
Animals
Apoptosis/drug effects
Collagen Type I/genetics
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Down-Regulation/drug effects
Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental/genetics
Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental/pathology
Male
Plant Extracts/administration & dosage
Rats
Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Silymarin/pharmacology
Thioacetamide/toxicity
Transforming Growth Factor beta/genetics
[Pt] Publication type:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Actins); 0 (Collagen Type I); 0 (Plant Extracts); 0 (Silymarin); 0 (Transforming Growth Factor beta); 0 (collagen type I, alpha 1 chain); 0 (smooth muscle actin, rat); 075T165X8M (Thioacetamide)
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171004
[Lr] Last revision date:171004
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170411
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1080/13880209.2017.1311928

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[PMID]: 28941016
[Au] Autor:Lin CH; Chan HS; Tsay HS; Funayama S; Kuo CL; Chung JG
[Ad] Address:Department of Chinese Pharmaceutical Sciences and Chinese Medicine Resources, China Medical University, Taichung, 404, Taiwan.
[Ti] Title:Ethyl acetate fraction from methanol extraction of Vitis thunbergii var. taiwaniana induced G /G phase arrest via inhibition of cyclins D and E and induction of apoptosis through caspase-dependent and -independent pathways in human prostate carcinoma DU145 cells.
[So] Source:Environ Toxicol;, 2017 Sep 22.
[Is] ISSN:1522-7278
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Vitis thunbergii var. taiwaniana (VTT) is a wild grape native to Taiwan, belonging to the Vitaceae family and Vitis genus, and widely used as folk herbal medicine. It is traditionally used for the treatment of diarrhea, hypertension, neuroprotection, jaundice, and arthritis. We used the wild-collected VTT and sterilized them to establish the plant tissue culture, and then took the leaves for DNA sequencing to determine its original base. We use methanol to extract VTT in four different solvents: 1-butanol, n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and water. These four preliminary extracts were used to treat human prostate cancer DU145 cells in vitro. We use the flow cytometry to check the cell survival situation. Finally, we found the ethyl acetate layer roughing product (referred VTEA) in human prostate cancer apoptotic effects of cell line DU-145. In the present studies, we use the crude extract of VTT to examine whether or not it can induce apoptosis of DU145 cells in vitro. Viability assays for extracts of VTT treatment showed that it had dose-dependent effect on human prostate cancer DU145 cells. We also found that the extract of VTT induces time-dependent mitochondrial and intrinsic-dependent apoptosis pathways. The in vitro cytotoxic effects were investigated by cell cycle analysis and the determination of apoptotic DNA fragmentation in DU145 cells. The cell cycle analysis showed that extracts of VTT induced a significant increase in the number of cells in G /G phase. The extract of VTT induced chromatin changes and apoptosis of DU145 cells also were confirmed by DAPI and PI staining that were measured by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry, respectively. Finally, the expression of relevant proteins was analyzed by Western blot analysis. These results promoted us to further evaluate apoptosis associated proteins and elucidate the possible signal pathway in DU-145 cells after treated with the extract of VTT.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1709
[Cu] Class update date: 170923
[Lr] Last revision date:170923
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1002/tox.22491

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[PMID]: 28441516
[Au] Autor:Ibrahim A; Sørensen D; Jenkins HA; Ejim L; Capretta A; Sumarah MW
[Ad] Address:Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4M1, Canada.
[Ti] Title:Epoxynemanione A, nemanifuranones A-F, and nemanilactones A-C, from Nemania serpens, an endophytic fungus isolated from Riesling grapevines.
[So] Source:Phytochemistry;140:16-26, 2017 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1873-3700
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Ten polyketide specialized metabolites, epoxynemanione A, nemanifuranones A-F, and nemanilactones A-C, were isolated from the culture filtrate of Nemania serpens (Pers.) Grey (1821), an endophytic fungus from a Riesling grapevine (Vitis vinifera) found in Canada's Niagara region. Additionally, four known metabolites 2-(hydroxymethyl)-3-methoxy-benzoic acid, phyllostine, 5-methylmellein and a nordammarane triterpenoid were isolated. A related known metabolite 2,3-dihydro-2-hydroxy-2,4-dimethyl-5-trans-propenylfuran-3-one has also been included for structural and biological comparison to the nemanifuranones. The latter was isolated from the culture filtrates of Mollisia nigrescens, an endophytic fungus from the leaves and stems of lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) found in the Acadian forest of Nova Scotia, Canada. Their structures were elucidated based on 1D and 2D NMR, HRESIMS measurements, X-ray crystallographic analysis of nemanifuranone A, the nordammarane triterpenoid and 2,3-dihydro-2-hydroxy-2,4-dimethyl-5-trans-propenylfuran-3-one compounds, and comparison of NOE and vicinal H- H coupling constants to literature data for relative stereochemical assignments. Nemanifuranone A possesses a rare C2 hemiacetal and was active against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Polyketides/chemistry
Vitis/microbiology
Xylariales/chemistry
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry
Anti-Bacterial Agents/isolation & purification
Antifungal Agents/chemistry
Antifungal Agents/isolation & purification
Canada
Endophytes/chemistry
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Molecular Structure
Plant Leaves/microbiology
Plant Stems/microbiology
Polyketides/isolation & purification
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents); 0 (Antifungal Agents); 0 (Polyketides)
[Em] Entry month:1707
[Cu] Class update date: 170717
[Lr] Last revision date:170717
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170425
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 28614988
[Au] Autor:Liu L; Sun S; Rui H; Li X
[Ad] Address:a Department of Endocrinology , Seventh People's Hospital of Shanghai University of TCM , Shanghai , China.
[Ti] Title:In vitro inhibitory effects of dihydromyricetin on human liver cytochrome P450 enzymes.
[So] Source:Pharm Biol;55(1):1868-1874, 2017 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1744-5116
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:CONTEXT: Dihydromyricetin (DHM) is the most abundant and active flavonoid component isolated from Ampelopsis grossedentata (Hand-Mazz) W.T. Wang (Vitaceae) and it possesses numerous pharmacological activities. However, whether DHM affects the activity of human liver cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes remains unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The inhibitory effects of DHM on eight human liver CYP isoforms (i.e., 1A2, 3A4, 2A6, 2E1, 2D6, 2C9, 2C19 and 2C8) were investigated in vitro using human liver microsomes (HLMs). RESULTS: The results showed that DHM could inhibit the activity of CYP3A4, CYP2E1 and CYP2D6, with IC values of 14.75, 25.74 and 22.69 µM, respectively, but that other CYP isoforms were not affected. Enzyme kinetic studies showed that DHM was not only a non-competitive inhibitor of CYP3A4 but also a competitive inhibitor of CYP2E1 and CYP2D6, with Ki values of 6.06, 9.24 and 10.52 µM, respectively. In addition, DHM is a time-dependent inhibitor for CYP3A4 with K /K value of 12.17/0.057 min µM . DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The in vitro studies of DHM with CYP isoforms indicate that DHM has the potential to cause pharmacokinetic drug interactions with other co-administered drugs metabolized by CYP3A4, CYP2E1 and CYP2D6. Further clinical studies are needed to evaluate the significance of this interaction.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1706
[Cu] Class update date: 170615
[Lr] Last revision date:170615
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1080/13880209.2017.1339284

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[PMID]: 28491066
[Au] Autor:Habib S; Dang VC; Ickert-Bond SM; Zhang JL; Lu LM; Wen J; Chen ZD
[Ad] Address:State Key Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijing, China.
[Ti] Title:Robust Phylogeny of (Vitaceae) Based on Ten Plastid DNA Regions: Implications for Infrageneric Classification and Seed Character Evolution.
[So] Source:Front Plant Sci;8:590, 2017.
[Cp] Country of publication:Switzerland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:(Miq.) Planch. is one of the most species-rich genera of the economically and agronomically important grape family Vitaceae. It includes ca. 95 species widely distributed in the tropics and subtropics of Asia and Australia. Species of exhibit great diversity in both vegetative and reproductive characters. Here we inferred a well-supported phylogeny of based on ten chloroplast DNA regions with an expanded taxon sampling of 72 species and two varieties. Our molecular results support six major clades within and the relationships among these clades were well-resolved. We also documented seed morphology of 44 species covering the six major clades of the genus. Ancestral states of eight characters (seed shape, seed surface rumination pattern, chalaza length/width ratio, chalaza position, ventral infold position, ventral infold divergence, ventral infold depth in cross section, and endosperm shape) were reconstructed in Mesquite and R with four models. Character optimizations suggest that all character states have evolved multiple times except that the irregular-shaped surface rumination has derived only once in . We evaluated the taxonomic importance of seed morphology and identified potential morphological evidence to support each major clade. Our comprehensive analyses of shed insights into the infrageneric classification of this morphologically diverse and ecologically important genus in tropical and subtropical Asia.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1705
[Cu] Class update date: 170514
[Lr] Last revision date:170514
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.3389/fpls.2017.00590

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[PMID]: 28291597
[Au] Autor:Giacomuzzi V; Cappellin L; Nones S; Khomenko I; Biasioli F; Knight AL; Angeli S
[Ad] Address:Faculty of Science and Technology, Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Piazza Università 5, 39100 Bolzano, Italy.
[Ti] Title:Diel rhythms in the volatile emission of apple and grape foliage.
[So] Source:Phytochemistry;138:104-115, 2017 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1873-3700
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:This study investigated the diel emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from intact apple (Malus x domestica Borkh., cv. Golden Delicious) and grape (Vitis vinifera L., cv. Pinot Noir) foliage. Volatiles were monitored continuously for 48 h by proton transfer reaction - time of flight - mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS). In addition, volatiles were collected by closed-loop-stripping-analysis (CLSA) and characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after 1 h and again 24 and 48 h later. Fourteen and ten volatiles were characterized by GC-MS in apple and grape, respectively. The majority of these were terpenes, followed by green leaf volatiles, and aromatic compounds. The PTR-ToF-MS identified 10 additional compounds and established their diel emission rhythms. The most abundant volatiles displaying a diel rhythm included methanol and dimethyl sulfide in both plants, acetone in grape, and mono-, homo- and sesquiterpenes in apple. The majority of volatiles were released from both plants during the photophase; whereas methanol, CO , methyl-butenol and benzeneacetaldehyde were released at significantly higher levels during the scotophase. Acetaldehyde, ethanol, and some green leaf volatiles showed distinct emission bursts in both plants following the daily light switch-off. These new results obtained with a combined analytical approach broaden our understanding of the rhythms of constitutive volatile release from two important horticultural crops. In particular, diel emission of sulfur and nitrogen-containing volatiles are reported here for the first time in these two crops.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Circadian Rhythm
Malus/chemistry
Vitis/chemistry
Volatile Organic Compounds/analysis
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Plant Leaves/chemistry
Terpenes/analysis
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Terpenes); 0 (Volatile Organic Compounds)
[Em] Entry month:1705
[Cu] Class update date: 170501
[Lr] Last revision date:170501
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170314
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 28367159
[Au] Autor:Klein LL; Caito M; Chapnick C; Kitchen C; O'Hanlon R; Chitwood DH; Miller AJ
[Ad] Address:Department of Biology, Saint Louis University, St. LouisMO, USA; Science and Conservation Department, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. LouisMO, USA.
[Ti] Title:Digital Morphometrics of Two North American Grapevines ( : Vitaceae) Quantifies Leaf Variation between Species, within Species, and among Individuals.
[So] Source:Front Plant Sci;8:373, 2017.
[Cp] Country of publication:Switzerland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Recent studies have demonstrated that grapevine ( spp.) leaf shape can be quantified using digital approaches which indicate phylogenetic signal in leaf shape, discernible patterns of developmental context within single leaves, and signatures of local environmental conditions. Here, we extend this work by quantifying intra-individual, intraspecific, and interspecific variation in leaf morphology in accessions of North American and in a common environment. For each species at least four clonal replicates of multiple genotypes were grown in the Missouri Botanical Garden Kemper Center for Home Gardening. All leaves from a single shoot were harvested and scanned leaf images were used to conduct generalized Procrustes analysis, linear discriminant analysis, and elliptical Fourier analysis. Leaf shapes displayed genotype-specific signatures and species distinctions consistent with taxonomic classifications. Leaf shape variation within genotypes and among clones was the result of pest and pathogen-induced leaf damage that alters leaf morphology. Significant trends in leaf damage caused by disease and infestation were non-random with respect to leaf position on the shoot. Digital morphometrics is a powerful tool for assessing leaf shape variation among species, genotypes, and clones under common conditions and suggests biotic factors such as pests and pathogens as important drivers influencing leaf shape.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1704
[Cu] Class update date: 170406
[Lr] Last revision date:170406
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.3389/fpls.2017.00373

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[PMID]: 28250182
[Au] Autor:Fukano Y
[Ad] Address:Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1, Midoricho, Nishitokyo, Tokyo, Japan yuya.fukano@gmail.com.
[Ti] Title:Vine tendrils use contact chemoreception to avoid conspecific leaves.
[So] Source:Proc Biol Sci;284(1850), 2017 Mar 15.
[Is] ISSN:1471-2954
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Movement and growth habit of climbing plants have attracted attention since the time of Charles Darwin; however, there are no reports on whether plants can choose suitable hosts or avoid unsuitable ones based on chemoreception. Here, I show that the tendrils of (Vitaceae) appear to avoid conspecific leaves using contact chemoreception for oxalates, which are highly concentrated in leaves. The coiling experiments show that has a flexible plastic response to avoid coiling around conspecific leaves. The coiling response is negatively correlated with the oxalate content in the contacted leaves. Experiments using laboratory chemicals indicate that the tendrils avoid oxalate-coated plastic sticks. These results indicate that the tendrils of avoid coiling around a conspecific leaf based on contact chemoreception for oxalate compounds. The tendrils of climbing plants may function as a chemoreceptor system to detect the chemical cues of a contacted plant.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1703
[Cu] Class update date: 170403
[Lr] Last revision date:170403
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

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[PMID]: 27998613
[Au] Autor:Murcia G; Fontana A; Pontin M; Baraldi R; Bertazza G; Piccoli PN
[Ad] Address:Instituto de Biología Agrícola de Mendoza, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, CONICET-UNCuyo, A. Brown 500, 5507 Chacras de Coria, Argentina. Electronic address: gmurcia@fca.uncu.edu.ar.
[Ti] Title:ABA and GA regulate the synthesis of primary and secondary metabolites related to alleviation from biotic and abiotic stresses in grapevine.
[So] Source:Phytochemistry;135:34-52, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1873-3700
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Plants are able to synthesize a large number of organic compounds. Among them, primary metabolites are known to participate in plant growth and development, whereas secondary metabolites are mostly involved in defense and other facultative processes. In grapevine, one of the major fruit crops in the world, secondary metabolites, mainly polyphenols, are of great interest for the wine industry. Even though there is an extensive literature on the content and profile of those compounds in berries, scarce or no information is available regarding polyphenols in other organs. In addition, little is known about the effect of plant growth regulators (PGRs), ABA and GA (extensively used in table grapes) on the synthesis of primary and secondary metabolites in wine grapes. In table grapes, cultural practices include the use of GA sprays shortly before veraison, to increase berry and bunch size, and sugar content in fruits. Meanwhile, ABA applications to the berries on pre-veraison improve the skin coloring and sugar accumulation, anticipating the onset of veraison. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to assess and characterize primary and secondary metabolites in leaves, berries and roots of grapevine plants cv. Malbec at veraison, and changes in compositions after ABA and GA aerial sprayings. Metabolic profiling was conducted using GC-MS, GC-FID and HPLC-MWD. A large set of metabolites was identified: sugars, alditols, organic acids, amino acids, polyphenols (flavonoids and non-flavonoids) and terpenes (mono-, sesqui-, di- and triterpenes). The obtained results showed that ABA applications elicited synthesis of mono- and sesquiterpenes in all assessed tissues, as well as L-proline, acidic amino acids and anthocyanins in leaves. Additionally, applications with GA elicited synthesis of L-proline in berries, and mono- and sesquiterpenes in all the tissues. However, treatment with GA seemed to block polyphenol synthesis, mainly in berries. In conclusion, ABA and GA applications to grapevine plants cv. Malbec influenced the synthesis of primary and secondary metabolites known to be essential for coping with biotic and abiotic stresses.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Abscisic Acid/metabolism
Gibberellins/metabolism
Plant Growth Regulators/metabolism
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Abscisic Acid/chemistry
Anthocyanins/metabolism
Flavonoids/analysis
Fruit/chemistry
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Gibberellins/chemistry
Molecular Structure
Plant Leaves/metabolism
Polyphenols/analysis
Proline/metabolism
Vitis/metabolism
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Anthocyanins); 0 (Flavonoids); 0 (Gibberellins); 0 (Plant Growth Regulators); 0 (Polyphenols); 72S9A8J5GW (Abscisic Acid); 9DLQ4CIU6V (Proline); BU0A7MWB6L (gibberellic acid)
[Em] Entry month:1703
[Cu] Class update date: 170316
[Lr] Last revision date:170316
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:161221
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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