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[PMID]: 29524041
[Au] Autor:Georgilas I; Dagnino G; Tarassoli P; Atkins R; Dogramadzi S
[Ad] Address:Bristol Robotics Laboratory, University of the West of England, Coldharbour Lane, Bristol, BS161QY, UK. i.georgilas@bath.ac.uk.
[Ti] Title:Robot-Assisted Fracture Surgery: Surgical Requirements and System Design.
[So] Source:Ann Biomed Eng;, 2018 Mar 09.
[Is] ISSN:1573-9686
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The design of medical devices is a complex and crucial process to ensure patient safety. It has been shown that improperly designed devices lead to errors and associated accidents and costs. A key element for a successful design is incorporating the views of the primary and secondary stakeholders early in the development process. They provide insights into current practice and point out specific issues with the current processes and equipment in use. This work presents how information from a user-study conducted in the early stages of the RAFS (Robot Assisted Fracture Surgery) project informed the subsequent development and testing of the system. The user needs were captured using qualitative methods and converted to operational, functional, and non-functional requirements based on the methods derived from product design and development. This work presents how the requirements inform a new workflow for intra-articular joint fracture reduction using a robotic system. It is also shown how the various elements of the system are developed to explicitly address one or more of the requirements identified, and how intermediate verification tests are conducted to ensure conformity. Finally, a validation test in the form of a cadaveric trial confirms the ability of the designed system to satisfy the aims set by the original research question and the needs of the users.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1007/s10439-018-2005-y

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[PMID]: 29523412
[Au] Autor:Diranzo-García J; Bertó-Martí X; Castillo-Ruiperez L; Estrems-Díaz V; Hernández-Ferrando L; Villodre-Jiménez J; Bru-Pomer A
[Ad] Address:Servicio de Cirugía Ortopédica y Traumatología, Consorcio Hospital General Universitario de Valencia, Valencia, España. Electronic address: pdiranzo@gmail.com.
[Ti] Title:Tratamiento de las fracturas intraarticulares de calcáneo mediante placa de reconstrucción. Resultados y complicaciones de 86 fracturas. Treatment of intraarticular calcaneal fractures by reconstruction plate. Results and complications of 86 fractures.
[So] Source:Rev Esp Cir Ortop Traumatol;, 2018 Mar 06.
[Is] ISSN:1988-8856
[Cp] Country of publication:Spain
[La] Language:eng; spa
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the results of surgical treatment of intraarticular calcaneal fractures, and also to analyze the variables that influence the final clinical and radiological outcomes as well as the complications. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 86 intraarticular calcaneal fractures in 78 patients, who underwent surgery with an extended lateral approach and reconstruction plate. The mean age was 48 years (16-74 years) and the mean follow-up was 4.6 years (9-99 months); 54 patients (69.2%) suffered falls from less than 3m in height or banal injuries and 24 patients (30.8%) falls from more than 3m in height or high energy-accidents. According to the Sanders classification we operated 12 (15%) typeII, 54 (62.8%) typeIII and 20 (23.2%) typeIV fractures. RESULTS: The postoperative mean AOFAS score was 73.9 points, with good or excellent results in 57% of the patients. Twelve cases (14%) suffered surgical wound complications and 11 (12.8%) required subtalar arthrodesis. Significantly better results were obtained in the patients younger than 30 years old, patients that fell from less than 3m in height and patients with Sanders fractures types II and III compared to typeIV, which were associated with higher rate of subtalar arthrodesis. CONCLUSIONS: We consider that open reduction and internal fixation of intraarticular fractures of the calcaneus with reconstruction plate is a valid treatment alternative. Given the complications described and the secondary subtalar arthrodesis rate, we recommend a meticulous technique carried out by experienced surgeons.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 29522503
[Au] Autor:Lyu S; Hon CKH; Chan APC; Wong FKW; Javed AA
[Ad] Address:Department of Building and Real Estate, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, 181 Chatham Rd. South, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China. sainan.lyu@hdr.qut.edu.au.
[Ti] Title:Relationships among Safety Climate, Safety Behavior, and Safety Outcomes for Ethnic Minority Construction Workers.
[So] Source:Int J Environ Res Public Health;15(3), 2018 Mar 09.
[Is] ISSN:1660-4601
[Cp] Country of publication:Switzerland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:In many countries, it is common practice to attract and employ ethnic minority (EM) or migrant workers in the construction industry. This primarily occurs in order to alleviate the labor shortage caused by an aging workforce with a lack of new entrants. Statistics show that EM construction workers are more likely to have occupational fatal and nonfatal injuries than their local counterparts; however, the mechanism underlying accidents and injuries in this vulnerable population has been rarely examined. This study aims to investigate relationships among safety climate, safety behavior, and safety outcomes for EM construction workers. To this end, a theoretical research model was developed based on a comprehensive review of the current literature. In total, 289 valid questionnaires were collected face-to-face from 223 Nepalese construction workers and 56 Pakistani construction workers working on 15 construction sites in Hong Kong. Structural equation modelling was employed to validate the constructs and test the hypothesized model. Results show that there were significant positive relationships between safety climate and safety behaviors, and significant negative relationships between safety behaviors and safety outcomes for EM construction workers. This research contributes to the literature regarding EM workers by providing empirical evidence of the mechanisms by which safety climate affects safety behaviors and outcomes. It also provides insights in order to help the key stakeholders formulate safety strategies for EM workers in many areas where numerous EM workers are employed, such as in the U.S., the UK, Australia, Singapore, Malaysia, and the Middle East.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

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[PMID]: 29522502
[Au] Autor:Uchiyama K; Miyashita M; Tanishima Y; Maeda S; Sato H; Yoshikawa J; Watanabe S; Shibata M; Ohhira S; Kobashi G
[Ad] Address:Laboratory of International Environmental Health, Center for International Cooperation, Dokkyo Medical University, 880 Kitakobayashi, Mibu-machi, Shimotsuga-gun 321-0293, Tochigi, Japan. koji-u@dokkyomed.ac.jp.
[Ti] Title:Use of Iodine-131 to Tellurium-132 Ratios for Assessing the Relationships between Human Inhaled Radioactivity and Environmental Monitoring after the Accident in Fukushima.
[So] Source:Int J Environ Res Public Health;15(3), 2018 Mar 09.
[Is] ISSN:1660-4601
[Cp] Country of publication:Switzerland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Significant differences in findings were seen between the intake amounts of iodine-131 that were derived from direct measurements and the estimated intake from environmental monitoring data at the Fukushima accident. To clarify these discrepancies, we have investigated the iodine-131 and tellurium-132 body burdens of five human subjects, who after being exposed to a radioactive plume, underwent 21.5 h whole body counter measurements at Fukui Prefectural Hospital, so clear intake scenario and thyroid counter measurement data were available. To determine the iodine-131 and tellurium-132 body burdens, we introduced a new method of whole body counter calibration composed of a self-consistent approach with the time-dependent correction efficiency factors concept. The ratios of iodine-131 to tellurium-132, ranging from 0.96 ± 0.05 to 2.29 ± 0.38, were consistent with results of the environmental measurements. The 24 h iodine uptake values ranging from 12.1-16.0% were within euthyroid range in Japanese people. These results suggest, even if the relatively low thyroid iodine uptake in the Japanese population was taken into consideration, that there is no doubt about the consistency between direct measurements and environmental monitoring data. Adequate intake scenario is suggested to be principally important to estimate the inhaled radioactivity in areas in or around nuclear accidents.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

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[PMID]: 29453168
[Au] Autor:Zangeneh A; Najafi F; Karimi S; Saeidi S; Izadi N
[Ad] Address:Social Development and Health Promotion Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.
[Ti] Title:Spatial-temporal cluster analysis of mortality from road traffic injuries using geographic information systems in West of Iran during 2009-2014.
[So] Source:J Forensic Leg Med;55:15-22, 2018 Feb 08.
[Is] ISSN:1878-7487
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:INTRODUCTION: Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are considered as one of the most important health problems endangering people's life. The examination of the geographical distribution of RTIs could help policymakers in better planning to reduce RTIs. This study, therefore, aimed to determine the spatial-temporal clustering of mortality from RTIs in West of Iran. METHODS: Deaths from RTIs, registered in Forensic Medicine Organization of Kermanshah province over a period of six years (2009-2014), were used. Using negative binomial regression, the mortality trend was investigated. In order to investigate the spatial distribution of RTIs, we used ArcGIS. (Version 10.3). RESULTS: The median age of the 3231 people died in RTIs was 37 (IQR = 31) year, 78.4% were male. The 6-year average mortality rate from RTIs was 27.8/100,000 deaths, and the average rate had a declining trend. The dispersion of RTIs showed that most deaths occurred in Kermanshah, Islamabad, Bisotun, and Harsin road axes, respectively. The mean center of all deaths from RTIs occurred in Kermanshah province, the central area of Kermanshah district. The spatial trend of such deaths has moved to the northeast-southwest, and such deaths were geographically centralized. Results of Moran's I with respect to cluster analysis also indicated positive spatial autocorrelations. CONCLUSION: The results showed that the mortality rate from RTIs, despite the decline in recent years, is still high when compared with other countries. The clustering of accidents raises the concern that road infrastructure in certain locations may also be a factor. Regarding the results related to the temporal analysis, it is suggested that the enforcement of traffic rules be stricter at rush hours.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 29430910
[Au] Autor:Rusakov NV
[Ti] Title:[Methodological problems of noninfectious epidemiology and hygiene under chemical pollution of the environment].
[So] Source:Gig Sanit;95(9):797-800, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:0016-9900
[Cp] Country of publication:Russia (Federation)
[La] Language:rus
[Ab] Abstract:In modern conditions the base of the assurance of the safety of human being from harmful factors of environment is the hygienic rationing for the latters. The use of this methodological principle led to the considerable decline in the level of chemical pollution of environment objects. However tens of millions of Russians are exposed to the impact of chemicals above admissible hygienic level. There was noted the high prevalence and mortality rate due to noninfectious diseases of the population. The hygienic science needs to develop and introduce methodology of personification prevention on protection of the person against chemical environmental pollution.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Chemical Hazard Release/prevention & control
Environmental Illness/epidemiology
Environmental Pollution
Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Environmental Pollution/adverse effects
Environmental Pollution/analysis
Environmental Pollution/prevention & control
Humans
Needs Assessment
Public Health/methods
Russia/epidemiology
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:180213
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 29521771
[Au] Autor:Schrodt A; Huynh T; Fitzgerald TN
[Ad] Address:Paul L Foster School of Medicine, Texas Tech University, EI Paso (Drs Schrodt and Fitzgerald and Mr Huynh) and Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (Dr Fitzgerald).
[Ti] Title:Factors Associated With Poor Child Motor Vehicle Restraint on the USA-Mexico Border.
[So] Source:J Trauma Nurs;25(2):75-82, 2018 Mar/Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1078-7496
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) are a significant cause of pediatric morbidity, particularly in low- to middle-income countries. We describe car seat use in children on the USA-Mexico border. A retrospective review was conducted for children 0-9 years old, admitted to the region's only Level I trauma center. Simultaneously, data were obtained from the SAFE KIDS database, a program that encourages car seat use through city checkpoints. There were 250 MVC admissions and nine fatalities in children 0-9 years old from 2010 to 2015. Nine percent of MVCs occurred in Mexico and 49% in El Paso, TX. Comparing trauma admissions to SAFE KIDS, there was some correlation between the location of MVCs and screening checkpoints (r = .50). There was a weaker correlation between injured children's neighborhoods and screening locations (r = .32). Only 37% of parents knew the crash history of the car seat and 3% were using a car seat previously involved in an MVC. While 96% of inspected children were placed appropriately in the backseat, 80% of children were found to be inappropriately restrained. Younger children more likely to be restrained (p < .05). Children from New Mexico and Mexico had the lowest rates of proper restraint and the highest injury severity scores. Proper use of car seats is a public health concern on the USA-Mexico border, and children are not properly restrained. Screening may be improved by focusing where at-risk children live and where most accidents occur. Restraint education is needed, particularly in New Mexico and Mexico.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1097/JTN.0000000000000347

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[PMID]: 29519623
[Au] Autor:Harris M; Brantley T; Hammond D; Kalamchi S
[Ad] Address:University College London, London, UK. Electronic address: Malcolm.harris@ucl.ac.uk.
[Ti] Title:Demographic features of patients with concomitant facial fractures and closed head injuries in Maricopa, Arizona.
[So] Source:Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol;, 2018 Jan 31.
[Is] ISSN:2212-4411
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the demographic profile of Native American patients with concomitant facial fractures and closed head injuries (CHIs) and to explore the validation of the craniofacial crumple zone. STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective, observational, case-control study of 2131 maxillofacial fractures from 2010 to 2014, of which 173 (8%) had concomitant CHIs. RESULTS: Of the study patients, 133 (77%) were males (mean age 40.6 years). Only 2.1% of the local population was Native American, but this group represented 24% of the patients with CHIs and sustained 4.6 times more (P value < .001) assault injuries and 2.6 times more concussion (P value < .001) compared with other groups. Other trauma comparisons were not significant. Of the 173 study patients, 86 (50%), had blood alcohol levels which exceeded 80 mg/100 mL compared with 93% of the Native Americans. CONCLUSIONS: Native American patients had a highly significant predisposition to violence and road traffic accidents resulting in maxillofacial fractures and CHIs. The high blood alcohol levels found in this group also reflected longstanding serious sociologic problems. This study provides a useful model to investigate the relative ethnic/racial role of comminuted paranasal structures for the protection of the brain (i.e., the crumple zone).
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 29519566
[Au] Autor:Harbaugh CM; Zhang P; Henderson B; Derstine BA; Holcombe SA; Wang SC; Kohoyda-Inglis C; Ehrlich PF
[Ad] Address:Section of Pediatric Surgery, Department of Surgery, The University of Michigan Medical School and The C.S. Mott Children's Hospital, Ann Arbor, MI, United States; Morphomic Analysis Group, The University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, United States. Electronic address: calistah@med.umic
[Ti] Title:Evaluating the "cushion effect" among children in frontal motor vehicle crashes.
[So] Source:J Pediatr Surg;, 2018 Feb 10.
[Is] ISSN:1531-5037
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: The "Cushion Effect," the phenomenon in which obesity protects against abdominal injury in adults in motor vehicle accidents, has not been evaluated among pediatric patients. This work evaluates the association between subcutaneous fat cross-sectional area, quantified using analytic morphomic techniques and abdominal injury. METHODS: This retrospective study includes 119 patients aged 1 to 18years involved in frontal impact motor vehicle accidents (2003-2015) with computed tomography scans. Subcutaneous fat cross-sectional area was measured and converted to age- and gender-adjusted percentiles from population-based normative data. Multivariable analysis determined the risk of the primary outcome, Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale (MAIS) 2+ abdominal injury, after adjusting for age, weight, seatbelt status, and impact rating. RESULTS: MAIS 2+ abdominal injuries occurred in 20 (16.8%) of the patients. Subcutaneous fat area percentile was not significantly associated with MAIS 2+ abdominal injury on multivariable logistic regression (adjusted Odds Ratio, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.72-1.03; p=0.10). DISCUSSION: The "cushion effect" was not apparent among pediatric frontal motor vehicle crash victims in this study. Future work is needed to investigate other analytic morphomic measures. By understanding how body composition relates to injury patterns, there is a unique opportunity to improve vehicle safety design. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognosis Study, Level III.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 29519553
[Au] Autor:Jiang L; Probst TM; Benson W; Byrd J
[Ad] Address:School of Psychology, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand. Electronic address: l.jiang@auckland.ac.nz.
[Ti] Title:Voices carry: Effects of verbal and physical aggression on injuries and accident reporting.
[So] Source:Accid Anal Prev;, 2018 Mar 05.
[Is] ISSN:1879-2057
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Recent years have witnessed a staggeringly high number of workplace aggressive behaviors as well as employee accidents and injuries. Exposure to workplace aggression is associated with a host of negative psychological, emotional, and physiological outcomes, yet research relating workplace aggression to employee safety outcomes is lacking. This study aims to examine the association between exposure to workplace physical and verbal aggression with workplace injuries and underreporting of accidents and near misses. Furthermore, deriving from social exchange theory, we attempt to reveal an underlying mechanism in the association between workplace aggression and underreporting of accidents and near misses. Finally, borrowing from aggression research on intimate relationships, we compare the relative importance of exposure to physical and verbal aggression on workplace injuries and underreporting. Using survey data from 364 public transportation personnel, we found that both verbal and physical aggression significantly predict workplace injuries as well as underreporting. Moreover, mediation analyses found that the relationship between verbal and physical aggression and underreporting was largely explained by an increase in negative reporting attitudes (rather than decreases in safety knowledge or motivation). Compared to exposure to physical aggression, exposure to verbal aggression best predicted employee underreporting of accidents and near misses. However, physical aggression was a better predictor of injuries than verbal aggression. Given these findings, organizational leaders should strive to foster a safe working environment by minimizing interpersonal mistreatment and increasing employee attitudes for reporting accidents.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:Publisher


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