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[PMID]: 29524531
[Au] Autor:Gong S; Lan T; Zeng L; Luo H; Yang X; Li N; Chen X; Liu Z; Li R; Win S; Liu S; Zhou H; Schnabl B; Jiang Y; Kaplowitz N; Chen P
[Ad] Address:State Key Laboratory of Organ Failure Research; Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China; Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Proteomics, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China; Department of Pathophysiology, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.
[Ti] Title:Gut microbiota mediates diurnal variation of acetaminophen induced acute liver injury in mice.
[So] Source:J Hepatol;, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1600-0641
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND & AIMS: Acetaminophen (APAP) induced hepatotoxicity is a leading cause of acute liver failure worldwide. It is well established that the liver damage induced by acetaminophen exhibits diurnal variation. However, the detailed mechanism for the hepatotoxic variation is not clear. Here we aimed to determine the relative contributions of gut microbiota in modulating the diurnal variation of hepatotoxicity induced by APAP. METHODS: Male Balb/C mice were treated with or without antibiotics and orally administrated a single dose of APAP (300 mg/kg) at ZT0 (when the light is on-start of resting period) and ZT12 (when the light is off-start of active period). RESULTS: In agreement with previous findings, hepatic injury was markedly enhanced at ZT12 compared with ZT0. Interestingly, upon antibiotics treatment, ZT12 displayed protection against APAP hepatotoxicity similar to ZT0. Moreover, mice that received the cecal content from ZT12 showed more severe liver damage than mice that received the cecal content from ZT0. 16S sequencing data revealed significant differences in the cecal content between ZT0 and ZT12 in the compositional level. Furthermore, metabolomic analysis showed that the gut microbial metabolites were also different between ZT0 and ZT12. Specifically, the level of 1-phenyl-1,2-propanedione (PPD) was significantly higher at ZT12 than ZT0. Treatment with PPD alone did not cause obvious liver damage. However, PPD synergistically enhanced APAP induced hepatic injury in vivo and in vitro. Finally, we found Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which could reduce intestinal PPD levels, was able to markedly alleviate APAP induced liver damage at ZT12. CONCLUSIONS: The gut microbial metabolite, 1-phenyl-1,2-propanedione was responsible, at least in part, for the diurnal variation of hepatotoxicity induced by APAP by decreasing GSH levels. LAY SUMMARY: Acetaminophen (APAP) induced acute liver failure due to over dose is a leading public health problem. APAP induced liver injury exhibited diurnal variation, in particular, it causes more severe liver damage when taken at night compared with that in the morning. Here we showed that gut microbial metabolite, 1-phenyl-1,2-propanedione (PPD) is involved in the rhythmic hepatotoxicity induced by APAP by depleting hepatic GSH levels. Our data suggest gut microbiota may be a potential target for reducing APAP induced acute liver injury.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  2 / 22008 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29214506
[Au] Autor:Raffa RB; Pawasauskas J; Pergolizzi JV; Lu L; Chen Y; Wu S; Jarrett B; Fain R; Hill L; Devarakonda K
[Ad] Address:University of Arizona College of Pharmacy, Tucson, AZ, 85718, USA.
[Ti] Title:Pharmacokinetics of Oral and Intravenous Paracetamol (Acetaminophen) When Co-Administered with Intravenous Morphine in Healthy Adult Subjects.
[So] Source:Clin Drug Investig;38(3):259-268, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1179-1918
[Cp] Country of publication:New Zealand
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Several features favor paracetamol (acetaminophen) administration by the intravenous rather than the oral route in the postoperative setting. This study compared the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of oral and intravenous paracetamol when given with or without an opioid, morphine. METHODS: In this randomized, single-blind, parallel, repeat-dose study in healthy adults, subjects received four repeat doses of oral or intravenous 1000 mg paracetamol at 6-h intervals, and morphine infusions (0.125 mg/kg) at the 2nd and 3rd intervals. Comparisons of plasma pharmacokinetic profiles were conducted before, during, and after opioid co-administrations. RESULTS: Twenty-two subjects were included in the pharmacokinetic analysis. Observed paracetamol peak concentration (C ) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve over the dosing interval (AUC ) were reduced when oral paracetamol was co-administered with morphine (reduced from 11.6 to 7.25 µg/mL and from 31.00 to 25.51 µg·h/mL, respectively), followed by an abruptly increased C and AUC upon discontinuation of morphine (to 13.5 µg/mL and 52.38 µg·h/mL, respectively). There was also a significantly prolonged mean time to peak plasma concentration (T ) after the 4th dose of oral paracetamol (2.84 h) compared to the 1st dose (1.48 h). However, pharmacokinetic parameters of paracetamol were not impacted when intravenous paracetamol was co-administered with morphine. CONCLUSIONS: Morphine co-administration significantly impacted the pharmacokinetics of oral but not intravenous paracetamol. The abrupt release of accumulated paracetamol at the end of morphine-mediated gastrointestinal inhibition following oral but not intravenous administration of paracetamol suggests that intravenous paracetamol provides a better option for the management of postoperative pain. CLINICALTRIALS. GOV IDENTIFIER: NCT02848729.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[Cl] Clinical Trial:ClinicalTrial
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1007/s40261-017-0610-4

  3 / 22008 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29199145
[Au] Autor:Rubin JB; Hameed B; Gottfried M; Lee WM; Sarkar M; Acute Liver Failure Study Group
[Ad] Address:Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California.
[Ti] Title:Acetaminophen-induced Acute Liver Failure Is More Common and More Severe in Women.
[So] Source:Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol;, 2017 Dec 02.
[Is] ISSN:1542-7714
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND & AIMS: Acetaminophen overdose is the leading cause of acute liver injury (ALI) and acute liver failure (ALF) in the developed world. Sex differences in acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity have not been described. METHODS: We collected data from the Acute Liver Failure Study Group cohort, a national registry of 32 academic medical centers in North America of adults with ALI or ALF, including 1162 patients with acetaminophen-induced ALI (n = 250) or acetaminophen-induced ALF (n = 912) from January 2000 through September 2016. We analyzed data on patient presentation, disease course, demographics, medical and psychiatric history, medication use, substance use, and details of acetaminophen ingestion. Sex differences in continuous and categorical variables were evaluated by Wilcoxon rank-sum and χ analysis or the Fisher exact test. Our primary aim was to evaluate sex differences in the presentation and clinical course of acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury or liver failure, and our secondary goal was to compare overall and transplant-free survival between sexes. RESULTS: Most patients with acetaminophen-induced ALI (68%) or ALF (76%) were women. Higher proportions of women than men had psychiatric disease (60% of women vs 48% of men, P < .01) and had co-ingestion with sedating agents (70% of women vs 52% of men, P < .01)-more than half of which were opioids. Higher proportions of women had severe hepatic encephalopathy (HE) (68% of women vs 58% of men), and required intubation (67% of women vs 59% of men, P values <.03). Higher proportions of women used vasopressors (26% of women vs 19% of men, P = .04) or mannitol (13% of women vs 6% of men, P < .01); proportions of male vs female patients with transplant-free survival were similar (68%). On adjusted analysis, women had higher risk of severe HE (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.66; 95% CI, 1.17-2.35). We found a significant interaction between sex and co-ingestion of sedating agents (P < .01); co-ingestion increased odds of severe HE in women 2-fold (AOR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.28-2.69; P < .01) but not in men (AOR; 0.62; 95% CI, 0.34-1.13; P = .12). CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of the Acute Liver Failure Study Group cohort, we found acetaminophen-induced ALI and ALF to be more common among women. Women have greater critical care needs than men, and increased risk for severe HE, which could be due in part to increased use of sedatives. Future studies should investigate sex differences in acetaminophen metabolism and hepatotoxicity, particularly among users of opioids.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  4 / 22008 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29523533
[Au] Autor:Hickman SR; Mathieson KM; Bradford LM; Garman CD; Gregg RW; Lukens DW
[Ad] Address:Kettering Health Network, Miamisburg, OH skip.hickman@ketteringhealth.org.
[Ti] Title:Randomized trial of oral versus intravenous acetaminophen for postoperative pain control.
[So] Source:Am J Health Syst Pharm;75(6):367-375, 2018 Mar 15.
[Is] ISSN:1535-2900
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:PURPOSE: Results of a study comparing pain control outcomes with preoperative oral versus intraoperative i.v. acetaminophen use in adults undergoing total hip or knee arthroplasty are reported. METHODS: A single-center, randomized, placebo-controlled, equivalence trial was conducted. Patients were assigned (1:1) to receive 2 500-mg capsules of acetaminophen before surgery, with an i.v. placebo infusion during surgery (the oral group), or 2 oral placebo capsules followed by an i.v. infusion of acetaminophen 1,000 mg/100 mL (the i.v. group). Patients were followed after postanesthesia care unit (PACU) admission up to 24 hours postoperatively. RESULTS: Among 486 patients included in a modified intention-to-treat analysis (mean ± S.D. age, 66.3 ± 9.4 years), there were no significant differences in preoperative and intraoperative use of pain medication between the oral and i.v. groups. Postoperative opioid use in morphine milligram equivalents (MMEs) was equivalent in the oral and i.v. groups (i.e., the mean difference in median MME values was within the prespecified equivalence margin), with no significant between-group differences in mean pain scores over 24 hours. CONCLUSION: In patients undergoing hip or knee arthroplasty, oral acetaminophen given preoperatively was equivalent to i.v. acetaminophen administered in the operating suite in controlling pain in the immediate postoperative period. I.V. acetaminophen was not superior to oral acetaminophen in reducing postoperative nausea and vomiting, time to ambulation, time to first dose of as-needed pain medication, length of PACU stay, or total length of hospital stay.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.2146/ajhp170064

  5 / 22008 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29522886
[Au] Autor:Brass EP; Reynolds KM; Burnham RI; Green JL
[Ad] Address:Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA; 27060 Eastvale Road, Palos Verdes, CA 90274.
[Ti] Title:Medication Errors with Pediatric Liquid Acetaminophen after Standardization of Concentration and Packaging Improvements.
[So] Source:Acad Pediatr;, 2018 Mar 06.
[Is] ISSN:1876-2867
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE: The impact of the 2011 changes in pediatric single ingredient liquid acetaminophen product packaging and standardization of the acetaminophen concentration (160 mg/5 mL) on poison center exposures due to medication errors was assessed. METHODS: National Poison Data System (NPDS) data from January 1, 2007 through December 31, 2016 were used to identify medication error exposures involving single ingredient liquid acetaminophen in children less than 12 years of age. Surveys were conducted through six regional poison centers to obtain additional information on a subset of exposures. RESULTS: The annual frequency of NPDS exposures due to medication errors with single ingredient liquid acetaminophen products was 8260 ± 670 exposures/year during the 2007 to 2011 period. Children under 2 years of age accounted for 66% of exposures. The overall rate of exposures fell to 6669 ± 662 during the period 2012 to 2016 (19% decrease, p=0.005). Four percent of exposures led to healthcare facility referrals. Caregivers involved with exposures in children aged < 2 years cited healthcare professionals as the source of dosing information in only 69% of cases despite the absence of specific dosing directions for these children on product labels. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of a single concentration for pediatric liquid acetaminophen products and packaging changes were associated with a decrease in medication errors reported to poison centers. Medication errors are particularly problematic for children under 2 years of age for whom there are no specific labeled dosing instructions. Improved efforts to provide caregivers with dosing instructions for these children are encouraged.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:Publisher

  6 / 22008 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29505514
[Au] Autor:Lin YP; Li YJ; Chen BL; Guo YH
[Ad] Address:Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Chinese Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, China.
[Ti] Title:Lumbar laminotomy and replantation for the treatment of adult spinal epidermoid cyst: A case report.
[So] Source:Medicine (Baltimore);97(1):e9334, 2018 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1536-5964
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:RATIONALE: Adult spinal epidermoid cyst (SEC) is a rare tumor. Lumbar laminectomy and tumor removal was a routine surgical procedure for adult spinal epidermoid cyst according to the literature, but postoperative lumbar instability and intractable low back pain may occur. In this study, we presented a brief report of an adult lumbar epidermoid cyst and introduced another surgical approach. PATIENT CONCERNS: This 28-year-old woman has been complaining of the severe right buttock pain and right thigh radiating pain for half a year. She had been diagnosed as sacroiliitis, spinal arthritis, and lumbar disc herniation at 3 different hospitals before coming to our hospital. And she received a variety of conservative treatments, including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, aspirin, acetaminophen, glucocorticoids, acupuncture, physical therapy, and so on. However, her pain did not diminish at all. Finally, we find a space-occupying lesion in her lumbar magnetic resonance images (MRI). The lesion was slightly low, equal, and uneven equal-low signals on T1WI. T2WI showed slightly higher, equal, and uneven equal-high signals. And a thin-rim enhancement was observed on Gd-DTPA-enhanced MRI. DIAGNOSES: Adult spinal epidermoid cyst. INTERVENTIONS: The patient underwent a surgery of lumbar laminectomy, tumor excision, and spinous process-vertebral plate in situ replantation. OUTCOMES: Postoperative pathology prompted that the tumor was cystoid. The patient's symptoms were completely removed 1 week after surgery. Three-month postoperative MRI confirmed that the spinal epidermoid cyst had been completely removed and three-dimensional CT prompted lumbar lamina in situ. Bony fusion occurred at 6 months after the surgery. LESSONS: Lumbar laminotomy and replantation provides an ideal option to treat adult spinal epidermoid cyst because it can completely remove the cyst and simultaneously reduce the risk of iatrogenic lumbar instability.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Epidermal Cyst/surgery
Laminectomy/methods
Lumbar Vertebrae/surgery
Replantation
Spinal Diseases/surgery
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adult
Epidermal Cyst/diagnostic imaging
Female
Humans
Lumbar Vertebrae/diagnostic imaging
Spinal Diseases/diagnostic imaging
[Pt] Publication type:CASE REPORTS; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[Js] Journal subset:AIM; IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:180306
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1097/MD.0000000000009334

  7 / 22008 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29423863
[Au] Autor:Scherholz ML; Forder J; Androulakis IP
[Ad] Address:Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 98 Brett Road, Piscataway, NJ, 08854, USA.
[Ti] Title:A framework for 2-stage global sensitivity analysis of GastroPlus™ compartmental models.
[So] Source:J Pharmacokinet Pharmacodyn;45(2):309-327, 2018 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1573-8744
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Parameter sensitivity and uncertainty analysis for physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models are becoming an important consideration for regulatory submissions, requiring further evaluation to establish the need for global sensitivity analysis. To demonstrate the benefits of an extensive analysis, global sensitivity was implemented for the GastroPlus™ model, a well-known commercially available platform, using four example drugs: acetaminophen, risperidone, atenolol, and furosemide. The capabilities of GastroPlus were expanded by developing an integrated framework to automate the GastroPlus graphical user interface with AutoIt and for execution of the sensitivity analysis in MATLAB . Global sensitivity analysis was performed in two stages using the Morris method to screen over 50 parameters for significant factors followed by quantitative assessment of variability using Sobol's sensitivity analysis. The 2-staged approach significantly reduced computational cost for the larger model without sacrificing interpretation of model behavior, showing that the sensitivity results were well aligned with the biopharmaceutical classification system. Both methods detected nonlinearities and parameter interactions that would have otherwise been missed by local approaches. Future work includes further exploration of how the input domain influences the calculated global sensitivity measures as well as extending the framework to consider a whole-body PBPK model.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1007/s10928-018-9573-1

  8 / 22008 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28450389
[Au] Autor:Triantafyllou E; Pop OT; Possamai LA; Wilhelm A; Liaskou E; Singanayagam A; Bernsmeier C; Khamri W; Petts G; Dargue R; Davies SP; Tickle J; Yuksel M; Patel VC; Abeles RD; Stamataki Z; Curbishley SM; Ma Y; Wilson ID; Coen M; Woollard KJ; Quaglia A; Wendon J; Thursz MR; Adams DH; Weston CJ; Antoniades CG
[Ad] Address:Institute of Liver Studies, King's College Hospital, King's College London, London, UK.
[Ti] Title:MerTK expressing hepatic macrophages promote the resolution of inflammation in acute liver failure.
[So] Source:Gut;67(2):333-347, 2018 02.
[Is] ISSN:1468-3288
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE: Acute liver failure (ALF) is characterised by overwhelming hepatocyte death and liver inflammation with massive infiltration of myeloid cells in necrotic areas. The mechanisms underlying resolution of acute hepatic inflammation are largely unknown. Here, we aimed to investigate the impact of Mer tyrosine kinase (MerTK) during ALF and also examine how the microenvironmental mediator, secretory leucocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), governs this response. DESIGN: Flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, confocal imaging and gene expression analyses determined the phenotype, functional/transcriptomic profile and tissue topography of MerTK+ monocytes/macrophages in ALF, healthy and disease controls. The temporal evolution of macrophage MerTK expression and its impact on resolution was examined in APAP-induced acute liver injury using wild-type (WT) and Mer-deficient (Mer ) mice. SLPI effects on hepatic myeloid cells were determined in vitro and in vivo using APAP-treated WT mice. RESULTS: We demonstrate a significant expansion of resolution-like MerTK+HLA-DR cells in circulatory and tissue compartments of patients with ALF. Compared with WT mice which show an increase of MerTK+MHCII macrophages during the resolution phase in ALF, APAP-treated Mer mice exhibit persistent liver injury and inflammation, characterised by a decreased proportion of resident Kupffer cells and increased number of neutrophils. Both in vitro and in APAP-treated mice, SLPI reprogrammes myeloid cells towards resolution responses through induction of a MerTK+HLA-DR phenotype which promotes neutrophil apoptosis and their subsequent clearance. CONCLUSIONS: We identify a hepatoprotective, MerTK+, macrophage phenotype that evolves during the resolution phase following ALF and represents a novel immunotherapeutic target to promote resolution responses following acute liver injury.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Liver Failure, Acute/immunology
Liver Failure, Acute/metabolism
Macrophages/metabolism
Secretory Leukocyte Peptidase Inhibitor/pharmacology
c-Mer Tyrosine Kinase/metabolism
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Acetaminophen
Adult
Aged
Animals
Case-Control Studies
Female
Gene Expression
Genes, MHC Class II
HLA-DR Antigens/metabolism
Humans
Kupffer Cells/immunology
Kupffer Cells/metabolism
Liver Failure, Acute/chemically induced
Liver Failure, Acute/pathology
Macrophages/immunology
Male
Mice
Middle Aged
Monocytes/immunology
Monocytes/metabolism
Neutrophils/physiology
Phenotype
Secretory Leukocyte Peptidase Inhibitor/metabolism
Secretory Leukocyte Peptidase Inhibitor/therapeutic use
Transcriptome
c-Mer Tyrosine Kinase/deficiency
c-Mer Tyrosine Kinase/genetics
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (HLA-DR Antigens); 0 (Secretory Leukocyte Peptidase Inhibitor); 362O9ITL9D (Acetaminophen); EC 2.7.10.1 (MERTK protein, human); EC 2.7.10.1 (Mertk protein, mouse); EC 2.7.10.1 (c-Mer Tyrosine Kinase)
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[Js] Journal subset:AIM; IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170429
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1136/gutjnl-2016-313615

  9 / 22008 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29519432
[Au] Autor:Blaesi AH; Saka N
[Ad] Address:Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Electronic address: ablaesi@mit.edu.
[Ti] Title:3D-micro-patterned fibrous dosage forms for immediate drug release.
[So] Source:Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl;84:218-229, 2018 Mar 01.
[Is] ISSN:1873-0191
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:At present, the most prevalent pharmaceutical dosage forms, the orally-delivered immediate-release tablets and capsules, are porous, granular solids. They disintegrate into their constituent particulates upon ingestion to release drug rapidly. The design, development, and manufacture of such granular solids, however, is inefficient due to difficulties associated with the unpredictable inter-particle interactions. Therefore, to achieve more predictable dosage form properties and processing, we have recently introduced melt-processed polymeric cellular dosage forms. The cellular forms disintegrated and released drug rapidly if the cells were predominantly interconnected. Preparation of interconnected cells, however, relies on the coalescence of gas bubbles in the melt, which is unpredictable. In the present work, therefore, new melt-processed fibrous dosage forms with contiguous void space are presented. The dosage forms are prepared by melt extrusion of the drug-excipient mixture followed by patterning the fibrous extrudate on a moving surface. It is demonstrated that the resulting fibrous structures are fully predictable by the extruder nozzle diameter and the motion of the surface. Furthermore, drug release experiments show that the disintegration time of the fibrous forms prepared in this work is of the order of that of the corresponding single fibers. The thin fibers of polyethylene glycol (excipient) and acetaminophen (drug) in turn disintegrate in a time proportional to the fiber radius and well within immediate-release specification. Finally, models of dosage form disintegration and drug release by single fibers and fibrous dosage forms are developed. It is found that drug release from fibrous forms is predictable by the physico-chemical properties of the excipient and such microstructural parameters as the fiber radius, the inter-fiber spacing, and the volume fraction of water-soluble excipient in the fibers.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:In-Process

  10 / 22008 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29518418
[Au] Autor:Morris CR; Mauger DT; Suh JH; Phipatanakul W; Sheehan WJ; Moy JN; Paul IM; Szefler SJ; Jackson DJ; Fitzpatrick AM; NIH/NHLBI AsthmaNet
[Ad] Address:Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta.
[Ti] Title:Glutathione and arginine levels: Predictors for acetaminophen-associated asthma exacerbation?
[So] Source:J Allergy Clin Immunol;, 2018 Mar 05.
[Is] ISSN:1097-6825
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Retrospective studies have demonstrated associations between acetaminophen and exacerbations in asthma, purportedly due to reductions in the antioxidant, glutathione. In this study of young children with mild asthma treated with acetaminophen, baseline levels of glutathione were not associated with future exacerbations.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:Publisher


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