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[PMID]: 29524887
[Au] Autor:Abafe OA; Späth J; Fick J; Jansson S; Buckley C; Stark A; Pietruschka B; Martincigh BS
[Ad] Address:SMRI Biorefinery Research Chair, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa; School of Chemistry and Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville Campus, Private Bag X54001, Durban, 4000, South Africa; Residue Laboratory, Agricultural Research Council-On
[Ti] Title:LC-MS/MS determination of antiretroviral drugs in influents and effluents from wastewater treatment plants in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
[So] Source:Chemosphere;200:660-670, 2018 Feb 20.
[Is] ISSN:1879-1298
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:South Africa has the largest occurrence of the human immune deficiency virus (HIV) in the world but has also implemented the largest antiretroviral (ARV) treatment programme. It was therefore of interest to determine the presence and concentrations of commonly used antiretroviral drugs (ARVDs) and, also, to determine the capabilities of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) for removing ARVDs. To this end, a surrogate standard based LC-MS/MS method was optimized and applied for the detection of thirteen ARVDs used in the treatment and management of HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in two major and one modular WWTP in the eThekwini Municipality in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The method was validated and the detection limits fell within the range of 2-20 ng L . The analytical recoveries for the ARVDs were mainly greater than 50% with acceptable relative standard deviations. The concentration values ranged from
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  2 / 202530 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29524867
[Au] Autor:Pike IL; Hilton C; Österle M; Olungah O
[Ad] Address:School of Anthropology, University of Arizona, PO Box 20031, Tucson, AZ 85721, United States. Electronic address: ilpike@email.arizona.edu.
[Ti] Title:Low-intensity violence and the social determinants of adolescent health among three East African pastoralist communities.
[So] Source:Soc Sci Med;202:117-127, 2018 Feb 23.
[Is] ISSN:1873-5347
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Recently, strong pleas have emerged to place the health of adolescents on the global health agenda. To reposition adolescence front and center, scholars argue that we must work toward a richly contextualized approach that considers the role that social environments play in shaping the final stages of growth and development. We aim to contribute to this deeper understanding of the social determinants of global adolescent health by offering a case study of three nomadic pastoralist communities from northern Kenya. In addition to noteworthy political and economic marginalization, East African pastoralist communities also contend with chronic, low intensity intercommunity conflict. Data collected over five extensive visits from 2008 to 2011, include the 10-19 year olds from 215 randomly sampled Pokot, Samburu, and Turkana households. Using a case/control design, we sampled two sites per ethnic community: one directly affected and one less affected by intercommunity violence. Our nutritional findings indicate that teens ages 15-19 years old had significantly higher anthropometric values compared to younger teens. Living in a wealthier household is associated with greater height, body mass indices, and summed skinfolds for boys but not for girls. Anthropometric measures were influenced by household and community variation in the mixed-effects, multi-level regression models. The Self-Report Questionnaire (SRQ-20) was used to assess psychosocial health, with higher scores associated with living in a community directly affected by violence and having lost a loved one due to violence. Our findings highlight the unique nature of adolescent health challenges but also the central role even subtle differences across communities and households play in shaping young people's experiences. With few studies to document the lived experience of pastoralist youth as they move toward adulthood, examining how such challenging socioeconomic environment shapes health seems long overdue.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  3 / 202530 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29515747
[Au] Autor:Taremwa IM; Ampaire L; Iramiot J; Muhwezi O; Matte A; Itabangi H; Mbabazi H; Atwebembeire J; Kamwine M; Katawera V; Mbalibulha Y; Orikiriza P; Boum Y
[Ad] Address:Faculty of Medicine, Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Mbarara, Uganda.
[Ti] Title:Assessment of three medical and research laboratories using WHO AFRO_SLIPTA Quality Standards in Southwestern Uganda: a long way to go.
[So] Source:Pan Afr Med J;28:129, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1937-8688
[Cp] Country of publication:Uganda
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Introduction: While the laboratory represents more than 70% of clinical diagnosis and patient management, access to reliable and quality laboratory diagnostics in sub-Saharan Africa remains a challenge. To gain knowledge and suggest evidence based interventions towards laboratory improvement in Southwestern Uganda, we assessed the baseline laboratory quality standards in three medical and research laboratories in Southwestern Uganda. Methods: We conducted a cross sectional survey from October, 2013 to April, 2014. Selected laboratories, including one private research, one private for profit and one public laboratory, were assessed using the WHO AFRO_SLIPTA checklist and baseline scores were determined. Results: The three laboratories assessed met basic facility requirements, had trained personnel, and safety measures in place. Sample reception was properly designed and executed with a well designated chain of custody. All laboratories had sufficient equipment for the nature of work they were involved in. However, we found that standard operating procedures were incomplete in all three laboratories, lack of quality audit schemes by two laboratories and only one laboratory enrolled into external quality assurance schemes. The SLIPTA scores were one star for the research laboratory and no star for both the public and private-for-profit laboratories. Conclusion: While most of the laboratory systems were in place, the low scores obtained by the assessed laboratories reflect the need for improvement to reach standards of quality assured diagnostics in the region. Therefore, routine mentorship and regional supportive supervision are necessary to increase the quality of laboratory services.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.11604/pamj.2017.28.129.10995

  4 / 202530 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29515748
[Au] Autor:Aka KE; Apollinaire Horo G; Fomba M; Kouyate S; Koffi AK; Konan S; Fanny M; Effi B; Kone M
[Ad] Address:Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital of Yopougon, Abidjan, Ivory Coast.
[Ti] Title:A rare case of important and recurrent abnormal uterine bleeding in a post partum woman caused by cavernous hemangioma: a case report and review of literature.
[So] Source:Pan Afr Med J;28:130, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1937-8688
[Cp] Country of publication:Uganda
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The cavernous hemangioma is a rare benign vascular tumor. About 50 cases of this disease were found in the literature over the last century and only 9 cases of cavernous hemangioma on the pregnant uterus were published it comes into cavernous or capillary form. The symptomatology is not unequivocal and when it occurs during pregnancy or postpartum, it causes life-threatening cataclysmic hemorrhage. Antenatal diagnosis is difficult and requires a multidisciplinary approach with pathologists, radiologists and gynecologists to avoid these complications or unnecessary hysterectomies. The diagnosis is histological. Hysterectomy is possible after failure of conservative treatment means. We report a rare case, a novel mixed cavernous hemangioma of the body associated with a capillary hemangioma of the cervix in a patient of 28 years 5th visors with recurrent genital bleeding in the postpartum period leading to a hysterectomy.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.11604/pamj.2017.28.130.10084

  5 / 202530 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29515730
[Au] Autor:Okyere I; Lamina A; Owusu B
[Ad] Address:Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgeon, Department of Surgery, School of Medical Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology and Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital,Kumasi, Ghana.
[Ti] Title:Full median sternotomy approach for treatment of upper thoracic vertebral tuberculosis in a developing country: case report and short literature review.
[So] Source:Pan Afr Med J;28:112, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1937-8688
[Cp] Country of publication:Uganda
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Direct anterior approach to the cervicothoracic spine (C7-T4) poses a technical challenge in neurosurgery, due to the presence of important neurovascular structures anterior to the cervicothoracic junction (CTJ). Median Sternotomy approach is a surgical option that allows for direct anterior exposure of the lower cervical and upper thoracic vertebrae. We report the first case from Ghana, West Africa of a young man who developed post-tuberculosis osteomyelitis of upper thoracic (T1-2) vertebrae with cord compression after spinal tuberculosis in childhood. He underwent a full median Sternotomy for Anterior Decompression and Fusion of C7-T2 with autologous iliac crest bone graft. We detail our operative procedure and review the relevant literature.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.11604/pamj.2017.28.112.12948

  6 / 202530 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29515718
[Au] Autor:Moyimane MB; Matlala SF; Kekana MP
[Ad] Address:Department of Public Health, University of Limpopo, Private bag X1106, Sovenga, 0727, South Africa.
[Ti] Title:Experiences of nurses on the critical shortage of medical equipment at a rural district hospital in South Africa: a qualitative study.
[So] Source:Pan Afr Med J;28:100, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1937-8688
[Cp] Country of publication:Uganda
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Introduction: Medical equipment is an essential health intervention tool used by nurses for prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease and for rehabilitation of patients. However, access to functioning medical equipment is a challenge in low- and middle-income countries. The World Health Organization estimated that 50 to 80 percent of medical equipment in developing countries is not working, creating a barrier to the ability of the health system to deliver health services to patients. This study explored and described the lived experiences of nurses working at a district hospital with a critical shortage of medical equipment. Methods: A qualitative, exploratory, phenomenological and descriptive study design was used. A purposive sampling was used to select participants and due to saturation of data 14 nurses participated in the study. Research ethics were observed. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews using an interview guide. Interviews were audio-taped and field notes were taken. Voice recordings were transcribed verbatim and Tesch's open coding method was used for data analysis. Findings were confirmed by an independent coder. Results: Critical shortage of medical equipment at the hospital occurred in the form of unavailability of equipment, low quality and poor maintenance of the few that were available. Shortage impacted negatively on nursing care, nursing profession and the hospital. Conclusion: Nurses should be provided with functional medical equipment in order to provide quality nursing care. Management, leadership and governance structures should be strengthened to ensure that procurement and maintenance plans for medical equipment are developed and implemented.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.11604/pamj.2017.28.100.11641

  7 / 202530 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29510751
[Au] Autor:Baron EC; Rathod SD; Hanlon C; Prince M; Fedaku A; Kigozi F; Jordans M; Luitel NP; Medhin G; Murhar V; Nakku J; Patel V; Petersen I; Selohilwe O; Shidhaye R; Ssebunnya J; Tomlinson M; Lund C; De Silva M
[Ad] Address:Alan J Flisher Centre for Public Mental Health, Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, 46 Sawkins Road 7700 Rondebosch, Cape Town, South Africa. emily.baron@uct.ac.za.
[Ti] Title:Impact of district mental health care plans on symptom severity and functioning of patients with priority mental health conditions: the Programme for Improving Mental Health Care (PRIME) cohort protocol.
[So] Source:BMC Psychiatry;18(1):61, 2018 Mar 06.
[Is] ISSN:1471-244X
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: The Programme for Improving Mental Health Care (PRIME) sought to implement mental health care plans (MHCP) for four priority mental disorders (depression, alcohol use disorder, psychosis and epilepsy) into routine primary care in five low- and middle-income country districts. The impact of the MHCPs on disability was evaluated through establishment of priority disorder treatment cohorts. This paper describes the methodology of these PRIME cohorts. METHODS: One cohort for each disorder was recruited across some or all five districts: Sodo (Ethiopia), Sehore (India), Chitwan (Nepal), Dr. Kenneth Kaunda (South Africa) and Kamuli (Uganda), comprising 17 treatment cohorts in total (N = 2182). Participants were adults residing in the districts who were eligible to receive mental health treatment according to primary health care staff, trained by PRIME facilitators as per the district MHCP. Patients who screened positive for depression or AUD and who were not given a diagnosis by their clinicians (N = 709) were also recruited into comparison cohorts in Ethiopia, India, Nepal and South Africa. Caregivers of patients with epilepsy or psychosis were also recruited (N = 953), together with or on behalf of the person with a mental disorder, depending on the district. The target sample size was 200 (depression and AUD), or 150 (psychosis and epilepsy) patients initiating treatment in each recruiting district. Data collection activities were conducted by PRIME research teams. Participants completed follow-up assessments after 3 months (AUD and depression) or 6 months (psychosis and epilepsy), and after 12 months. Primary outcomes were impaired functioning, using the 12-item World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS), and symptom severity, assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (depression), the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUD), and number of seizures (epilepsy). DISCUSSION: Cohort recruitment was a function of the clinical detection rate by primary health care staff, and did not meet all planned targets. The cross-country methodology reflected the pragmatic nature of the PRIME cohorts: while the heterogeneity in methods of recruitment was a consequence of differences in health systems and MHCPs, the use of the WHODAS as primary outcome measure will allow for comparison of functioning recovery across sites and disorders.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12888-018-1642-x

  8 / 202530 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29510733
[Au] Autor:Adjaye-Gbewonyo K; Kawachi I; Subramanian SV; Avendano M
[Ad] Address:Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Kresge 7th Floor, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.
[Ti] Title:Income inequality and cardiovascular disease risk factors in a highly unequal country: a fixed-effects analysis from South Africa.
[So] Source:Int J Equity Health;17(1):31, 2018 Mar 06.
[Is] ISSN:1475-9276
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Chronic stress associated with high income inequality has been hypothesized to increase CVD risk and other adverse health outcomes. However, most evidence comes from high-income countries, and there is limited evidence on the link between income inequality and biomarkers of chronic stress and risk for CVD. This study examines how changes in income inequality over recent years relate to changes in CVD risk factors in South Africa, home to some of the highest levels of income inequality globally. METHODS: We linked longitudinal data from 9356 individuals interviewed in the 2008 and 2012 National Income Dynamics Study to district-level Gini coefficients estimated from census and survey data. We investigated whether subnational district income inequality was associated with several modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in South Africa, including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure, physical inactivity, smoking, and high alcohol consumption. We ran individual fixed-effects models to examine the association between changes in income inequality and changes in CVD risk factors over time. Linear models were used for continuous metabolic outcomes while conditional Poisson models were used to estimate risk ratios for dichotomous behavioral outcomes. RESULTS: Both income inequality and prevalence of most CVD risk factors increased over the period of study. In longitudinal fixed-effects models, changes in district Gini coefficients were not significantly associated with changes in CVD risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings do not support the hypothesis that subnational district income inequality is associated with CVD risk factors within the high-inequality setting of South Africa.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12939-018-0741-0

  9 / 202530 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29510713
[Au] Autor:Kariuki SM; Abubakar A; Kombe M; Kazungu M; Odhiambo R; Stein A; Newton CRJC
[Ad] Address:KEMRI-Wellcome Trust Research Programme, PO Box 230, Kilifi, Kenya. skariuki@kemri-wellcome.org.
[Ti] Title:Prevalence, risk factors and behavioural and emotional comorbidity of acute seizures in young Kenyan children: a population-based study.
[So] Source:BMC Med;16(1):35, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1741-7015
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Acute symptomatic seizures and febrile seizures are common in children admitted to hospitals in Africa and may be markers of brain dysfunction. They may be associated with behavioural and emotional problems, but there are no published community-based studies in Africa. METHODS: We screened 7047 children aged 1-6 years (randomly sampled from 50,000 in the community) for seizures (using seven questions) and invited those who screened positive and a proportion of negatives for a clinical assessment. Risk factors were identified using a parental questionnaire. Behavioural and emotional problems were examined using the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) in 3273 children randomly selected from 7047. Generalised linear models with appropriate link functions were used to determine risk factors and associations between behavioural or emotional problems and acute seizures. Sobel-Goodman mediation tests were used to investigate if the association between acute seizures and CBCL scores was mediated by co-diagnosis of epilepsy. RESULTS: Acute seizures were identified in 429 (6.1%) preschool children: 3.2% (95% confidence interval CI: 2.9-3.5%) for symptomatic seizures, and 2.9% (95% CI: 2.6-3.3%) for febrile seizures. Risk factors for acute seizures included family history of febrile seizures (odds ratio OR = 3.19; 95% CI: 2.03-5.01) and previous hospitalisation (OR = 6.65; 95% CI: 4.60-9.63). Total CBCL problems occurred more frequently in children with acute seizures (27%; 95% CI: 21-34%) than for those without seizures (11%; 95% CI: 11-12%; chi-squared p ≤ 0.001). Acute seizures were associated with total CBCL problems (adjusted risk ratio (aRR) = 1.92; 95% CI: 1.34-2.77), externalising problems (aRR = 1.82; 95% CI: 1.21-2.75) and internalising problems (aRR = 1.57; 95% CI: 1.22-2.02), with the proportion of the comorbidity mediated by a co-diagnosis of epilepsy being small (15.3%; 95% CI: 4.5-34.9%). Risk factors for this comorbidity included family history of febrile seizures (risk ratio (RR) = 3.36; 95% CI: 1.34-8.41), repetitive acute seizures (ß = 0.36; 95% CI: 0.15-0.57) and focal acute seizures (RR = 1.80; 95% CI: 1.05-3.08). CONCLUSIONS: Acute seizures are common in preschool children in this area and are associated with behavioural and emotional problems. Both conditions should be assessed and addressed in children.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12916-018-1021-y

  10 / 202530 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29510682
[Au] Autor:Ewerling F; Victora CG; Raj A; Coll CVN; Hellwig F; Barros AJD
[Ad] Address:International Center for Equity in Health, Federal University of Pelotas, Pelotas, Brazil. fewerling@equidade.org.
[Ti] Title:Demand for family planning satisfied with modern methods among sexually active women in low- and middle-income countries: who is lagging behind?
[So] Source:Reprod Health;15(1):42, 2018 Mar 06.
[Is] ISSN:1742-4755
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Family planning is key for reducing unintended pregnancies and their health consequences and is also associated with improvements in economic outcomes. Our objective was to identify groups of sexually active women with extremely low demand for family planning satisfied with modern methods (mDFPS) in low- and middle-income countries, at national and subnational levels to inform the improvement and expansion of programmatic efforts to narrow the gaps in mDFPS coverage. METHODS: Analyses were based on Demographic and Health Survey and Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey data. The most recent surveys carried out since 2000 in 77 countries were included in the analysis. We estimated mDFPS among women aged 15-49 years. Subgroups with low coverage (mDFPS below 20%) were identified according to marital status, wealth, age, education, literacy, area of residence (urban or rural), geographic region and religion. RESULTS: Overall, only 52.9% of the women with a demand for family planning were using a modern contraceptive method, but coverage varied greatly. West & Central Africa showed the lowest coverage (32.9% mean mDFPS), whereas South Asia and Latin America & the Caribbean had the highest coverage (approximately 70% mean mDFPS). Some countries showed high reliance on traditional contraceptive methods, markedly those from Central and Eastern Europe, and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CEE & CIS). Albania, Azerbaijan, Benin, Chad and Congo Democratic Republic presented low mDFPS coverage (< 20%). The other countries had mDFPS above 20% at country-level, yet in many of these countries mDFPS coverage was low among women in the poorest wealth quintiles, in the youngest age groups, with little education and living in rural areas. Coverage according to marital status varied greatly: in Asia & Pacific and Latin America & the Caribbean mDFPS was higher among married women; the opposite was found in West & Central Africa and CEE & CIS countries. CONCLUSIONS: Almost half of the women in need were not using an effective family planning method. Subgroups requiring special attention include women who are poor, uneducated/illiterate, young, and living in rural areas. Efforts to increase mDFPS must address not only the supply side but also tackle the need to change social norms that might inhibit uptake of contraception.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12978-018-0483-x


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