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[PMID]: 29519471
[Au] Autor:Rusconi E
[Ad] Address:Department of Psychology and Cognitive Science, University of Trento, Rovereto, Italy.
[Ti] Title:Gerstmann syndrome: historic and current perspectives.
[So] Source:Handb Clin Neurol;151:395-411, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:0072-9752
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:This chapter offers a perspective on the origin, operational definition, historic vicissitudes, and current status of Gerstmann syndrome. The main issues and controversy accompanying Gerstmann syndrome throughout the years are reviewed. The clinical picture of Gerstmann syndrome as it emerges from a series of modern-day pure cases is described. In current clinical practice, a diagnosis of Gerstmann syndrome indicates the concomitant presence of four acquired symptoms: finger agnosia, acalculia, left-right disorientation, and agraphia. Finally, based on empiric work conducted in recent years, the chapter concludes with a new interpretation of Gerstmann syndrome. If seen as an instance of intraparietal disconnection, this classic parietal syndrome will acquire fresh clinical and theoretic significance.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:In-Process

  2 / 3185 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29519462
[Au] Autor:Milner AD; Cavina-Pratesi C
[Ad] Address:Department of Psychology, Durham University, Durham, United Kingdom. Electronic address: a.d.milner@durham.ac.uk.
[Ti] Title:Perceptual deficits of object identification: apperceptive agnosia.
[So] Source:Handb Clin Neurol;151:269-286, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:0072-9752
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:It is argued here that apperceptive object agnosia (generally now known as visual form agnosia) is in reality not a kind of agnosia, but rather a form of "imperception" (to use the term coined by Hughlings Jackson). We further argue that its proximate cause is a bilateral loss (or functional loss) of the visual form processing systems embodied in the human lateral occipital cortex (area LO). According to the dual-system model of cortical visual processing elaborated by Milner and Goodale (2006), area LO constitutes a crucial component of the ventral stream, and indeed is essential for providing the figural qualities inherent in our normal visual perception of the world. According to this account, the functional loss of area LO would leave only spared visual areas within the occipito-parietal dorsal stream - dedicated to the control of visually-guided actions - potentially able to provide some aspects of visual shape processing in patients with apperceptive agnosia. We review the relevant evidence from such individuals, concentrating particularly on the well-researched patient D.F. We conclude that studies of this kind can provide useful pointers to an understanding of the processing characteristics of parietal-lobe visual mechanisms and their interactions with occipitotemporal perceptual systems in the guidance of action.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:In-Process

  3 / 3185 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29519460
[Au] Autor:Rossetti Y; Pisella L
[Ad] Address:Integrative Multisensory Perception Action Cognition Team, Lyon Neuroscience Research Centre, Lyon, France. Electronic address: yves.rossetti@inserm.fr.
[Ti] Title:Optic ataxia: beyond the dorsal stream cliché.
[So] Source:Handb Clin Neurol;151:225-247, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:0072-9752
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:This chapter reviews clinical and scientific approaches to optic ataxia. This double historic track allows us to address important issues such as the link between Bálint syndrome and optic ataxia, the alleged double dissociation between optic ataxia and visual agnosia, and the use of optic ataxia to argue for a specific vision-for-action occipitoposterior parietal stream. Clinical cases are described and reveal that perceptual deficits have been long shown to accompany ataxia. Importantly, the term ataxia appears to be misleading as patients exhibit a combination of visual and nonvisual perceptual, attentional, and visuomotor guidance deficits, which are confirmed by experimental approaches. Three major features of optic ataxia are described. The first is a spatial feature whereby the deficits exhibited by patients appear to be specific to peripheral vision, akin to the field effect. Visuomotor field examination allows us to quantify this deficit and reveals that it consists of a highly reliable retinocentric hypometria. The third is a temporal feature whereby these deficits are exacerbated under temporal constraints, i.e., when attending to dynamic stimuli. These two aspects combine in a situation where patients have to quickly respond to a target presented in peripheral vision that is experimentally displaced upon movement onset. In addition to the field effect, a hand effect can be described in conditions where the hand is not visible. Spatial and temporal aspects as well as field and hand effects may rely on several posterior parietal modules that remain to be precisely identified both anatomically and functionally. It is concluded that optic ataxia is not a visuomotor deficit and there is no dissociation between perception and action capacities in optic ataxia, hence a fortiori no double dissociation between optic ataxia and visual agnosia. Future directions for understanding the basic pathophysiology of optic ataxia are proposed.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:In-Process

  4 / 3185 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29336036
[Au] Autor:Lacuey N; Zonjy B; Hampson JP; Rani MRS; Zaremba A; Sainju RK; Gehlbach BK; Schuele S; Friedman D; Devinsky O; Nei M; Harper RM; Allen L; Diehl B; Millichap JJ; Bateman L; Granner MA; Dragon DN; Richerson GB; Lhatoo SD
[Ad] Address:Epilepsy Center, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland, OH, USA.
[Ti] Title:The incidence and significance of periictal apnea in epileptic seizures.
[So] Source:Epilepsia;59(3):573-582, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1528-1167
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate periictal central apnea as a seizure semiological feature, its localizing value, and possible relationship with sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) pathomechanisms. METHODS: We prospectively studied polygraphic physiological responses, including inductance plethysmography, peripheral capillary oxygen saturation (SpO ), electrocardiography, and video electroencephalography (VEEG) in 473 patients in a multicenter study of SUDEP. Seizures were classified according to the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) 2017 seizure classification based on the most prominent clinical signs during VEEG. The putative epileptogenic zone was defined based on clinical history, seizure semiology, neuroimaging, and EEG. RESULTS: Complete datasets were available in 126 patients in 312 seizures. Ictal central apnea (ICA) occurred exclusively in focal epilepsy (51/109 patients [47%] and 103/312 seizures [36.5%]) (P < .001). ICA was the only clinical manifestation in 16/103 (16.5%) seizures, and preceded EEG seizure onset by 8 ± 4.9 s, in 56/103 (54.3%) seizures. ICA ≥60 s was associated with severe hypoxemia (SpO <75%). Focal onset impaired awareness (FOIA) motor onset with automatisms and FOA nonmotor onset semiologies were associated with ICA presence (P < .001), ICA duration (P = .002), and moderate/severe hypoxemia (P = .04). Temporal lobe epilepsy was highly associated with ICA in comparison to extratemporal epilepsy (P = .001) and frontal lobe epilepsy (P = .001). Isolated postictal central apnea was not seen; in 3/103 seizures (3%), ICA persisted into the postictal period. SIGNIFICANCE: ICA is a frequent, self-limiting semiological feature of focal epilepsy, often starting before surface EEG onset, and may be the only clinical manifestation of focal seizures. However, prolonged ICA (≥60 s) is associated with severe hypoxemia and may be a potential SUDEP biomarker. ICA is more frequently seen in temporal than extratemporal seizures, and in typical temporal seizure semiologies. ICA rarely persists after seizure end. ICA agnosia is typical, and thus it may remain unrecognized without polygraphic measurements that include breathing parameters.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1111/epi.14006

  5 / 3185 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29269636
[Au] Autor:Nishida H; Hayashi Y; Harada N; Sakurai T; Wakida K
[Ad] Address:Department of Neurology, Gifu Prefectural General Medical Center, Japan.
[Ti] Title:Diagnosing Corticobasal Syndrome Based on the Presence of Visual Hallucinations and Imaging with Amyloid Positron Emission Tomography.
[So] Source:Intern Med;57(4):605-611, 2018 Feb 15.
[Is] ISSN:1349-7235
[Cp] Country of publication:Japan
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:A 61-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital due to memory difficulties, visual hallucinations, and slowly progressing motor difficulties in the limbs. A clinical examination revealed bradykinesia, gait disturbance, left-side-dominant rigidity, ideomotor apraxia, dressing apraxia, left-sided spatial agnosia, impaired visuospatial ability, and executive dysfunction. Her symptoms were unresponsive to levodopa, and corticobasal syndrome (CBS) was diagnosed. One year later, amyloid positron emission tomography revealed amyloid beta accumulation in the bilateral cerebral cortices; at this point, CBS with underlying Alzheimer's disease pathology (CBS-AD) was diagnosed. Visual hallucinations may help differentiate CBS with corticobasal degeneration (CBS-CBD) from other pathologies, including CBS-AD.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 180215
[Lr] Last revision date:180215
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.2169/internalmedicine.8534-16

  6 / 3185 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29261708
[Au] Autor:Gerlach C; Klargaard SK; Petersen A; Starrfelt R
[Ad] Address:Department of Psychology, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
[Ti] Title:Delayed processing of global shape information in developmental prosopagnosia.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(12):e0189253, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:There is accumulating evidence suggesting that a central deficit in developmental prosopagnosia (DP), a disorder characterized by profound and lifelong difficulties with face recognition, concerns impaired holistic processing. Some of this evidence comes from studies using Navon's paradigm where individuals with DP show a greater local or reduced global bias compared with controls. However, it has not been established what gives rise to this altered processing bias. Is it a reduced global precedence effect, changes in susceptibility to interference effects or both? By analyzing the performance of 10 individuals with DP in Navon's paradigm we find evidence of a reduced global precedence effect: The DPs are slower than controls to process global but not local shape information. Importantly, and in contrast to previous studies, we demonstrate that the DPs perform normally in a comprehensive test of visual attention, showing normal: visual short-term memory capacity, speed of visual processing, efficiency of top-down selectivity, and allocation of attentional resources. Hence, we conclude that the reduced global precedence effect reflects a perceptual rather than an attentional deficit. We further show that this reduced global precedence effect correlates both with the DPs' face recognition abilities, as well as their ability to recognize degraded (non-face) objects. We suggest that the DPs' impaired performance in all three domains (Navon, face and object recognition) may be related to the same dysfunction; delayed derivation of global relative to local shape information.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Prosopagnosia/physiopathology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adolescent
Facial Recognition
Female
Humans
Male
Pattern Recognition, Visual
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180116
[Lr] Last revision date:180116
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:171221
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0189253

  7 / 3185 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29185377
[Au] Autor:Orjuela-Rojas JM; Sosa-Ortiz AL; Díaz-Victoria AR; Marrufo Melendez OR; Leyva Townsend N
[Ad] Address:a Neuropsychiatry Unit , National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery , Mexico City , Mexico.
[Ti] Title:The painter from Sinaloa: artistic analysis of a case of spatial agnosia and neglect of visual shapes.
[So] Source:Neurocase;23(5-6):304-313, 2017 Oct - Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1465-3656
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Paintings produced spontaneously by patients with neurological lesions represent a fascinating opportunity to analyze some aspects of the underlying disease and involved brain mechanisms. Many cases of artists who have suffered spatial neglect following a neurological disease have been reported in the literature. However, only a few studies evaluating the different subtypes of graphic neglect and aspects related to the construction of perspective (three dimensionality) in works of art have been published. In the present article, we present the case of an artist who, after resection of a central neurocytoma that affected the right thalamo-parietal connections, suffered an impairment of the ability to create perspective in his paintings and involuntary omission of only shapes in the left side of his paintings, although colors and contours were preserved.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1711
[Cu] Class update date: 171226
[Lr] Last revision date:171226
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1080/13554794.2017.1408842

  8 / 3185 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29269367
[Au] Autor:Sugiura T; Torii T
[Ad] Address:Department of Neurology, National Hospital Organization Kure Medical Center, 3-1 Aoyama, Kure city, Japan.
[Ti] Title:Auditory agnosia caused by bilateral putamen haemorrhage.
[So] Source:BMJ Case Rep;2017, 2017 Dec 20.
[Is] ISSN:1757-790X
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:A 55-year-old right-handed man with a history of hypertension suddenly fell and developed right hemiparesis. Neurological examination revealed that he was alert, but did not appropriately respond to verbal questions and commands. Detailed examination revealed that he could correctly respond to written commands. His speech was almost fluent, showing no paraphasia and normal articulation. His written sentences were legible. Pure tone audiometry showed that his auditory acuity was relatively preserved. His brainstem auditory evoked potential components from I to V were recorded bilaterally with normal latency. Cerebral CT demonstrated fresh bleeding in the left putamen and an old haemorrhage on the opposite side. He was treated by antihypertensive therapy and rehabilitation. Although there remained mild sensory deficit on his right extremities and he felt a slight noise during conversation, he had little difficulty with verbal communication when he was transferred to another hospital on day 38.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 171222
[Lr] Last revision date:171222
[St] Status:In-Process

  9 / 3185 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29192795
[Au] Autor:Piccardi L; De Luca M; Di Vita A; Palermo L; Tanzilli A; Dacquino C; Pizzamiglio MR
[Ad] Address:a Life, Health and Environmental Science Department , University of L'Aquila , L'Aquila , Italy.
[Ti] Title:Evidence of taxonomy for Developmental Topographical Disorientation: Developmental Landmark Agnosia Case 1.
[So] Source:Appl Neuropsychol Child;:1-12, 2017 Dec 01.
[Is] ISSN:2162-2973
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:We report Developmental Landmark Agnosia (DLA) in a 6-year-old boy (L.G.) who was referred to us for congenital prosopagnosia (see Pizzamiglio et al., 2017 , in which both testing and rehabilitation of Congenital Prosopagnosia are reported). We investigated his performance using a neuropsychological battery and eye movement recordings. The assessment showed the presence of deficits in recognizing familiar places (along with Congenital Prosopagnosia), but not common objects. Eye movement recordings confirmed his problems in recognizing familiar landmarks and misrecognition of unfamiliar places. L.G. is the first evidence of a DLA, suggesting identification of taxonomy of navigational disorders in Developmental Topographical Disorientation is possible, as in the Acquired Topographical Disorientation.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 171201
[Lr] Last revision date:171201
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1080/21622965.2017.1401477

  10 / 3185 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 27777020
[Au] Autor:Tang M; Ryman DC; McDade E; Jasielec MS; Buckles VD; Cairns NJ; Fagan AM; Goate A; Marcus DS; Xiong C; Allegri RF; Chhatwal JP; Danek A; Farlow MR; Fox NC; Ghetti B; Graff-Radford NR; Laske C; Martins RN; Masters CL; Mayeux RP; Ringman JM; Rossor MN; Salloway SP; Schofield PR; Morris JC; Bateman RJ; Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN)
[Ad] Address:Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO, USA.
[Ti] Title:Neurological manifestations of autosomal dominant familial Alzheimer's disease: a comparison of the published literature with the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network observational study (DIAN-OBS).
[So] Source:Lancet Neurol;15(13):1317-1325, 2016 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1474-4465
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Autosomal dominant familial Alzheimer's disease (ADAD) is a rare disorder with non-amnestic neurological symptoms in some clinical presentations. We aimed to compile and compare data from symptomatic participants in the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network observational study (DIAN-OBS) with those reported in the literature to estimate the prevalences of non-amnestic neurological symptoms in participants with ADAD. METHODS: We prospectively collected data from the DIAN-OBS database, which recruited participants from study centres in the USA, Europe, and Australia, between Feb 29, 2008, and July 1, 2014. We also did a systematic review of publications to extract individual-level clinical data for symptomatic participants with ADAD. We used data for age of onset (from first report of cognitive decline), disease course from onset to death, and the presence of 13 neurological findings that have been reported in association with ADAD. Using multivariable linear regression, we investigated the prevalences of various non-amnestic neurological symptoms and the contributions of age of onset and specific mutation type on symptoms. FINDINGS: The DIAN-OBS dataset included 107 individuals with detailed clinical data (forming the DIAN-OBS cohort). Our systematic review yielded 188 publications reporting on 1228 symptomatic individuals, with detailed neurological examination descriptions available for 753 individuals (forming the published data cohort). The most prevalent non-amnestic cognitive manifestations in participants in the DIAN-OBS cohort were those typical of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease, including visual agnosia (55·1%, 95% CI 45·7-64·6), aphasia (57·9%, 48·6-67·3), and behavioural changes (61·7%, 51·5-70·0). Non-amnestic cognitive manifestations were less prevalent in the published data cohort (eg, visual agnosia [5·6%, 3·9-7·2], aphasia [23·0%, 20·0-26·0], and behavioural changes [31·7%, 28·4-35·1]). Prevalence of non-cognitive neurological manifestations in the DIAN-OBS cohort was low, including myoclonus and spasticity (9·3%, 95% CI 3·8-15·0), and seizures (2·8%, 0·5-5·9) and moderate for parkinsonism (11·2%, 5·3-17·1). By constrast, prevalence was higher in the published data cohort for myoclonus and spasticity (19·4%, 16·6-22·2 and 15·0%, 12·5-17·6, respectively), parkinsonism (12·5%, 10·1-15·0), and seizures (20·3%, 17·4-23·2). In an analysis of the published data cohort, ischaemic stroke was more prevalent at older ages of onset of symptoms of ADAD (odds ratio 1·09 per 1 year increase in age of onset, 95% CI 1·04-1·14, p=0·0003); and motor symptoms were more common at younger age of onset (myoclonus 0·93, 0·90-0·97, p=0·0007; seizures 0·95, 0·92-0·98, p=0·0018; corticobulbar deficits 0·91, 0·86-0·96, p=0·0012; and cerebellar ataxia 0·82, 0·74-0·91, p=0·0002). In the DIAN-OBS cohort, non-cognitive symptoms were more common at more severe stages of disease. INTERPRETATION: The non-cognitive clinical manifestations of Alzheimer's disease seem to affect a small proportion of participants with mild to moderate ADAD, and are probably influenced by disease severity, environmental, and genetic factors. When evaluating patients with potential ADAD, clinicians should note that cognitive symptoms typical of sporadic Alzheimer's disease are the most consistent finding, with some patients manifesting non-cognitive neurological symptoms. Future work is needed to determine the environmental and genetic factors that cause these neurological symptoms. FUNDING: National Institutes of Health and German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Alzheimer Disease/genetics
Alzheimer Disease/physiopathology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Alzheimer Disease/epidemiology
Humans
[Pt] Publication type:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE; META-ANALYSIS; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1705
[Cu] Class update date: 171201
[Lr] Last revision date:171201
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:161026
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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