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[PMID]: 25666844
[Au] Autor:Lai PS; Hang JQ; Valeri L; Zhang FY; Zheng BY; Mehta AJ; Shi J; Su L; Brown D; Eisen EA; Christiani DC
[Ad] Address:Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA....
[Ti] Title:Endotoxin and gender modify lung function recovery after occupational organic dust exposure: a 30-year study.
[So] Source:Occup Environ Med;72(8):546-52, 2015 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1470-7926
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to determine the trajectory of lung function change after exposure cessation to occupational organic dust exposure, and to identify factors that modify improvement. METHODS: The Shanghai Textile Worker Study is a longitudinal study of 447 cotton workers exposed to endotoxin-containing dust and 472 silk workers exposed to non-endotoxin-containing dust. Spirometry was performed at 5-year intervals. Air sampling was performed to estimate individual cumulative exposures. The effect of work cessation on forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) was modelled using generalised additive mixed effects models to identify the trajectory of FEV1 recovery. Linear mixed effects models incorporating interaction terms were used to identify modifiers of FEV1 recovery. Loss to follow-up was accounted for with inverse probability of censoring weights. RESULTS: 74.2% of the original cohort still alive participated in 2011. Generalised additive mixed models identified a non-linear improvement in FEV1 for all workers after exposure cessation, with no plateau noted 25 years after retirement. Linear mixed effects models incorporating interaction terms identified prior endotoxin exposure (p=0.01) and male gender (p=0.002) as risk factors for impaired FEV1 improvement after exposure cessation. After adjusting for gender, smoking delayed the onset of FEV1 gain but did not affect the overall magnitude of change. CONCLUSIONS: Lung function improvement after cessation of exposure to organic dust is sustained. Endotoxin exposure and male gender are risk factors for less FEV1 improvement.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1507
[Cu] Class update date: 150718
[Lr] Last revision date:150718
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1136/oemed-2014-102579

  2 / 273031 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26058575
[Au] Autor:Zhao D; Pacheco-Torres J; Hallac RR; White D; Peschke P; Cerdán S; Mason RP
[Ad] Address:Department of Radiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA....
[Ti] Title:Dynamic oxygen challenge evaluated by NMR T1 and T2 * - insights into tumor oxygenation.
[So] Source:NMR Biomed;28(8):937-47, 2015 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1099-1492
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:There is intense interest in developing non-invasive prognostic biomarkers of tumor response to therapy, particularly with regard to hypoxia. It has been suggested that oxygen sensitive MRI, notably blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) and tissue oxygen level-dependent (TOLD) contrast, may provide relevant measurements. This study examined the feasibility of interleaved T2 *- and T1 -weighted oxygen sensitive MRI, as well as R2 * and R1 maps, of rat tumors to assess the relative sensitivity to changes in oxygenation. Investigations used cohorts of Dunning prostate R3327-AT1 and R3327-HI tumors, which are reported to exhibit distinct size-dependent levels of hypoxia and response to hyperoxic gas breathing. Proton MRI R1 and R2 * maps were obtained for tumors of anesthetized rats (isoflurane/air) at 4.7 T. Then, interleaved gradient echo T2 *- and T1 -weighted images were acquired during air breathing and a 10 min challenge with carbogen (95% O2 -5% CO2 ). Signals were stable during air breathing, and each type of tumor showed a distinct signal response to carbogen. T2 * (BOLD) response preceded T1 (TOLD) responses, as expected. Smaller HI tumors (reported to be well oxygenated) showed the largest BOLD and TOLD responses. Larger AT1 tumors (reported to be hypoxic and resist modulation by gas breathing) showed the smallest response. There was a strong correlation between BOLD and TOLD signal responses, but ΔR2 (*) and ΔR1 were only correlated for the HI tumors. The magnitude of BOLD and TOLD signal responses to carbogen breathing reflected expected hypoxic fractions and oxygen dynamics, suggesting potential value of this test as a prognostic biomarker of tumor hypoxia. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1507
[Cu] Class update date: 150718
[Lr] Last revision date:150718
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1002/nbm.3325

  3 / 273031 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25627872
[Au] Autor:Mehta AJ; Kubzansky LD; Coull BA; Kloog I; Koutrakis P; Sparrow D; Spiro A; Vokonas P; Schwartz J
[Ad] Address:Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Landmark Ctr, West 415, 401 Park Dr, Boston, MA, 02215, USA. amehta@hsph.harvard.edu....
[Ti] Title:Associations between air pollution and perceived stress: the Veterans Administration Normative Aging Study.
[So] Source:Environ Health;14(1):10, 2015.
[Is] ISSN:1476-069X
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: There is mixed evidence suggesting that air pollution may be associated with increased risk of developing psychiatric disorders. We aimed to investigate the association between air pollution and non-specific perceived stress, often a precursor to development of affective psychiatric disorders. METHODS: This longitudinal analysis consisted of 987 older men participating in at least one visit for the Veterans Administration Normative Aging Study between 1995 and 2007 (n = 2,244 visits). At each visit, participants were administered the 14-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), which quantifies stress experienced in the previous week. Scores ranged from 0-56 with higher scores indicating increased stress. Differences in PSS score per interquartile range increase in moving average (1, 2, and 4-weeks) of air pollution exposures were estimated using linear mixed-effects regression after adjustment for age, race, education, physical activity, anti-depressant medication use, seasonality, meteorology, and day of week. We also evaluated effect modification by season (April-September and March-October for warm and cold season, respectively). RESULTS: Fine particles (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), nitrogen dioxide, and particle number counts (PNC) at moving averages of 1, 2, and 4-weeks were associated with higher perceived stress ratings. The strongest associations were observed for PNC; for example, a 15,997 counts/cm(3) interquartile range increase in 1-week average PNC was associated with a 3.2 point (95%CI: 2.1-4.3) increase in PSS score. Season modified the associations for specific pollutants; higher PSS scores in association with PM2.5, BC, and sulfate were observed mainly in colder months. CONCLUSIONS: Air pollution was associated with higher levels of perceived stress in this sample of older men, particularly in colder months for specific pollutants.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1507
[Cu] Class update date: 150718
[Lr] Last revision date:150718
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1186/1476-069X-14-10

  4 / 273031 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25567355
[Au] Autor:Madrigano J; Jack D; Anderson GB; Bell ML; Kinney PL
[Ad] Address:Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ, USA. jaime.madrigano@rutgers.edu....
[Ti] Title:Temperature, ozone, and mortality in urban and non-urban counties in the northeastern United States.
[So] Source:Environ Health;14(1):3, 2015.
[Is] ISSN:1476-069X
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Most health effects studies of ozone and temperature have been performed in urban areas, due to the available monitoring data. We used observed and interpolated data to examine temperature, ozone, and mortality in 91 urban and non-urban counties. METHODS: Ozone measurements were extracted from the Environmental Protection Agency's Air Quality System. Meteorological data were supplied by the National Center for Atmospheric Research. Observed data were spatially interpolated to county centroids. Daily internal-cause mortality counts were obtained from the National Center for Health Statistics (1988-1999). A two-stage Bayesian hierarchical model was used to estimate each county's increase in mortality risk from temperature and ozone. We examined county-level associations according to population density and compared urban (≥1,000 persons/mile(2)) to non-urban (<1,000 persons/mile(2)) counties. Finally, we examined county-level characteristics that could explain variation in associations by county. RESULTS: A 10 ppb increase in ozone was associated with a 0.45% increase in mortality (95% PI: 0.08, 0.83) in urban counties, while this same increase in ozone was associated with a 0.73% increase (95% PI: 0.19, 1.26) in non-urban counties. An increase in temperature from 70°F to 90°F (21.2°C 32.2°C) was associated with a 8.88% increase in mortality (95% PI: 7.38, 10.41) in urban counties and a 8.08% increase (95% PI: 6.16, 10.05) in non-urban counties. County characteristics, such as population density, percentage of families living in poverty, and percentage of elderly residents, partially explained the variation in county-level associations. CONCLUSIONS: While most prior studies of ozone and temperature have been performed in urban areas, the impacts in non-urban areas are significant, and, for ozone, potentially greater. The health risks of increasing temperature and air pollution brought on by climate change are not limited to urban areas.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1507
[Cu] Class update date: 150718
[Lr] Last revision date:150718
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1186/1476-069X-14-3

  5 / 273031 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26010977
[Au] Autor:Faron M; Fletcher JR; Rasmussen JA; Apicella MA; Jones BD
[Ad] Address:Graduate Program in Genetics, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, United States of America....
[Ti] Title:Interactions of Francisella tularensis with Alveolar Type II Epithelial Cells and the Murine Respiratory Epithelium.
[So] Source:PLoS One;10(5):e0127458, 2015.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Francisella tularensis is classified as a Tier 1 select agent by the CDC due to its low infectious dose and the possibility that the organism can be used as a bioweapon. The low dose of infection suggests that Francisella is unusually efficient at evading host defenses. Although ~50 cfu are necessary to cause human respiratory infection, the early interactions of virulent Francisella with the lung environment are not well understood. To provide additional insights into these interactions during early Francisella infection of mice, we performed TEM analysis on mouse lungs infected with F. tularensis strains Schu S4, LVS and the O-antigen mutant Schu S4 waaY::TrgTn. For all three strains, the majority of the bacteria that we could detect were observed within alveolar type II epithelial cells at 16 hours post infection. Although there were no detectable differences in the amount of bacteria within an infected cell between the three strains, there was a significant increase in the amount of cellular debris observed in the air spaces of the lungs in the Schu S4 waaY::TrgTn mutant compared to either the Schu S4 or LVS strain. We also studied the interactions of Francisella strains with human AT-II cells in vitro by characterizing the ability of these three strains to invade and replicate within these cells. Gentamicin assay and confocal microscopy both confirmed that F. tularensis Schu S4 replicated robustly within these cells while F. tularensis LVS displayed significantly lower levels of growth over 24 hours, although the strain was able to enter these cells at about the same level as Schu S4 (1 organism per cell), as determined by confocal imaging. The Schu S4 waaY::TrgTn mutant that we have previously described as attenuated for growth in macrophages and mouse virulence displayed interesting properties as well. This mutant induced significant airway inflammation (cell debris) and had an attenuated growth phenotype in the human AT-II cells. These data extend our understanding of early Francisella infection by demonstrating that Francisella enter significant numbers of AT-II cells within the lung and that the capsule and LPS of wild type Schu S4 helps prevent murine lung damage during infection. Furthermore, our data identified that human AT-II cells allow growth of Schu S4, but these same cells supported poor growth of the attenuated LVS strain in vitro. Collectively, these data further our understanding of the role of AT-II cells in Francisella infections.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL
[Em] Entry month:1505
[Cu] Class update date: 150617
[Lr] Last revision date:150617
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0127458

  6 / 273031 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25993476
[Au] Autor:Monechi B; Servedio VD; Loreto V
[Ad] Address:Sapienza University of Rome, Physics Dept., Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma, Italy.
[Ti] Title:Congestion transition in air traffic networks.
[So] Source:PLoS One;10(5):e0125546, 2015.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Air Transportation represents a very interesting example of a complex techno-social system whose importance has considerably grown in time and whose management requires a careful understanding of the subtle interplay between technological infrastructure and human behavior. Despite the competition with other transportation systems, a growth of air traffic is still foreseen in Europe for the next years. The increase of traffic load could bring the current Air Traffic Network above its capacity limits so that safety standards and performances might not be guaranteed anymore. Lacking the possibility of a direct investigation of this scenario, we resort to computer simulations in order to quantify the disruptive potential of an increase in traffic load. To this end we model the Air Transportation system as a complex dynamical network of flights controlled by humans who have to solve potentially dangerous conflicts by redirecting aircraft trajectories. The model is driven and validated through historical data of flight schedules in a European national airspace. While correctly reproducing actual statistics of the Air Transportation system, e.g., the distribution of delays, the model allows for theoretical predictions. Upon an increase of the traffic load injected in the system, the model predicts a transition from a phase in which all conflicts can be successfully resolved, to a phase in which many conflicts cannot be resolved anymore. We highlight how the current flight density of the Air Transportation system is well below the transition, provided that controllers make use of a special re-routing procedure. While the congestion transition displays a universal scaling behavior, its threshold depends on the conflict solving strategy adopted. Finally, the generality of the modeling scheme introduced makes it a flexible general tool to simulate and control Air Transportation systems in realistic and synthetic scenarios.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Entry month:1505
[Cu] Class update date: 150530
[Lr] Last revision date:150530
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0125546

  7 / 273031 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25992622
[Au] Autor:Hong B; Biertz F; Raab P; Scheinichen D; Ertl P; Grosshennig A; Nakamura M; Hermann EJ; Lang JM; Lanfermann H; Krauss JK
[Ad] Address:Department of Neurosurgery, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany....
[Ti] Title:Normobaric hyperoxia for treatment of pneumocephalus after posterior fossa surgery in the semisitting position: a prospective randomized controlled trial.
[So] Source:PLoS One;10(5):e0125710, 2015.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Supratentorial pneumocephalus after posterior fossa surgery in the semisitting position may lead to decreased alertness and other symptoms. We here aimed to prove the efficacy of normobaric hyperoxia on the absorption of postoperative pneumocephalus according to a standardized treatment protocol. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We enrolled 44 patients with postoperative supratentorial pneumocephalus (> 30 ml) after posterior fossa surgery in a semisitting position. After randomisation procedure, patients received either normobaric hyperoxia at FiO2 100% over an endotracheal tube for 3 hours (treatment arm) or room air (control arm). Routine cranial CT scans were performed immediately (CT1) and 24 hours (CT2) after completion of surgery and were rated without knowledge of the therapy arm. Two co-primary endpoints were assessed: (i) mean change of pneumocephalus volume, and (ii) air resorption rate in 24 hours. Secondary endpoints were subjective alertness (Stanford Sleepiness Scale) postoperatively and attention (Stroop test), which were evaluated preoperatively and 24 hours after surgery. The mean change in pneumocephalus volume was higher in patients in the treatment arm as compared to patients in the control arm (p = 0.001). The air resorption rate was higher in patients in the treatment arm as compared to patients in the control arm (p = 0.0015). Differences were more pronounced in patients aged 52 years and older. No difference between patients in treatment arm and control arm was observed for the Stroop test. The distribution of scores in the Stanford Sleepiness Scale differed in the treatment arm as compared to the control arm, and there was a difference in mean values (p = 0.015). CONCLUSIONS: Administration of normobaric hyperoxia at FiO2 100% via an endotracheal tube for 3 hours is safe and efficacious in the treatment of pneumocephalus after posterior fossa surgery in the semisitting position. Largest benefit was found in elderly patients and particularly in older men. TRIAL REGISTRATION: German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00006273.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1505
[Cu] Class update date: 150530
[Lr] Last revision date:150530
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0125710

  8 / 273031 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26186828
[Au] Autor:Karnjkar YS; Dinde RM; Dinde NM; Bawankar KN; Hinge SP; Mohod AV; Gogate PR
[Ad] Address:Department of Chemical Engineering, AISSMS College of Engineering, Kennedy Road, Pune 411001, India....
[Ti] Title:Degradation of magenta dye using different approaches based on ultrasonic and ultraviolet irradiations: Comparison of effectiveness and effect of additives for intensification.
[So] Source:Ultrason Sonochem;27:117-24, 2015 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1873-2828
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The conventional chemical oxidation methods have not been very successful for the treatment of dyes due to higher stability against the oxidizing agents. The present work investigates the application of an improved treatment approach based on the ultrasonic and ultraviolet irradiations for treatment of dye containing wastewaters. Magenta dye, which is commonly used in textile industries, has been used as a model compound. Initially, the experiments have been performed using individual operation of ultrasonic and ultraviolet irradiations. Studies related to effect of concentration revealed that the extent of degradation increased with an increase in the concentration of dye solution till an optimum loading. Intensification of the extent of degradation using ultrasonic irradiation has been investigated using different additives such as NaCl, TiO2, air and starch. Also the efficacy of combined treatment approaches based on different approaches involving ultrasound, ultraviolet irradiation and additives for the removal of magenta dye from the aqueous solution have been evaluated. For the use of additives, maximum intensification was achieved for TiO2 followed by use of NaCl and least effect was observed for starch. For the combined treatment approaches, the maximum extent of degradation (98.8%) and maximum COD removal (94.0%) has been obtained for the combination of ultrasound with 1g/L TiO2 and air. The present work has clearly demonstrated the efficacy of combined treatment approaches for removal of dyes from the wastewater.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1507
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  9 / 273031 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26186825
[Au] Autor:Zhang QA; Shen Y; Fan XH; Martín JF; Wang X; Song Y
[Ad] Address:School of Food Engineering and Nutrition Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710062, PR China. Electronic address: qinganzhang@snnu.edu.cn....
[Ti] Title:Free radical generation induced by ultrasound in red wine and model wine: An EPR spin-trapping study.
[So] Source:Ultrason Sonochem;27:96-101, 2015 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1873-2828
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Direct evidence for the formation of 1-hydroxylethyl radicals by ultrasound in red wine and air-saturated model wine is presented in this paper. Free radicals are thought to be the key intermediates in the ultrasound processing of wine, but their nature has not been established yet. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping with 5,5-dimethyl-l-pyrrolin N-oxide (DMPO) was used for the detection of hydroxyl free radicals and 1-hydroxylethyl free radicals. Spin adducts of hydroxyl free radicals were detected in DMPO aqueous solution after sonication while 1-hydroxylethyl free radical adducts were observed in ultrasound-processed red wine and model wine. The latter radical arose from ethanol oxidation via the hydroxyl radical generated by ultrasound in water, thus providing the first direct evidence of the formation of 1-hydroxylethyl free radical in red wine exposed to ultrasound. Finally, the effects of ultrasound frequency, ultrasound power, temperature and ultrasound exposure time were assessed on the intensity of 1-hydroxylethyl radical spin adducts in model wine.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1507
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  10 / 273031 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26092516
[Au] Autor:Halbertsma FJ; Mohns T; Bok LA; Niemarkt HJ; Kramer BW
[Ad] Address:Maxima Medical Centre, Dept. Neonatal ICU, Veldhoven, The Netherlands. Electronic address: Halbertsma@mmc.nl....
[Ti] Title:Prevalence of systemic air-embolism after prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation in newborns: A pilot study.
[So] Source:Resuscitation;93:96-101, 2015 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1873-1570
[Cp] Country of publication:Ireland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Chest compressions (CC) during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) are the cornerstone of adult CPR protocols and are meant to restore circulation and improve outcome. Although adverse effects such as air-embolisms have been reported, these are rare and considered to be outweighed by beneficial effect. In newborns, however, the lung tissue is more fragile. Thus, the high intra-thoracic pressures resulting from CC may make the newborns more vulnerable for air-embolisms. OBJECTIVES: We studied the postmortem prevalence of air-embolism in neonates that have received CPR. METHODS: Prospective cohort analysis of newborns receiving CC during CPR. CPR was performed by trained staff according to ILCOR guidelines, in a tertiary hospital. Air-embolisms were sought after using CT/MRI and autopsy. RESULTS: During a 61/2 year period (2007-2014), n=56 newborns received CC. Newborns were resuscitated following severe perinatal hypoxia, or due to complications during NICU treatment. In n=14 (25.0%) circulation could not be restored (mean CPR duration: 32.7±15.2min). Post-mortem CT/MRI was performed in n=9, of whom n=8 (88.9%) had air-embolisms. Autopsy was performed in n=9. The air-embolisms could not be retraced on autopsy except for n=1 patient. In patients with CPR resulting in restored circulation (n=42), no CT or MRI was performed for comparison due to radiation and/or hemodynamic instability. Cerebral ultrasound could not identify or exclude air-embolisms in this subgroup. CONCLUSIONS: Post-mortem CT after prolonged resuscitation showed a high prevalence of intravascular air-embolism. Autopsy was not suited to detect air-embolism. The clinical importance of air-embolisms on the lethal outcome needs further research.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1507
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review


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