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[PMID]: 27124311
[Au] Autor:Sun Y; Liu Y; Li R; Xue G; Ognier S
[Ad] Address:School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, 2999 North Renmin Road, Shanghai 201620, China....
[Ti] Title:Degradation of reactive blue 19 by needle-plate non-thermal plasma in different gas atmospheres: Kinetics and responsible active species study assisted by CFD calculations.
[So] Source:Chemosphere;155:243-9, 2016 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1879-1298
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:This study investigated the degradation of a model organic compound, reactive blue (RB-19), in aqueous solution using a needle-plate non-thermal plasma (NTP) reactor, which was operated using three gas atmospheres (Ar, air, O2) at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The relative discharge and degradation parameters, including the peak to peak applied voltage, power, ozone generation, pH, decolorization rates, energy density and the total organic carbon (TOC) reduction were analyzed to determine the various dye removal efficiencies. The decolorization rate for Ar, air and O2 were 59.9%, 49.6% and 89.8% respectively at the energy density of 100 kJ/L. The best TOC reduction was displayed by Ar with about 8.8% decrease, and 0% with O2 and air atmospheres. This phenomenon could be explained by the formation of OH• and O3 in the Ar and O2 atmospheres, which are responsible for increased mineralization and efficient decolorization. A one-dimension model was developed using software COMSOL to simulate the RB-19-ozone reaction and verify the experiments by comparing the simulated and experimental results. It was determined that ozone plays the most important role in the dye removal process, and the ozone contribution rate ranged from 0.67 to 0.82.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1605
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  2 / 285906 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 27115848
[Au] Autor:Chen Y; Schleicher N; Cen K; Liu X; Yu Y; Zibat V; Dietze V; Fricker M; Kaminski U; Chen Y; Chai F; Norra S
[Ad] Address:Institute of Applied Geosciences, Working Group for Environmental Mineralogy and Environmental System Analysis, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany. Electronic address: yuan.chen@kit.edu....
[Ti] Title:Evaluation of impact factors on PM2.5 based on long-term chemical components analyses in the megacity Beijing, China.
[So] Source:Chemosphere;155:234-42, 2016 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1879-1298
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Nine years of sampling and analyses of fine particles (PM2.5) were performed in Beijing from 2005 to 2013. Twenty-seven chemical elements and black carbon (BC) in PM2.5 were analyzed in order to study chemical characteristics and temporal distribution of Beijing aerosols. Principle component analysis defined different types of elemental sources, based on which, the influences of a variety of anthropogenic activities including governmental intervention measures and natural sources on air quality were evaluated. For the first time, Ga is used as a tracer element for heating activities mainly using coal in Beijing, due to its correlation with BC and coal combustion, as well as its concentration variation between the heating- and non-heating periods. The traffic restrictions effectively reduced emissions of relevant heavy metals such as As, Cd, Sn and Sb. The expected long-term effectiveness of the steel smelters relocation was not observed due to the nearby relocation with increased capacity. Firework display during every Chinese spring festival season and special events such as the Olympic Games resulted in several times higher concentrations of K, Sr and Ba than other days and thus they were proposed as tracers for firework display. The impacts of all these factors were quantified and evaluated. Sand dust or dust storms induced higher concentrations of geogenic elements in PM2.5 compared to non-dust days. Sustainable mitigation measures, such as traffic restrictions, are necessary to be continued and improved to obtain more "blue sky" days in the future.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1605
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  3 / 285906 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 27108365
[Au] Autor:Mohammed MO; Song WW; Ma YL; Liu LY; Ma WL; Li WL; Li YF; Wang FY; Qi MY; Lv N; Wang DZ; Khan AU
[Ad] Address:International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances (IJRC-PTS), State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090, China; Faculty of Public and Environmental Health, University of Khartoum, 205, Sudan....
[Ti] Title:Distribution patterns, infiltration and health risk assessment of PM2.5-bound PAHs in indoor and outdoor air in cold zone.
[So] Source:Chemosphere;155:70-85, 2016 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1879-1298
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:In this study we investigated the distribution patterns, infiltration and health risk assessment of PM2.5-bound PAHs in indoor and outdoor air done in Harbin city, northeastern China. Simultaneous indoor and outdoor sampling was done to collect 264 PM2.5 samples from four sites during winter, summer, and spring. Infiltration of PAHs into indoors was estimated using Retene, Benzo [ghi]perylene and Chrysene as reference compounds, where the latter compound was suggested to be a good estimator and subsequently used for further calculation of infiltration factors (IFs). Modeling with positive matrix factorization (PMF5) and estimation of diagnostic isomeric ratios were applied for identifying sources, where coal combustion, crop residues burning and traffic being the major contributors, particularly during winter. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) has been utilized to show the distribution patterns of individual PAH congeners. LDA showed that, the greatest seasonal variability was attributed to high molecular weight compounds (HMW PAHs). Potential health risk of PAHs exposure was assessed through relative potency factor approach (RPF). The levels of the sum of 16 US EPA priority PAHs during colder months were very high, with average values of 377 ± 228 ng m(-)(3) and 102 ± 75.8 ng m(-)(3), for the outdoors and indoors, respectively. The outdoor levels reported to be 19 times higher than the outdoor concentrations during warmer months (summer + spring), while the indoor concentrations were suggested to be 9 times and 10 times higher than that for indoor summer (average 11.73 ± 4 ng m(-3)) and indoor spring (9.5 ± 3.3 ng m(-3)). During nighttime, outdoor PAHs revealed wider range of values compared to datytime which was likely due to outdoor temperature, a weather parameter with the strongest negative influence on ∑16PAHs compared to low impact of relative humidity and wind speed.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1605
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  4 / 285906 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 27105152
[Au] Autor:De Craemer S; Croes K; van Larebeke N; Sioen I; Schoeters G; Loots I; Nawrot T; Nelen V; Campo L; Fustinoni S; Baeyens W
[Ad] Address:Department of Analytical, Environmental and Geochemistry (AMGC), Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Elsene, Belgium. Electronic address: sam.de.craemer@vub.ac.be....
[Ti] Title:Investigating unmetabolized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in adolescents' urine as biomarkers of environmental exposure.
[So] Source:Chemosphere;155:48-56, 2016 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1879-1298
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of interest to human biomonitoring studies due to their carcinogenic potential. Traditionally metabolites of these compounds, like 1-hydroxypyrene, are monitored in urine, but recent methods allow the determination of the parent compounds in urine, which give additional information regarding sources and toxicity of PAHs. In order to assess the feasibility of incorporating these methods in a human biomonitoring study, the 16 USEPA parent PAHs were determined in 20 urine samples. These samples were obtained from 10 boys and 10 girls aged 14-16 years, participating in the third Flemish Environment and Health Study (Flanders, Belgium). Of these 16 parent PAHs, nine could be determined in more than 95% of the samples and three (including benzo(a)pyrene) in more than 50%. Several correlations were found between different PAHs, but not between pyrene and its metabolite 1-hydroxypyrene. Diagnostic PAH ratios in urine and air samples pointed towards combustion sources and are in line with the ratios in environmental samples. Benzo(a)pyrene, naphthalene and fluorene have the highest carcinogenic potential in our cohort, when using toxic equivalency factors. Some associations between PAH congeners and determinants of exposure were found, while fluorene and acenaphthylene were positively associated with thyroid hormone levels and benzo(a)pyrene showed a positive correlation with DNA damage by comet assay. These results confirm that parent PAHs in urine are useful as biomarkers of exposure in biomonitoring studies.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1605
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  5 / 285906 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 27093634
[Au] Autor:Ge LQ; Cang L; Liu H; Zhou DM
[Ad] Address:Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China. Electronic address: lqge@issas.ac.cn....
[Ti] Title:Effects of warming on uptake and translocation of cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) in a contaminated soil-rice system under Free Air Temperature Increase (FATI).
[So] Source:Chemosphere;155:1-8, 2016 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1879-1298
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Global warming has received growing attentions about its potential threats to human in recent, however little is known about its effects on transfer of heavy metals in agro-ecosystem, especially for Cd in rice. Pot experiments were conducted to evaluate Cd/Cu translocation in a contaminated soil-rice system under Free Air Temperature Increase (FATI). The results showed that warming gradually decreased soil porewater pH and increased water-soluble Cd/Cu concentration, reduced formation of iron plaque on root surface, and thus significantly increased total uptake of Cd/Cu by rice. Subsequently, warming significantly promoted Cd translocation from root to shoot, and increased Cd distribution percentage in shoot, while Cu was not significantly affected. Enhanced Cd uptake and translocation synergistically resulted in higher rice grain contamination with increasing concentration from 0.27 to 0.65 and 0.14-0.40 mg kg(-1) for Indica and Japonica rice, respectively. However increase of Cu in brown grain was only attributed to its uptake enhancement under warming. Our study provides a new understanding about the food production insecurity of heavy metal contaminated soil under the future global warming.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1605
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  6 / 285906 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26876772
[Au] Autor:Ayers JW; Althouse BM; Allem JP; Leas EC; Dredze M; Williams RS
[Ad] Address:Graduate School of Public Health, San Diego State University, San Diego, California. Electronic address: ayers.john.w@gmail.com....
[Ti] Title:Revisiting the Rise of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems Using Search Query Surveillance.
[So] Source:Am J Prev Med;50(6):e173-81, 2016 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1873-2607
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:INTRODUCTION: Public perceptions of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) remain poorly understood because surveys are too costly to regularly implement and, when implemented, there are long delays between data collection and dissemination. Search query surveillance has bridged some of these gaps. Herein, ENDS' popularity in the U.S. is reassessed using Google searches. METHODS: ENDS searches originating in the U.S. from January 2009 through January 2015 were disaggregated by terms focused on e-cigarette (e.g., e-cig) versus vaping (e.g., vapers); their geolocation (e.g., state); the aggregate tobacco control measures corresponding to their geolocation (e.g., clean indoor air laws); and by terms that indicated the searcher's potential interest (e.g., buy e-cigs likely indicates shopping)-all analyzed in 2015. RESULTS: ENDS searches are rapidly increasing in the U.S., with 8,498,000 searches during 2014 alone. Increasingly, searches are shifting from e-cigarette- to vaping-focused terms, especially in coastal states and states where anti-smoking norms are stronger. For example, nationally, e-cigarette searches declined 9% (95% CI=1%, 16%) during 2014 compared with 2013, whereas vaping searches increased 136% (95% CI=97%, 186%), even surpassing e-cigarette searches. Additionally, the percentage of ENDS searches related to shopping (e.g., vape shop) nearly doubled in 2014, whereas searches related to health concerns (e.g., vaping risks) or cessation (e.g., quit smoking with e-cigs) were rare and declined in 2014. CONCLUSIONS: ENDS popularity is rapidly growing and evolving. These findings could inform survey questionnaire development for follow-up investigation and immediately guide policy debates about how the public perceives the health risks or cessation benefits of ENDS.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1605
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  7 / 285906 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26653976
[Au] Autor:Killingley B; Greatorex J; Digard P; Wise H; Garcia F; Varsani H; Cauchemez S; Enstone JE; Hayward A; Curran MD; Read RC; Lim WS; Nicholson KG; Nguyen-Van-Tam JS
[Ad] Address:Health Protection and Influenza Research Group, Division of Public Health and Epidemiology, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK....
[Ti] Title:The environmental deposition of influenza virus from patients infected with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09: Implications for infection prevention and control.
[So] Source:J Infect Public Health;9(3):278-88, 2016 May-Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1876-035X
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:In a multi-center, prospective, observational study over two influenza seasons, we sought to quantify and correlate the amount of virus recovered from the nares of infected subjects with that recovered from their immediate environment in community and hospital settings. We recorded the symptoms of adults and children with A(H1N1)pdm09 infection, took nasal swabs, and sampled touched surfaces and room air. Forty-two infected subjects were followed up. The mean duration of virus shedding was 6.2 days by PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) and 4.2 days by culture. Surface swabs were collected from 39 settings; 16 (41%) subject locations were contaminated with virus. Overall, 33 of the 671 (4.9%) surface swabs were PCR positive for influenza, of which two (0.3%) yielded viable virus. On illness Day 3, subjects yielding positive surface samples had significantly higher nasal viral loads (geometric mean ratio 25.7; 95% CI 1.75, 376.0, p=0.021) and a positive correlation (r=0.47, p=0.006) was observed between subject nasal viral loads and viral loads recovered from the surfaces around them. Room air was sampled in the vicinity of 12 subjects, and PCR positive samples were obtained for five (42%) samples. Influenza virus shed by infected subjects did not detectably contaminate the vast majority of surfaces sampled. We question the relative importance of the indirect contact transmission of influenza via surfaces, though our data support the existence of super-spreaders via this route. The air sampling results add to the accumulating evidence that supports the potential for droplet nuclei (aerosol) transmission of influenza.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1605
[Cu] Class update date: 160521
[Lr] Last revision date:160521
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  8 / 285906 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26658879
[Au] Autor:Ertem F; Dashwood WM; Rajendran P; Raju G; Rashid A; Dashwood R
[Ad] Address:Center for Epigenetics and Disease Prevention, Texas A&M Health Science Center, Houston, Texas, USA....
[Ti] Title:Development of a murine colonoscopic polypectomy model (with videos).
[So] Source:Gastrointest Endosc;83(6):1272-6, 2016 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1097-6779
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Colonoscopy provides a means for screening and removal of colon adenomas, preventing such lesions from progressing to late-stage carcinoma. No preclinical model currently exists that closely parallels the clinical scenario with respect to polyp resection and recovery after endoscopy. METHODS: When we used the polyposis in rat colon (Pirc) model, a new polypectomy methodology was developed. A novel PLC classification system (polyp number/location/clockwise orientation) also was devised in order to accurately and reproducibly specify the location of each lesion within the colon. RESULTS: One week after surgery, injuries to the polypectomy site were confined to the submucosa, indicating that little or no damage occurred to the inner muscle layer of the colon. Polypectomy sites occasionally continued to show ulcer formation, whereas others exhibited tissue regeneration. A pilot study (n = 6 animals), involving a total of 37 polypectomies, confirmed that the new methodology could be applied by using either air insufflation or water-assisted techniques, with either hot or cold snare. As a general observation, polyps tended to be more fully distended and less flattened against the colon mucosa by using the water-assisted protocol, increasing the technical ease of ensnaring and resecting lesions. The PLC system proved to be straightforward and facilitated longitudinal studies by allowing the investigator to track each polypectomy site on repeated examination. CONCLUSIONS: The Pirc model was ideally suited to colonoscopy with polypectomy. Because the main cause of morbidity in the Pirc model is blockage of the colon, polypectomy can be used as a preventive strategy and will likely facilitate long-term investigations of single agent and combination therapies with potential direct clinical relevance.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1605
[Cu] Class update date: 160521
[Lr] Last revision date:160521
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  9 / 285906 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26895884
[Au] Autor:Lee CC; Watkins SM; Lorenzo C; Wagenknecht LE; Il'yasova D; Chen YD; Haffner SM; Hanley AJ
[Ad] Address:Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada....
[Ti] Title:Branched-Chain Amino Acids and Insulin Metabolism: The Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS).
[So] Source:Diabetes Care;39(4):582-8, 2016 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1935-5548
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE: Recent studies using untargeted metabolomics approaches have suggested that plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are associated with incident diabetes. However, little is known about the role of plasma BCAAs in metabolic abnormalities underlying diabetes and whether these relationships are consistent across ethnic populations at high risk for diabetes. We investigated the associations of BCAAs with insulin sensitivity (SI), acute insulin response (AIR), and metabolic clearance of insulin (MCRI) in a multiethnic cohort. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In 685 participants without diabetes of the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS) (290 Caucasians, 165 African Americans, and 230 Hispanics), we measured plasma BCAAs (sum of valine, leucine, and isoleucine) by mass spectrometry and SI, AIR, and MCRI by frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance tests. RESULTS: Elevated plasma BCAAs were inversely associated with SI and MCRI and positively associated with fasting insulin in regression models adjusted for potential confounders (ß = -0.0012 [95% CI -0.0018, -0.00059], P < 0.001 for SI; ß = -0.0013 [95% CI -0.0018, -0.00082], P < 0.001 for MCRI; and ß = 0.0015 [95% CI 0.0008, 0.0023], P < 0.001 for fasting insulin). The association of BCAA with SI was significantly modified by ethnicity, with the association only being significant in Caucasians and Hispanics. Elevated plasma BCAAs were associated with incident diabetes in Caucasians and Hispanics (multivariable-adjusted odds ratio per 1-SD increase in plasma BCAAs: 1.67 [95% CI 1.21, 2.29], P = 0.002) but not in African Americans. Plasma BCAAs were not associated with SI-adjusted AIR. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma BCAAs are associated with incident diabetes and underlying metabolic abnormalities, although the associations were generally stronger in Caucasians and Hispanics.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1605
[Cu] Class update date: 160521
[Lr] Last revision date:160521
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.2337/dc15-2284

  10 / 285906 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26868440
[Au] Autor:Chen Z; Salam MT; Toledo-Corral C; Watanabe RM; Xiang AH; Buchanan TA; Habre R; Bastain TM; Lurmann F; Wilson JP; Trigo E; Gilliland FD
[Ad] Address:Division of Environmental Health, Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA....
[Ti] Title:Ambient Air Pollutants Have Adverse Effects on Insulin and Glucose Homeostasis in Mexican Americans.
[So] Source:Diabetes Care;39(4):547-54, 2016 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1935-5548
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE: Recent studies suggest that air pollution plays a role in type 2 diabetes (T2D) incidence and mortality. The underlying physiological mechanisms have yet to be established. We hypothesized that air pollution adversely affects insulin sensitivity and secretion and serum lipid levels. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Participants were selected from BetaGene (n = 1,023), a study of insulin resistance and pancreatic ß-cell function in Mexican Americans. All participants underwent DXA and oral and intravenous glucose tolerance tests and completed dietary and physical activity questionnaires. Ambient air pollutant concentrations (NO2, O3, and PM2.5) for short- and long-term periods were assigned by spatial interpolation (maximum interpolation radius of 50 km) of data from air quality monitors. Traffic-related air pollution from freeways (TRAP) was estimated using the dispersion model as NOx. Variance component models were used to analyze individual and multiple air pollutant associations with metabolic traits. RESULTS: Short-term (up to 58 days cumulative lagged averages) exposure to PM2.5 was associated with lower insulin sensitivity and HDL-to-LDL cholesterol ratio and higher fasting glucose and insulin, HOMA-IR, total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) (all P ≤ 0.036). Annual average PM2.5 was associated with higher fasting glucose, HOMA-IR, and LDL-C (P ≤ 0.043). The effects of short-term PM2.5 exposure on insulin sensitivity were largest among obese participants. No statistically significant associations were found between TRAP and metabolic outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to ambient air pollutants adversely affects glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and blood lipid concentrations. Our findings suggest that ambient air pollutants may contribute to the pathophysiology in the development of T2D and related sequelae.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1605
[Cu] Class update date: 160521
[Lr] Last revision date:160521
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.2337/dc15-1795


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