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[PMID]: 25398951
[Au] Autor:St Helen G; Jacob P; Peng M; Dempsey DA; Hammond SK; Benowitz NL
[Ad] Address:Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education, University of California, San Francisco, California. Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Medical Service, San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center, University of California, San Francisco, California....
[Ti] Title:Intake of toxic and carcinogenic volatile organic compounds from secondhand smoke in motor vehicles.
[So] Source:Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev;23(12):2774-82, 2014 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1538-7755
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Volatile organic compounds (VOC) from tobacco smoke are associated with cancer, cardiovascular, and respiratory diseases. The objective of this study was to characterize the exposure of nonsmokers to VOCs from secondhand smoke (SHS) in vehicles using mercapturic acid metabolites. METHODS: Fourteen nonsmokers were individually exposed in the backseat to one hour of SHS from a smoker seated in the driver's seat who smoked three cigarettes at 20-minute intervals in a stationary car with windows opened by 10 cm. Baseline and 0- to 8-hour postexposure mercapturic acid metabolites of nine VOCs were measured in urine. Air-to-urine VOC ratios were estimated on the basis of respirable particulate matter (PM2.5) or air nicotine concentration, and lifetime excess risk (LER) of cancer death from exposure to acrylonitrile, benzene, and 1,3-butadiene was estimated for adults. RESULTS: The greatest increase in 0- to 8-hour postexposure concentrations of mercapturic acids from baseline was MHBMA-3 (parent, 1,3-butadiene; 2.1-fold), then CNEMA (acrylonitrile; 1.7-fold), PMA (benzene; 1.6-fold), MMA (methylating agents; 1.6-fold), and HEMA (ethylene oxide; 1.3-fold). The LER of cancer death from exposure to acrylonitrile, benzene, and 1,3-butadiene in SHS for 5 hours a week ranged from 15.5 × 10(-6) to 28.1 × 10(-6) for adults, using air nicotine and PM2.5 to predict air VOC exposure, respectively. CONCLUSION: Nonsmokers have significant intake of multiple VOCs from breathing SHS in cars, corresponding to health risks that exceed the acceptable level. IMPACT: Smoking in cars may be associated with increased risks of cancer, respiratory, and cardiovascular diseases among nonsmokers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 23(12); 2774-82. ©2014 AACR.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1412
[Cu] Class update date: 141206
[Lr] Last revision date:141206
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-14-0548

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[PMID]: 25463771
[Au] Autor:Amegah AK; Quansah R; Jaakkola JJ
[Ad] Address:Center for Environmental and Respiratory Health Research, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland; Public Health, Institute of Health Sciences, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland; Medical Research Center Oulu, University of Oulu and Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland; Public Health, Department of Biomedical and Forensic Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana.
[Ti] Title:Household air pollution from solid fuel use and risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the empirical evidence.
[So] Source:PLoS One;9(12):e113920, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: About 41% of households globally, mainly in developing countries rely on solid fuels for cooking with consequences for fetal growth and development. Previous reviews were limited in scope, assessing only two outcomes (birth weight, stillbirth). With important evidence accumulating, there is a need to improve the previous estimates and assess additional outcomes. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the quality and strength of available evidence on household air pollution (HAP) and the whole range of adverse pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: PubMed, Ovid Medline, Scopus and CINAHL were searched from their inception to the end of April 2013. All epidemiological study designs were eligible for inclusion in the review. The random-effects model was applied in computing the summary-effect estimates (EE) and their corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: Of 1505 studies screened, 19 studies satisfied the inclusion criteria. Household combustion of solid fuels resulted in an 86.43 g (95% CI: 55.49, 117.37) reduction in birth weight, and a 35% (EE = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.23, 1.48) and 29% (EE = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.18, 1.41) increased risk of LBW and stillbirth respectively. CONCLUSION: Combustion of solid fuels at home increases the risk of a wide range of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Access to clean household energy solutions is the surest way to combat HAP and mitigate their adverse effects.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1412
[Cu] Class update date: 141206
[Lr] Last revision date:141206
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0113920

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[PMID]: 25053379
[Au] Autor:Schwartz MD; Dell'Aglio DM; Nickle R; Hornsby-Myers J
[Ad] Address:Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Center for Environmental Health/Office of Environmental health Emergencies, 1600 Clifton Rd., MS F-09, Atlanta, GA, 30333, USA, aeo8@cdc.gov.
[Ti] Title:Federal environmental and occupational toxicology regulations and reporting requirements: a practical approach to what the medical toxicologist needs to know, part 2.
[So] Source:J Med Toxicol;10(4):415-27, 2014 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1937-6995
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Toxicologists are often called upon to assist in environmental, industrial, occupational and public health assessments. Accordingly, medical toxicologists may find it prudent to be aware of applicable federal toxicological regulations and reporting requirements and of the roles of relevant federal agencies. These regulations are numerous, complex, and have evolved and expanded over time, making it difficult for toxicologists to sustain a current knowledge base. This article reviews the pertinent federal toxicological reporting requirements with regards to the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), the Atomic Energy Act (AEA), the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), the Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Act (EPCRA), the Occupational Safety and Health Act, the Department of Transportation, and information about the National Response Center. We reference internet-based government resources and offer direct links to applicable websites in an attempt to offer rapid and current sources of practical information. The format of the article is a series of hypothetical scenarios followed by commentary. Discussions of the Safe Drinking Water Act and the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act are beyond the scope of this paper. For those desiring a more in depth discussion of the relevant federal environmental laws and statutes, and applicable case law, the reader is directed to resources such as the Environmental Law Handbook, the websites of individual laws found at www.epa.gov and the decisions of individual courts of appeal. It is our hope that this article provides not only useful practical information for the practicing toxicologist, but also serves as a key reference for Medical Toxicology core content on environmental laws and regulations.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1412
[Cu] Class update date: 141206
[Lr] Last revision date:141206
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1007/s13181-014-0411-6

  4 / 263851 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25436456
[Au] Autor:García L JC; Posada-Suárez H; Läderach P
[Ad] Address:Production and Productivity Program, National Center for Coffee Research (CENICAFÉ), Manizales, Colombia; Agricultural Sciences Faculty, Universidad de Caldas, Manizales, Colombia.
[Ti] Title:Recommendations for the regionalizing of coffee cultivation in Colombia: a methodological proposal based on agro-climatic indices.
[So] Source:PLoS One;9(12):e113510, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The Colombian National Federation of Coffee Growers (FNC) conducted an agro-ecological zoning study based on climate, soil, and terrain of the Colombian coffee-growing regions (CCGR) located in the tropics, between 1° and 11.5° N, in areas of complex topography. To support this study, a climate baseline was constructed at a spatial resolution of 5 km. Twenty-one bioclimatic indicators were drawn from this baseline data and from yield data for different coffee genotypes evaluated under conditions at eight experimental stations (ESs) belonging to the National Center for Coffee Research (CENICAFÉ). Three topographic indicators were obtained from a digital elevation model (DEM). Zoning at a national level resulted in the differentiation of 12 agro-climatic zones. Altitude notably influenced zone differentiation, however other factors such as large air currents, low-pressure atmospheric systems, valleys of the great rivers, and physiography also played an important role. The strategy of zoning according to coffee-growing conditions will enable areas with the greatest potential for the development of coffee cultivation to be identified, criteria for future research to be generated, and the level of technology implementation to be assessed.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1412
[Cu] Class update date: 141206
[Lr] Last revision date:141206
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0113510

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[PMID]: 25439228
[Au] Autor:Brandt S; Perez L; Künzli N; Lurmann F; Wilson J; Pastor M; McConnell R
[Ad] Address:Center for Public Policy and Administration and the Department of Resource Economics, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, Mass. Electronic address: sylvbrandt@gmail.com....
[Ti] Title:Cost of near-roadway and regional air pollution-attributable childhood asthma in Los Angeles County.
[So] Source:J Allergy Clin Immunol;134(5):1028-35, 2014 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1097-6825
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that near-roadway air pollution (NRP) exposure causes childhood asthma. The associated costs are not well documented. OBJECTIVE: We estimated the cost of childhood asthma attributable to residential NRP exposure and regional ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels in Los Angeles County. We developed a novel approach to apportion the costs between these exposures under different pollution scenarios. METHODS: We integrated results from a study of willingness to pay to reduce the burden of asthma with results from studies of health care use and charges to estimate the costs of an asthma case and exacerbation. We applied those costs to the number of asthma cases and exacerbations caused by regional pollution in 2007 and to hypothetical scenarios of a 20% reduction in regional pollution in combination with a 20% reduction or increase in the proportion of the total population living within 75 m of a major roadway. RESULTS: Cost of air pollution-related asthma in Los Angeles County in 2007 was $441 million for O3 and $202 million for NO2 in 2010 dollars. Cost of routine care (care in absence of exacerbation) accounted for 18% of the combined NRP and O3 cost and 39% of the combined NRP and NO2 cost; these costs were not recognized in previous analyses. NRP-attributable asthma accounted for 43% (O3) to 51% (NO2) of the total annual cost of exacerbations and routine care associated with pollution. Hypothetical scenarios showed that costs from increased NRP exposure might offset savings from reduced regional pollution. CONCLUSIONS: Our model disaggregates the costs of regional pollution and NRP exposure and illustrates how they might vary under alternative exposure scenarios. The cost of air pollution is a substantial burden on families and an economic loss for society.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1412
[Cu] Class update date: 141206
[Lr] Last revision date:141206
[Js] Journal subset:AIM; IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  6 / 263851 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25427765
[Au] Autor:Diler E; Schicht M; Rabung A; Tschernig T; Meier C; Rausch F; Garreis F; Bräuer L; Paulsen F
[Ti] Title:The novel surfactant protein SP-H enhances the phagocytosis efficiency of macrophage-like cell lines U937 and MH-S.
[So] Source:BMC Res Notes;7:851, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1756-0500
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Surfactant proteins (SP) secreted by alveolar type 2 cells, play an essential role in maintaining the air-liquid barrier of the lung and are also involved in the opsonisation and clearance of bacteria by phagocytes. We have recently described a novel surfactant protein, SP-H (SFTA3). Expression of SP-H was earlier demonstrated to be upregulated by LPS and negatively regulated by IL-1ß and IL-23 in vitro. The influence of SP-H on phagocytosis was measured using a murine and a human phagocytic cell line and fluorescent latex beads. FINDINGS: SP-H markedly increases phagocytosis in vitro in the murine-derived alveolar macrophage cell lines MH-S and in human-derived differentiated U937 cells. CONCLUSION: It can be assumed that SP-H is involved in regulating phagocytic activity of macrophages. SP-H is a new player in pulmonary host defence.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1412
[Cu] Class update date: 141206
[Lr] Last revision date:141206
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1186/1756-0500-7-851

  7 / 263851 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25426935
[Au] Autor:Adamson MM; Taylor JL; Heraldez D; Khorasani A; Noda A; Hernandez B; Yesavage JA
[Ad] Address:Department of Veterans Affairs, WRIISC and Sierra-Pacific MIRECC, Palo Alto, California, 94304, United States of America; Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Stanford School of Medicine, Stanford, California, 94305, United States of America....
[Ti] Title:Higher Landing Accuracy in Expert Pilots is Associated with Lower Activity in the Caudate Nucleus.
[So] Source:PLoS One;9(11):e112607, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The most common lethal accidents in General Aviation are caused by improperly executed landing approaches in which a pilot descends below the minimum safe altitude without proper visual references. To understand how expertise might reduce such erroneous decision-making, we examined relevant neural processes in pilots performing a simulated landing approach inside a functional MRI scanner. Pilots (aged 20-66) were asked to "fly" a series of simulated "cockpit view" instrument landing scenarios in an MRI scanner. The scenarios were either high risk (heavy fog-legally unsafe to land) or low risk (medium fog-legally safe to land). Pilots with one of two levels of expertise participated: Moderate Expertise (Instrument Flight Rules pilots, n = 8) or High Expertise (Certified Instrument Flight Instructors or Air-Transport Pilots, n = 12). High Expertise pilots were more accurate than Moderate Expertise pilots in making a "land" versus "do not land" decision (CFII: d' = 3.62±2.52; IFR: d' = 0.98±1.04; p<.01). Brain activity in bilateral caudate nucleus was examined for main effects of expertise during a "land" versus "do not land" decision with the no-decision control condition modeled as baseline. In making landing decisions, High Expertise pilots showed lower activation in the bilateral caudate nucleus (0.97±0.80) compared to Moderate Expertise pilots (1.91±1.16) (p<.05). These findings provide evidence for increased "neural efficiency" in High Expertise pilots relative to Moderate Expertise pilots. During an instrument approach the pilot is engaged in detailed examination of flight instruments while monitoring certain visual references for making landing decisions. The caudate nucleus regulates saccade eye control of gaze, the brain area where the "expertise" effect was observed. These data provide evidence that performing "real world" aviation tasks in an fMRI provide objective data regarding the relative expertise of pilots and brain regions involved in it.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1411
[Cu] Class update date: 141206
[Lr] Last revision date:141206
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0112607

  8 / 263851 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25426640
[Au] Autor:Habermann M; Gouveia N
[Ad] Address:Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
[Ti] Title:Socioeconomic Position and Low Birth Weight among Mothers Exposed to Traffic-Related Air Pollution.
[So] Source:PLoS One;9(11):e113900, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Atmospheric pollution is a major public health concern. It can affect placental function and restricts fetal growth. However, scientific knowledge remains too limited to make inferences regarding causal associations between maternal exposure to air pollution and adverse effects on pregnancy. This study evaluated the association between low birth weight (LBW) and maternal exposure during pregnancy to traffic related air pollutants (TRAP) in São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Analysis included 5,772 cases of term-LBW (<2,500 g) and 5,814 controls matched by sex and month of birth selected from the birth registration system. Mothers' addresses were geocoded to estimate exposure according to 3 indicators: distance from home to heavy traffic roads, distance-weighted traffic density (DWTD) and levels of particulate matter ≤10 µg/m3 estimated through land use regression (LUR-PM10). Final models were evaluated using multiple logistic regression adjusting for birth, maternal and pregnancy characteristics. We found decreased odds in the risk of LBW associated with DWTD and LUR-PM10 in the highest quartiles of exposure with a significant linear trend of decrease in risk. The analysis with distance from heavy traffic roads was less consistent. It was also observed that mothers with higher education and neighborhood-level income were potentially more exposed to TRAP. CONCLUSIONS: This study found an unexpected decreased risk of LBW associated with traffic related air pollution. Mothers with advantaged socioeconomic position (SEP) although residing in areas of higher vehicular traffic might not in fact be more expose to air pollution. It can also be that the protection against LBW arising from a better SEP is stronger than the effect of exposure to air pollution, and this exposure may not be sufficient to increase the risk of LBW for these mothers.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1411
[Cu] Class update date: 141206
[Lr] Last revision date:141206
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0113900

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[PMID]: 25426624
[Au] Autor:So WC; Ching TH; Lim PE; Cheng X; Ip KY
[Ad] Address:Department of Educational Psychology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, S.A.R....
[Ti] Title:Producing gestures facilitates route learning.
[So] Source:PLoS One;9(11):e112543, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The present study investigates whether producing gestures would facilitate route learning in a navigation task and whether its facilitation effect is comparable to that of hand movements that leave physical visible traces. In two experiments, we focused on gestures produced without accompanying speech, i.e., co-thought gestures (e.g., an index finger traces the spatial sequence of a route in the air). Adult participants were asked to study routes shown in four diagrams, one at a time. Participants reproduced the routes (verbally in Experiment 1 and non-verbally in Experiment 2) without rehearsal or after rehearsal by mentally simulating the route, by drawing it, or by gesturing (either in the air or on paper). Participants who moved their hands (either in the form of gestures or drawing) recalled better than those who mentally simulated the routes and those who did not rehearse, suggesting that hand movements produced during rehearsal facilitate route learning. Interestingly, participants who gestured the routes in the air or on paper recalled better than those who drew them on paper in both experiments, suggesting that the facilitation effect of co-thought gesture holds for both verbal and nonverbal recall modalities. It is possibly because, co-thought gesture, as a kind of representational action, consolidates spatial sequence better than drawing and thus exerting more powerful influence on spatial representation.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1411
[Cu] Class update date: 141206
[Lr] Last revision date:141206
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0112543

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[PMID]: 25422942
[Au] Autor:Ivanovska T; Laqua R; Wang L; Liebscher V; Völzke H; Hegenscheid K
[Ad] Address:Institute of Community Medicine, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany....
[Ti] Title:A level set based framework for quantitative evaluation of breast tissue density from MRI data.
[So] Source:PLoS One;9(11):e112709, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Breast density is a risk factor associated with the development of breast cancer. Usually, breast density is assessed on two dimensional (2D) mammograms using the American College of Radiology (ACR) classification. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-radiation based examination method, which offers a three dimensional (3D) alternative to classical 2D mammograms. We propose a new framework for automated breast density calculation on MRI data. Our framework consists of three steps. First, a recently developed method for simultaneous intensity inhomogeneity correction and breast tissue and parenchyma segmentation is applied. Second, the obtained breast component is extracted, and the breast-air and breast-body boundaries are refined. Finally, the fibroglandular/parenchymal tissue volume is extracted from the breast volume. The framework was tested on 37 randomly selected MR mammographies. All images were acquired on a 1.5T MR scanner using an axial, T1-weighted time-resolved angiography with stochastic trajectories sequence. The results were compared to manually obtained groundtruth. Dice's Similarity Coefficient (DSC) as well as Bland-Altman plots were used as the main tools for evaluation of similarity between automatic and manual segmentations. The average Dice's Similarity Coefficient values were [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] for breast and parenchymal volumes, respectively. Bland-Altman plots showed the mean bias ([Formula: see text]) [Formula: see text] standard deviation equal [Formula: see text] for breast volumes and [Formula: see text] for parenchyma volumes. The automated framework produced sufficient results and has the potential to be applied for the analysis of breast volume and breast density of numerous data in clinical and research settings.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1411
[Cu] Class update date: 141206
[Lr] Last revision date:141206
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0112709


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