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[PMID]: 25373895
[Au] Autor:Lee SC; Lee SJ
[Ad] Address:1] Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang Gyeongbuk, Republic of Korea [2] Center for Biofluid and Biomimic Research, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang Gyeongbuk, Republic of Korea.
[Ti] Title:Uptake of liquid from wet surfaces by the brush-tipped proboscis of a butterfly.
[So] Source:Sci Rep;4:6934, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:2045-2322
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:This study investigated the effect of the brush-tipped proboscis of the Asian comma (Polygonia c-aureum) on wet-surface feeding. The tip region of this proboscis was observed, especially two microstructures; the intake slits through which liquid passes into the proboscis and the brush-like sensilla styloconica. The sensilla styloconica were connected laterally to the intake slits in the tip region. The liquid-feeding flow between the proboscis and the wet surface was measured by micro-particle image velocimetry. During liquid feeding, the sensilla styloconica region accumulates liquid by pinning the air-liquid interface to the tips of the sensilla styloconica, thus the intake slit region remains immersed. The film flow that passes through the sensilla styloconica region shows a parabolic velocity profile, and the corresponding flow rate is proportional to the cubed length of the sensilla styloconica. Based on these observations, we demonstrated that the sensilla styloconica promotes the uptake of liquid from wet surfaces. This study may inspire the development of a microfluidic device to collect liquid from moist substrates.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1411
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1038/srep06934

  2 / 262830 MEDLINE  
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SciELO Brazil full text
SciELO Public Health full text

[PMID]: 25372170
[Au] Autor:Falcão TP; Luiz RR; Schütz GE; Mello MG; Câmara Vde M
[Ti] Title:Audiometric profile of civilian pilots according to noise exposure.
[So] Source:Rev Saude Publica;48(5):790-6, 2014 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1518-8787
[Cp] Country of publication:Brazil
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE To evaluate the audiometric profile of civilian pilots according to the noise exposure level. METHODS This observational cross-sectional study evaluated 3,130 male civilian pilots aged between 17 and 59 years. These pilots were subjected to audiometric examinations for obtaining or revalidating the functional capacity certificate in 2011. The degree of hearing loss was classified as normal, suspected noise-induced hearing loss, and no suspected hearing loss with other associated complications. Pure-tone air-conduction audiometry was performed using supra-aural headphones and acoustic stimulus of the pure-tone type, containing tone thresholds of frequencies between 250 Hz and 6,000 Hz. The independent variables were professional categories, length of service, hours of flight, and right or left ear. The dependent variable was pilots with suspected noise-induced hearing loss. The noise exposure level was considered low/medium or high, and the latter involved periods > 5,000 flight hours and > 10 years of flight service. RESULTS A total of 29.3% pilots had suspected noise-induced hearing loss, which was bilateral in 12.8% and predominant in the left ear (23.7%). The number of pilots with suspected hearing loss increased as the noise exposure level increased. CONCLUSIONS Hearing loss in civilian pilots may be associated with noise exposure during the period of service and hours of flight.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1411
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

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[PMID]: 25372439
[Au] Autor:Feist RM; Pomerleau DL; Feist R; Albert MA; Emond TL; Mason JO; Thomley ML; McGwin G
[Ad] Address:*Department of Ophthalmology, University of Alabama, Birmingham, Alabama; †Retina Center of Maine, Portland, Maine; and ‡Retina Consultants of Alabama, Birmingham, Alabama.
[Ti] Title:Nonsupine positioning is preferred by patients over face-down positioning and provides an equivalent closure rate in 25- and 23-gauge macular hole surgery.
[So] Source:Retin Cases Brief Rep;8(3):205-8, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1937-1578
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:PURPOSE: Strict face-down positioning after macular hole surgery is very difficult for most patients. Our study seeks to determine if alleviated positioning (avoidance of supine positioning) has equivalent successful closure rates when compared with face-down positioning. A patient survey was also performed to determine patient preference. METHODS: A single-center retrospective review of patients undergoing macular hole repair with a questionnaire completed by each patient after air bubble clearance summarizing the two postoperative scenarios. Patients were asked which positioning strategy they would choose if they were having repeat surgery. Eighty-two patients undergoing pars plana vitrectomy with primary full-thickness macular hole repair were identified. Repair was performed with either 3 days of strict face-down positioning (57 of 82 patients) or with the avoidance of supine positioning (25 of 82 patients) but no required face-down positioning. RESULTS: The anatomical success rates were similar between the 2 groups with 96% of final hole closure (55/57) in the face-down group versus 100% (25/25) in the nonsupine group. Macular hole size appeared to be similar between the 2 groups (a mean of 408 µm in face-down group vs. that of 483 µm in nonsupine group, with a median of 400 in both groups). Patient preference was in favor of less stringent nonsupine postoperative requirements. Although 100% (25/25) of the nonsupine group would opt for the same strategy with repeat surgery, only 51% (29/57) of the face-down group would opt for face-down positioning with repeat surgery (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates equivalent closure rates among the patients who were assigned nonsupine versus face-down positioning postoperatively for macular hole repair, and that most patients would prefer to avoid strict face-down positioning if reoperated.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1411
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1097/ICB.0000000000000043

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[PMID]: 25372327
[Au] Autor:Rice JC; Liebenberg L; Scholtz RP; Torr G
[Ad] Address:Departments of *Ophthalmology, and †Forensic Pathology, Groote Schuur Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
[Ti] Title:Fatal air embolism during endoresection of choroidal melanoma.
[So] Source:Retin Cases Brief Rep;8(2):127-9, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1937-1578
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:PURPOSE: To describe a case of intraoperative mortality because of air embolism during resection of a choroidal melanoma by pars plana vitrectomy. METHODS: Retrospective interventional case report. RESULTS: A 69-year-old man died unexpectedly at the time of pars plana vitrectomy. The operative technique involved the use of high-pressure air (60 mmHg) in the presence of traumatically exposed choroidal vasculature. Autopsy revealed a large air embolus in the right ventricle, which resulted in sudden cardiovascular collapse. CONCLUSION: Air embolism is a rare complication of ophthalmic surgery. Infusion of air in the presence of traumatically exposed choroidal vasculature exposes the patient to the risk of air embolism. Ophthalmic surgeons and anesthetists should be aware of the possibility of air embolism during certain ophthalmic procedures, and appropriate intraoperative monitoring should be considered.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1411
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1097/ICB.0000000000000021

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[PMID]: 25351335
[Au] Autor:Galib M; Hanna G
[Ad] Address:Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. mgalib@ualberta.ca gabriel.hanna@ualberta.ca.
[Ti] Title:Molecular dynamics simulations predict an accelerated dissociation of H2CO3 at the air-water interface.
[So] Source:Phys Chem Chem Phys;16(46):25573-82, 2014 Dec 14.
[Is] ISSN:1463-9084
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The dissociation and decomposition reactions of carbonic acid (H2CO3) in bulk water have been thoroughly studied, but little is known about its reactivity at the air-water interface. Herein, we investigate the dissociation reaction of H2CO3 at the air-water interface using ab initio molecular dynamics and metadynamics. Our results indicate that H2CO3 (pKa = 3.45) dissociates faster at the water surface than in bulk water, in contrast to recent experiments and simulations which have shown that HNO3 (pKa = -1.3) has a lower propensity to dissociate at the water surface than in bulk water. We find that the water surface allows for a more structured solvation environment around H2CO3 than in bulk water, which contributes to a decrease in the dissociation energy barrier via a stabilization of the transition state relative to the undissociated acid. Given its decreased kinetic stability at the air-water interface, H2CO3 may play an important role in the acidification of atmospheric aerosols and water droplets.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1411
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1039/c4cp03302g

  6 / 262830 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25372862
[Au] Autor:Perera FP; Chang HW; Tang D; Roen EL; Herbstman J; Margolis A; Huang TJ; Miller RL; Wang S; Rauh V
[Ad] Address:Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America; Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America....
[Ti] Title:Early-life exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and ADHD behavior problems.
[So] Source:PLoS One;9(11):e111670, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:IMPORTANCE: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are widespread urban air pollutants from combustion of fossil fuel and other organic material shown previously to be neurotoxic. OBJECTIVE: In a prospective cohort study, we evaluated the relationship between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder behavior problems and prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure, adjusting for postnatal exposure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Children of nonsmoking African-American and Dominican women in New York City were followed from in utero to 9 years. Prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure was estimated by levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon- DNA adducts in maternal and cord blood collected at delivery. Postnatal exposure was estimated by the concentration of urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites at ages 3 or 5. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder behavior problems were assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist and the Conners Parent Rating Scale- Revised. RESULTS: High prenatal adduct exposure, measured by elevated maternal adducts was significantly associated with all Conners Parent Rating Scale-Revised subscales when the raw scores were analyzed continuously (N = 233). After dichotomizing at the threshold for moderately to markedly atypical symptoms, high maternal adducts were significantly associated with the Conners Parent Rating Scale-Revised DSM-IV Inattentive (OR = 5.06, 95% CI [1.43, 17.93]) and DSM-IV Total (OR = 3.37, 95% CI [1.10, 10.34]) subscales. High maternal adducts were positivity associated with the DSM-oriented Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Problems scale on the Child Behavior Checklist, albeit not significant. In the smaller sample with cord adducts, the associations between outcomes and high cord adduct exposure were not statistically significant (N = 162). CONCLUSION: The results suggest that exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons encountered in New York City air may play a role in childhood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder behavior problems.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1411
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0111670

  7 / 262830 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25373680
[Au] Autor:Mahieu E; Chipperfield MP; Notholt J; Reddmann T; Anderson J; Bernath PF; Blumenstock T; Coffey MT; Dhomse SS; Feng W; Franco B; Froidevaux L; Griffith DW; Hannigan JW; Hase F; Hossaini R; Jones NB; Morino I; Murata I; Nakajima H; Palm M; Paton-Walsh C; Russell JM; Schneider M; Servais C; Smale D; Walker KA
[Ad] Address:Institute of Astrophysics and Geophysics, University of Liège, Liège 4000, Belgium....
[Ti] Title:Recent Northern Hemisphere stratospheric HCl increase due to atmospheric circulation changes.
[So] Source:Nature;515(7525):104-7, 2014 Nov 6.
[Is] ISSN:1476-4687
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The abundance of chlorine in the Earth's atmosphere increased considerably during the 1970s to 1990s, following large emissions of anthropogenic long-lived chlorine-containing source gases, notably the chlorofluorocarbons. The chemical inertness of chlorofluorocarbons allows their transport and mixing throughout the troposphere on a global scale, before they reach the stratosphere where they release chlorine atoms that cause ozone depletion. The large ozone loss over Antarctica was the key observation that stimulated the definition and signing in 1987 of the Montreal Protocol, an international treaty establishing a schedule to reduce the production of the major chlorine- and bromine-containing halocarbons. Owing to its implementation, the near-surface total chlorine concentration showed a maximum in 1993, followed by a decrease of half a per cent to one per cent per year, in line with expectations. Remote-sensing data have revealed a peak in stratospheric chlorine after 1996, then a decrease of close to one per cent per year, in agreement with the surface observations of the chlorine source gases and model calculations. Here we present ground-based and satellite data that show a recent and significant increase, at the 2σ level, in hydrogen chloride (HCl), the main stratospheric chlorine reservoir, starting around 2007 in the lower stratosphere of the Northern Hemisphere, in contrast with the ongoing monotonic decrease of near-surface source gases. Using model simulations, we attribute this trend anomaly to a slowdown in the Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation, occurring over several consecutive years, transporting more aged air to the lower stratosphere, and characterized by a larger relative conversion of source gases to HCl. This short-term dynamical variability will also affect other stratospheric tracers and needs to be accounted for when studying the evolution of the stratospheric ozone layer.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S.
[Em] Entry month:1411
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1038/nature13857

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[PMID]: 25321926
[Au] Autor:Johns P; Yu K; Devadas MS; Li Z; Major TA; Hartland GV
[Ad] Address:Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556-5670, USA. ghartlan@nd.edu.
[Ti] Title:Effect of substrate discontinuities on the propagating surface plasmon polariton modes in gold nanobars.
[So] Source:Nanoscale;6(23):14289-96, 2014 Nov 6.
[Is] ISSN:2040-3372
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The surface plasmon polariton (SPP) modes of gold nanobars (nanowires with rectangular dimensions) have been investigated by scanning pump-probe microscopy. In these experiments the nanobars were suspended over trenches cut in glass coverslips, and propagating SPP modes were launched in the supported portion of the nanobar by focusing a near-IR pump laser beam at the end of the nanobar. Transient absorption images were then collected by scanning the probe laser over the nanobar using a galvo-mirror system. The images show that the trench has a large effect on the SPP modes, specifically, for approximately half the nanowires the propagation length is significantly reduced after the trench. Finite element calculations were performed to understand this effect. The calculations show that the pump laser excites bound and leaky modes (modes that have their fields localized at the nanobar/glass or nanobar/air interfaces, respectively) in the supported portions of the nanobars. These modes propagate along the nanobar. When they meet the trench their field distributions are altered. The modes that derive from the bound mode are strongly damped over the trench. Thus, the bound mode is not reconstituted on the opposite side of the trench, and only the leaky mode contributes to the signal. Because the bound and leaky modes can have different propagation lengths, the propagation lengths measured in our experiments can change from one side of the trench to the other. The results show how the substrate can be engineered to control the SPP modes in metal nanostructures.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1411
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1039/c4nr04131c

  9 / 262830 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25373066
[Au] Autor:Hernandez SH; Bedrick EJ; Parshall MB
[Ad] Address:University of New Mexico, College of Nursing, MSC09 5350, 1 University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131.
[Ti] Title:Stigma and barriers to accessing mental health services perceived by air force nursing personnel.
[So] Source:Mil Med;179(11):1354-60, 2014 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1930-613X
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:We investigated perceptions of stigma and barriers associated with accessing mental health services among active component U.S. Air Force officer and enlisted nursing personnel (N = 211). The Britt and Hoge et al Stigma scale and Hoge et al Barriers to Care scale were administered via an anonymous, online survey. Stigma items pertained to concerns that might affect decisions to seek mental health treatment. Most of the sample agreed with the items "Members of my unit might have less confidence in me" and "My unit leadership might treat me differently." Approximately 20% to 46% agreed with the other four stigma items. Officer nursing personnel were significantly more likely than enlisted to agree that accessing mental health services would be embarrassing, harm their career, or cause leaders to blame them for the problem (p ≤ 0.03 for each comparison). Getting time off from work for treatment and scheduling appointments were perceived as barriers by 41% and 21% of respondents, respectively. We conclude that proportions of Air Force nursing personnel reporting concerns about potential stigmatizing consequences of seeking mental health care are substantial and similar to ranges previously reported by military service members screening positive for mental health problems after deployment.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1411
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.7205/MILMED-D-14-00114

  10 / 262830 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25373060
[Au] Autor:Bedno S; Hauret K; Loringer K; Kao TC; Mallon T; Jones B
[Ad] Address:Department of Clinical Investigation, William Beaumont Army Medical Center, 5005 Piedras, El Paso, TX 79920....
[Ti] Title:Effects of personal and occupational stress on injuries in a young, physically active population: a survey of military personnel.
[So] Source:Mil Med;179(11):1311-8, 2014 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1930-613X
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The aim of this study was to document risk factors for any injury and sports- and exercise-related injuries, including personal and occupational stress among active duty service members (SMs) in the Air Force, Army, Marine Corps, and Navy. A total of 10,692 SMs completed the April 2008 Status of Forces Survey of Active Duty Members. The survey asked about demographics, personal stress and occupational stress, injuries from any cause, and participation in sports- and exercise- related activities in the past year. The survey used a complex sampling procedure to create a representative sample of SMs. Logistic regression was used to examine the associations of injury outcomes with potential risk factors. 49% of SMs sought medical care for an injury in the past year and 25% sustained a sports- and exercise-related activities injury. Odds of injury were higher for the Army and Marine Corps than for the Air Force or Navy. This survey showed that higher personal and occupational stress was associated with higher risks of injury. SMs who experienced higher levels of personal or occupational stress reported higher risks of injuries. The effects of stress reduction programs on injury risks should be evaluated in military and other young physically active populations.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1411
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.7205/MILMED-D-14-00080


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