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[PMID]: 27085682
[Au] Autor:Lin MJ; Barry N; Akusoba I; Hon HH; Cohen MS; Shukla P; Cipolla J; Stawicki SP; Hoey BA
[Ad] Address:Department of Surgery, St. Luke's University Health Network, Bethlehem, PA....
[Ti] Title:Traditional autopsy versus computed tomography imaging autopsy in trauma: A case of "synergistic disagreement".
[So] Source:Surgery;160(1):211-9, 2016 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1532-7361
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Decreases in the rates of traditional autopsy (TA) negatively impact traumatology, especially in the areas of quality improvement and medical education. To help enhance the understanding of trauma-related mortality, a number of initiatives in imaging autopsy (IA) were conceived, including the postmortem computed tomography ("CATopsy") project at our institution. Though IA is a promising concept, few studies directly correlate TA and IA findings quantitatively. Here, we set out to increase our understanding of the similarities and differences between key findings on TA and IA in a prospective fashion with blinding of pathologist and radiologist evaluations. METHODS: A prospective study of TA versus IA was conducted at an Academic Level I Trauma Center (June 2001-May 2010). All decedents underwent a postmortem, whole-body, noncontrast computed tomography that was interpreted by an independent, blinded, board-certified radiologist. A blinded, board-certified pathologist then performed a TA. Autopsy results were grouped into predefined categories of pathologic findings. Categorized findings from TA and IA were compared by determining the degree of agreement (kappa). The χ(2) test was used to detect quantitative differences in "potentially fatal" findings (eg, aortic trauma, splenic injury, intracranial bleeding, etc) between TA and IA. RESULTS: Twenty-five trauma victims (19 blunt; 9 female; median age 33 years) had a total of 435 unique findings on either IA or TA grouped into 34 categories. The agreement between IA and TA was worse than what chance would predict (kappa = -0.58). The greatest agreement was seen in injuries involving axial skeleton and intracranial/cranio-facial trauma. Most discrepancies were seen in soft tissue, ectopic air, and "incidental" categories. Findings determined to be "potentially fatal" were seen on both TA/IA in 48/435 (11%) instances with 79 (18%) on TA only and 53 (12%) on IA only. TA identified more "potentially fatal" solid organ and heart/great vessel injuries, while IA revealed more spine injuries, "potentially fatal" procedure-related findings, and the presence of ectopic air/fluid. CONCLUSION: This limited study does not support substitution of noncontrast, computed tomography-based IA for TA. Our quantitative analyses suggest that TA and IA evaluations may be complementary and synergistic when performed concurrently. There are potential benefits to using IA in trauma process/quality improvement and in educational settings. Further research should focus on the value (and limitations) of the information provided by IA in the absence of TA.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1606
[Js] Journal subset:AIM; IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

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[PMID]: 27058940
[Au] Autor:Sage RF; Khoshravesh R
[Ad] Address:Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, 25 Willcocks Street, Toronto, ON M5S3B2, Canada. Electronic address: r.sage@utoronto.ca.
[Ti] Title:Passive CO2 concentration in higher plants.
[So] Source:Curr Opin Plant Biol;31:58-65, 2016 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0356
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Photorespiratory limitations on C3 photosynthesis are substantial in warm, low CO2 conditions. To compensate, certain plants evolved mechanisms to actively concentrate CO2 around Rubisco using ATP-supported CO2 pumps such as C4 photosynthesis. Plants can also passively accumulate CO2 without additional ATP expenditure by localizing the release of photorespired and respired CO2 around Rubisco that is diffusively isolated from peripheral air spaces. Passive accumulation of photorespired CO2 occurs when glycine decarboxylase is localized to vascular sheath cells in what is termed C2 photosynthesis, and through forming sheaths of chloroplasts around the periphery of mesophyll cells. The peripheral sheaths require photorespired CO2 to re-enter chloroplasts where it can be refixed. Passive accumulation of respiratory CO2 is common in organs such as stems, fruits and flowers, due to abundant heterotrophic tissues and high diffusive resistance along the organ periphery. Chloroplasts within these organs are able to exploit this high CO2 to reduce photorespiration. CO2 concentration can also be enhanced passively by channeling respired CO2 from roots and rhizomes into photosynthetic cells of stems and leaves via lacunae, aerenchyma and the xylem stream. Through passive CO2 concentration, C3 species likely improved their carbon economy and maintained fitness during episodes of low atmospheric CO2.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1606
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

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[PMID]: 27043481
[Au] Autor:Kimball BA
[Ad] Address:The Greenleaf Group, Phoenix, AZ 85018, USA. Electronic address: bak5lhk@cox.net.
[Ti] Title:Crop responses to elevated CO2 and interactions with H2O, N, and temperature.
[So] Source:Curr Opin Plant Biol;31:36-43, 2016 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0356
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:About twenty-seven years ago, free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) technology was developed that enabled the air above open-field plots to be enriched with CO2 for entire growing seasons. Since then, FACE experiments have been conducted on cotton, wheat, ryegrass, clover, potato, grape, rice, barley, sugar beet, soybean, cassava, rape, mustard, coffee (C3 crops), and sorghum and maize (C4 crops). Elevated CO2 (550ppm from an ambient concentration of about 353ppm in 1990) decreased evapotranspiration about 10% on average and increased canopy temperatures about 0.7°C. Biomass and yield were increased by FACE in all C3 species, but not in C4 species except when water was limiting. Yields of C3 grain crops were increased on average about 19%.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1606
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

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[PMID]: 26521266
[Au] Autor:Bannas P; Li Y; Motosugi U; Li K; Lubner M; Chen GH; Pickhardt PJ
[Ad] Address:Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine & Public Health, Madison, WI, USA. p.bannas@uke.de....
[Ti] Title:Prior Image Constrained Compressed Sensing Metal Artifact Reduction (PICCS-MAR): 2D and 3D Image Quality Improvement with Hip Prostheses at CT Colonography.
[So] Source:Eur Radiol;26(7):2039-46, 2016 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1432-1084
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:PURPOSE: To assess the effect of the prior-image-constrained-compressed-sensing-based metal-artefact-reduction (PICCS-MAR) algorithm on streak artefact reduction and 2D and 3D-image quality improvement in patients with total hip arthroplasty (THA) undergoing CT colonography (CTC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: PICCS-MAR was applied to filtered-back-projection (FBP)-reconstructed DICOM CTC-images in 52 patients with THA (unilateral, n = 30; bilateral, n = 22). For FBP and PICCS-MAR series, ROI-measurements of CT-numbers were obtained at predefined levels for fat, muscle, air, and the most severe artefact. Two radiologists independently reviewed 2D and 3D CTC-images and graded artefacts and image quality using a five-point-scale (1 = severe streak/no-diagnostic confidence, 5 = no streak/excellent image-quality, high-confidence). Results were compared using paired and unpaired t-tests and Wilcoxon signed-rank and Mann-Whitney-tests. RESULTS: Streak artefacts and image quality scores for FBP versus PICCS-MAR 2D-images (median: 1 vs. 3 and 2 vs. 3, respectively) and 3D images (median: 2 vs. 4 and 3 vs. 4, respectively) showed significant improvement after PICCS-MAR (all P < 0.001). PICCS-MAR significantly improved the accuracy of mean CT numbers for fat, muscle and the area with the most severe artefact (all P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: PICCS-MAR substantially reduces streak artefacts related to THA on DICOM images, thereby enhancing visualization of anatomy on 2D and 3D CTC images and increasing diagnostic confidence. KEY POINTS: • PICCS-MAR significantly reduces streak artefacts associated with total hip arthroplasty on 2D and 3D CTC. • PICCS-MAR significantly improves 2D and 3D CTC image quality and diagnostic confidence. • PICCS-MAR can be applied retrospectively to DICOM images from single-kVp CT.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1606
[Cu] Class update date: 160611
[Lr] Last revision date:160611
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00330-015-4044-1

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[PMID]: 26818810
[Au] Autor:Min KA; Rosania GR; Shin MC
[Ad] Address:College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Gyeongsang National University, 501 Jinju Daero, Jinju, Gyeongnam, 52828, Republic of Korea....
[Ti] Title:Human Airway Primary Epithelial Cells Show Distinct Architectures on Membrane Supports Under Different Culture Conditions.
[So] Source:Cell Biochem Biophys;74(2):191-203, 2016 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1559-0283
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:To facilitate drug development for lung delivery, it is highly demanding to establish appropriate airway epithelial cell models as transport barriers to evaluate pharmacokinetic profiles of drug molecules. Besides the cancer-derived cell lines, as the primary cell model, normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells have been used for drug screenings because of physiological relevance to in vivo. Therefore, to accurately interpret drug transport data in NHBE measured by different laboratories, it is important to know biophysical characteristics of NHBE grown on membranes in different culture conditions. In this study, NHBE was grown on the polyester membrane in a different medium and its transport barrier properties as well as cell architectures were fully characterized by functional assays and confocal imaging throughout the days of cultures. Moreover, NHBE cells on inserts in a different medium were subject to either of air-interfaced culture (AIC) or liquid-covered culture (LCC) condition. Cells in the AIC condition were cultivated on the membrane with medium in the basolateral side only, whereas cells with medium in apical and basolateral sides under the LCC condition. Quantitative microscopic imaging with biophysical examination revealed distinct multilayered architectures of differentiated NHBE cells, suggesting NHBE as functional cell barriers for the lung-targeting drug transport.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1606
[Cu] Class update date: 160611
[Lr] Last revision date:160611
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1007/s12013-016-0719-8

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[PMID]: 27148900
[Au] Autor:Liu C; Yang C; Zhao Y; Ma Z; Bi J; Liu Y; Meng X; Wang Y; Cai J; Kan H; Chen R
[Ad] Address:School of Public Health, Key Lab of Public Health Safety of the Ministry of Education and Key Lab of Health Technology Assessment of the Ministry of Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, China....
[Ti] Title:Associations between long-term exposure to ambient particulate air pollution and type 2 diabetes prevalence, blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels in China.
[So] Source:Environ Int;92-93:416-21, 2016 Jul-Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1873-6750
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: The evidence for an association between particulate air pollution and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in developing countries was very scarce. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations of long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) with T2DM prevalence and with fasting glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels in China. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study based on a nation-wide baseline survey of 11,847 adults who participated in the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study from June 2011 to March 2012. The average residential exposure to PM2.5 for each participant in the same period was estimated using a satellite-based spatial statistical model. We determined the association between PM2.5 and T2DM prevalence by multivariable logistic regression models. We also evaluated the association between PM2.5 and fasting glucose and HbA1c levels using multivariable linear regression models. Stratification analyses were conducted to explore potential effect modification. RESULTS: We identified 1760 cases of T2DM, corresponding to 14.9% of the study population. The average PM2.5 exposure for all participants was 72.6µg/m(3) during the study period. An interquartile range increase in PM2.5 (41.1µg/m(3)) was significantly associated with increased T2DM prevalence (prevalence ratio, PR=1.14), and elevated levels of fasting glucose (0.26mmol/L) and HbA1c (0.08%). The associations of PM2.5 with T2DM prevalence and with fasting glucose and HbA1c were stronger in several subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: This nationwide cross-sectional study suggested that long-term exposure to PM2.5 might increase the risk of T2DM in China.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1606
[Cu] Class update date: 160611
[Lr] Last revision date:160611
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

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[PMID]: 26826033
[Au] Autor:Echt A; Mead K
[Ad] Address:Division of Applied Research and Technology, Engineering and Physical Hazards Branch, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH, USA.
[Ti] Title:Evaluation of a Dust Control for a Small Slab-Riding Dowel Drill for Concrete Pavement.
[So] Source:Ann Occup Hyg;60(4):519-24, 2016 May.
[Is] ISSN:1475-3162
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:PURPOSE: To assess the effectiveness of local exhaust ventilation to control respirable crystalline silica exposures to acceptable levels during concrete dowel drilling. APPROACH: Personal breathing zone samples for respirable dust and crystalline silica were collected while laborers drilled holes 3.5cm diameter by 36cm deep in a concrete slab using a single-drill slab-riding dowel drill equipped with local exhaust ventilation. Data were collected on air flow, weather, and productivity. RESULTS: All respirable dust samples were below the 90 µg detection limit which, when combined with the largest sample volume, resulted in a minimum detectable concentration of 0.31mg m(-3). This occurred in a 32-min sample collected when 27 holes were drilled. Quartz was only detected in one air sample; 0.09mg m(-3) of quartz was found on an 8-min sample collected during a drill maintenance task. The minimum detectable concentration for quartz in personal air samples collected while drilling was performed was 0.02mg m(-3). The average number of holes drilled during each drilling sample was 23. Over the course of the 2-day study, air flow measured at the dust collector decreased from 2.2 to 1.7 m(3) s(-1). CONCLUSIONS: The dust control performed well under the conditions of this test. The initial duct velocity with a clean filter was sufficient to prevent settling, but gradually fell below the recommended value to prevent dust from settling in the duct. The practice of raising the drill between each hole may have prevented the dust from settling in the duct. A slightly higher flow rate and an improved duct design would prevent settling without regard to the position of the drill.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1604
[Cu] Class update date: 160611
[Lr] Last revision date:160611
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1093/annhyg/mev099

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[PMID]: 26731314
[Au] Autor:Druzhinin V; Bakanova M; Fucic A; Golovina T; Savchenko Y; Sinitsky M; Volobaev V
[Ad] Address:Kemerovo State University, Kemerovo, Russia; Federal State Budget Scientific Institution «The Federal Research Center of Coal and Coal Chemistry of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences¼, Kemerovo, Russian Federation....
[Ti] Title:Lymphocytes with multiple chromosomal damages in a large cohort of West Siberia residents: Results of long-term monitoring.
[So] Source:Mutat Res;784-785:1-7, 2016 Feb-Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1873-135X
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Cells with specific multiple chromosome aberrations, defined as rogue cells (RC) have been described in different populations, predominantly those exposed to radiation. The frequency, etiology and related health risks have still not been elucidated due to their low frequency of occurrences and rarely performed studies. This study reports RC frequency using chromosome aberration (CA) assay in peripheral lymphocytes in the group of 3242 subjects, during a 30-year long follow-up study in a general rural and urban population, children environmentally exposed to radon, occupationally exposed population and lung cancer patients from the Kemerovo region (Siberia, Russian Federation). Results show that the highest RC frequency was present in children environmentally exposed to radon and the lowest in the general urban population. Total frequency of CA did not correlate with frequency of RC. Genotoxic analysis of air and water samples excluded anthropogenic pollution as a possible cause of genome damage and RC frequency. In 85% of RCs, double minutes, observed in a large number of human tumors, were present. Results of CA analysis suggested that radon and its decay products (alpha-emitters) were the leading factors causing RC in subjects exposed to high LET radiation. Thus, RC may be a candidate biomarker for exposure to this type of radiation.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Entry month:1602
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Process

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[PMID]: 26830633
[Au] Autor:Santos AG; Regis AC; da Rocha GO; Bezerra Mde A; de Jesus RM; de Andrade JB
[Ad] Address:Universidade Federal da Bahia, Instituto de Química, Campus de Ondina, 40170-115 Salvador, BA, Brazil; Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia INCT, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40170-115 Salvador, BA, Brazil; Centro Interdisciplinar em Energia e Ambiente - CIEnAm, Universidade Federal da Bahia...
[Ti] Title:A simple, comprehensive, and miniaturized solvent extraction method for determination of particulate-phase polycyclic aromatic compounds in air.
[So] Source:J Chromatogr A;1435:6-17, 2016 Feb 26.
[Is] ISSN:1873-3778
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The method allowed simultaneous characterization of PAHs, nitro-PAHs and quinones in atmospheric particulate matter. This method employs a miniaturized micro-extraction step that uses 500 µL of an acetonitrile-dichloromethane mix and instrumental analysis by means of a high-resolution GC-MS. The method was validated using the SRM1649b NIST standard reference material as well as deuterated internal standards. The results are in good agreement with the certified values and show recoveries between 75% and 145%. Limit of detection (LOD) values for PAHs were found to be between 0.5 pg (benzo[a]pyrene) to 2.1 pg (dibenzo[a,h]anthracene), for nitro-PAHs ranged between 3.2 pg (1-nitrobenzo[e]pyrene) and 22.2 pg (3-nitrophenanthrene), and for quinones ranged between 11.5 pg (1,4-naphthoquinone) and 458 pg (9,10-phenanthraquinone). The validated method was applied to real PM10 samples collected on quartz fiber filters. Concentrations in the PM10 samples ranged from 0.06 to 15 ng m(-3) for PAHs, from
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Entry month:1602
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Process

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[PMID]: 26867286
[Au] Autor:Spencer-Hwang R; Soret S; Ghamsary M; Rizzo N; Baum M; Juma D; Montgomery S
[Ti] Title:Gender Differences in Respiratory Health of School Children Exposed to Rail Yard-Generated Air Pollution: The ENRRICH Study.
[So] Source:J Environ Health;78(6):8-16, 2016 Jan-Feb.
[Is] ISSN:0022-0892
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Studies about environmental burdens often explore overall community risk. Increasing evidence suggests, however, differential burdens by gender and age. The purpose of the authors' research was to determine if gender-related difference exists among children in a region plagued with poor air quality and if increased exposure to pollutants from a major goods movement rail yard influences the relationship. Using a cross-sectional study design, the authors provided respiratory screening for children at two elementary schools. Compared to females, males were at significantly greater odds of exhibiting elevated fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) but less likely to exhibit reduced lung volume. Even in an area of overall poor air quality, the authors found that male children were a vulnerable subpopulation for greater elevated FeNO, while females were at increased risk for reduced lung capacity. Understanding differential burdens in vulnerable subpopulations is critical to providing timely and responsive strategies targeted towards health-based prevention and intervention activities.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Air Pollutants/toxicity
Environmental Exposure
Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: California/epidemiology
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Environmental Monitoring
Female
Humans
Male
Railroads
Respiratory Tract Diseases/chemically induced
Sex Factors
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Air Pollutants)
[Em] Entry month:1603
[Cu] Class update date: 160611
[Lr] Last revision date:160611
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:160212
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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