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[PMID]: 28257122
[Au] Autor:Wang J; Niu T; Wang R
[Ad] Address:School of Statistics, Dongbei University of Finance and Economics, Dalian 116025, China. wangjz@dufe.edu.cn.
[Ti] Title:Research and Application of an Air Quality Early Warning System Based on a Modified Least Squares Support Vector Machine and a Cloud Model.
[So] Source:Int J Environ Res Public Health;14(3), 2017 Mar 02.
[Is] ISSN:1660-4601
[Cp] Country of publication:Switzerland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The worsening atmospheric pollution increases the necessity of air quality early warning systems (EWSs). Despite the fact that a massive amount of investigation about EWS in theory and practicality has been conducted by numerous researchers, studies concerning the quantification of uncertain information and comprehensive evaluation are still lacking, which impedes further development in the area. In this paper, firstly a comprehensive warning system is proposed, which consists of two vital indispensable modules, namely effective forecasting and scientific evaluation, respectively. For the forecasting module, a novel hybrid model combining the theory of data preprocessing and numerical optimization is first developed to implement effective forecasting for air pollutant concentration. Especially, in order to further enhance the accuracy and robustness of the warning system, interval forecasting is implemented to quantify the uncertainties generated by forecasts, which can provide significant risk signals by using point forecasting for decision-makers. For the evaluation module, a cloud model, based on probability and fuzzy set theory, is developed to perform comprehensive evaluations of air quality, which can realize the transformation between qualitative concept and quantitative data. To verify the effectiveness and efficiency of the warning system, extensive simulations based on air pollutants data from Dalian in China were effectively implemented, which illustrate that the warning system is not only remarkably high-performance, but also widely applicable.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1703
[Cu] Class update date: 170303
[Lr] Last revision date:170303
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

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[PMID]: 28257076
[Au] Autor:He LY; Yang S; Chang D
[Ad] Address:School of Economics, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China. lyhe@amss.ac.cn.
[Ti] Title:Oil Price Uncertainty, Transport Fuel Demand and Public Health.
[So] Source:Int J Environ Res Public Health;14(3), 2017 Mar 01.
[Is] ISSN:1660-4601
[Cp] Country of publication:Switzerland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Based on the panel data of 306 cities in China from 2002 to 2012, this paper investigates China's road transport fuel (i.e., gasoline and diesel) demand system by using the Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) and the Quadratic AIDS (QUAIDS) models. The results indicate that own-priceelasticitiesfordifferentvehiclecategoriesrangefrom-1.215to-0.459(byAIDS)andfrom -1.399 to-0.369 (by QUAIDS). Then, this study estimates the air pollution emissions (CO, NOx and PM2.5) and public health damages from the road transport sector under different oil price shocks. Compared to the base year 2012, results show that a fuel price rise of 30% can avoid 1,147,270 tonnes of pollution emissions; besides, premature deaths and economic losses decrease by 16,149 cases and 13,817.953 million RMB yuan respectively; while based on the non-linear health effect model, the premature deaths and total economic losses decrease by 15,534 and 13,291.4 million RMB yuan respectively. Our study combines the fuel demand and health evaluation models and is the first attempt to address how oil price changes influence public health through the fuel demand system in China. Given its serious air pollution emission and substantial health damages, this paper provides important insights for policy makers in terms of persistent increasing in fuel consumption and the associated health and economic losses.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1703
[Cu] Class update date: 170303
[Lr] Last revision date:170303
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

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[PMID]: 28256920
[Au] Autor:West JB
[Ad] Address:Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego , La Jolla, California.
[Ti] Title:Are Permanent Residents of High Altitude Fully Adapted to Their Hypoxic Environment?
[So] Source:High Alt Med Biol;, 2017 Mar 03.
[Is] ISSN:1557-8682
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:West, John B. Are permanent residents of high altitude fully adapted to their hypoxic environment? High Alt Med Biol 00:000-000, 2017. Millions of people live permanently at high altitude and many have been there for generations. It is sometimes claimed that these people have completely adapted to their environment, and certainly some remarkable genetic adaptations have recently been described. However there is now strong evidence that permanent residents are not completely adapted to the high altitude in the sense that they have fully compensated for the environmental hypoxia. By sea level standards, highlanders have severe chronic arterial hypoxemia. Furthermore, their maximum oxygen uptake increases if they descend, and recent measurements suggest that cognitive function is reduced in this population compared with a matched group at a lower altitude. Reproductive success is reduced at high altitude because neonatal mortality increases with altitude. The topic has recently gained importance because new technology enables the physiological altitude of permanent residents to be reduced by adding oxygen to the air of buildings on a large scale, a procedure known as oxygen conditioning. Its feasibility has been questioned, but in essence it is no different from air conditioning that is universally used to improve the well-being and productivity of millions of people in hot climates. Oxygen conditioning has the potential to do the same for permanent residents of high altitude.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1703
[Cu] Class update date: 170303
[Lr] Last revision date:170303
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1089/ham.2016.0152

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[PMID]: 28256875
[Au] Autor:Inoue C; Izato YI; Miyake A; Villermaux E
[Ad] Address:The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan.
[Ti] Title:Direct Self-Sustained Fragmentation Cascade of Reactive Droplets.
[So] Source:Phys Rev Lett;118(7):074502, 2017 Feb 17.
[Is] ISSN:1079-7114
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:A traditional hand-held firework generates light streaks similar to branched pine needles, with ever smaller ramifications. These streaks are the trajectories of incandescent reactive liquid droplets bursting from a melted powder. We have uncovered the detailed sequence of events, which involve a chemical reaction with the oxygen of air, thermal decomposition of metastable compounds in the melt, gas bubble nucleation and bursting, liquid ligaments and droplets formation, all occurring in a sequential fashion. We have also evidenced a rare instance in nature of a spontaneous fragmentation process involving a direct cascade from big to smaller droplets. Here, the self-sustained direct cascade is shown to proceed over up to eight generations, with well-defined time and length scales, thus answering a century old question, and enriching, with a new example, the phenomenology of comminution.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1703
[Cu] Class update date: 170303
[Lr] Last revision date:170303
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.074502

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[PMID]: 28256845
[Au] Autor:Koller SB; Grotti J; Vogt S; Al-Masoudi A; Dörscher S; Häfner S; Sterr U; Lisdat C
[Ad] Address:Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig, Germany.
[Ti] Title:Transportable Optical Lattice Clock with 7×10
[So] Source:Phys Rev Lett;118(7):073601, 2017 Feb 17.
[Is] ISSN:1079-7114
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:We present a transportable optical clock (TOC) with ^{87}Sr. Its complete characterization against a stationary lattice clock resulted in a systematic uncertainty of 7.4×10^{-17}, which is currently limited by the statistics of the determination of the residual lattice light shift, and an instability of 1.3×10^{-15}/sqrt[τ] with an averaging time τ in seconds. Measurements confirm that the systematic uncertainty can be reduced to below the design goal of 1×10^{-17}. To our knowledge, these are the best uncertainties and instabilities reported for any transportable clock to date. For autonomous operation, the TOC has been installed in an air-conditioned car trailer. It is suitable for chronometric leveling with submeter resolution as well as for intercontinental cross-linking of optical clocks, which is essential for a redefinition of the International System of Units (SI) second. In addition, the TOC will be used for high precision experiments for fundamental science that are commonly tied to precise frequency measurements and its development is an important step to space-borne optical clocks.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1703
[Cu] Class update date: 170303
[Lr] Last revision date:170303
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.073601

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[PMID]: 28256828
[Au] Autor:Van Malderen SJ; Laforce B; Van Acker T; Nys C; De Rijcke M; De Rycke R; De Bruyne M; Boone M; De Schamphelaere KA; Borovinskaya O; De Samber B; Vincze L; Vanhaecke F
[Ti] Title:Three-dimensional reconstruction of the tissue-specific multi-elemental distribution within Ceriodaphnia dubia via multimodal registration using laser ablation ICP-mass spectrometry and X-ray spectroscopic techniques.
[So] Source:Anal Chem;, 2017 Mar 03.
[Is] ISSN:1520-6882
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:In this work, the three-dimensional elemental distribution profile within the freshwater crustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia was constructed at a spatial resolution down to 5 µm via a data fusion approach employing state-of-the-art laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-time of flight mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-TOFMS) and laboratory-based absorption micro-computed tomography (µ-CT). C. dubia was exposed to elevated Cu, Ni and Zn concentrations, chemically fixed, dehydrated, stained and embedded, prior to µ-CT analysis. Subsequently, the sample was cut into 5 µm thin sections and subjected to LA-ICP-TOFMS imaging. Multimodal image registration was performed to spatially align the 2D LA-ICP-TOFMS images relative to the corresponding slices of the 3D µ-CT reconstruction. Mass channels corresponding to the isotopes of a single element were merged to improve the signal-to-noise ratios within the elemental images. In order to aid the visual interpretation of the data, LA-ICP-TOFMS data were projected onto the µ-CT voxels representing tissue. Additionally, the image resolution and elemental sensitivity were compared to those obtained with synchrotron radiation based 3D confocal µ-X-ray fluorescence imaging upon a chemically fixed and air-dried C. dubia specimen.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1703
[Cu] Class update date: 170303
[Lr] Last revision date:170303
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1021/acs.analchem.7b00111

  7 / 301673 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28256827
[Au] Autor:Kang R; Mulder J; Doersch P
[Ti] Title:A modified method for trapping and analysing 15N in NO released from soils.
[So] Source:Anal Chem;, 2017 Mar 03.
[Is] ISSN:1520-6882
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:15N isotope tracing is an effective and direct approach to investigate sources of nitric oxide (NO) formed in soils. However, NO is highly reactive and rapidly converted to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in the presence of ozone, making it impossible to di-rectly measure 15N in NO. Various wet-chemical methods for conversion of NO to nitrite (NO2-) and nitrate (NO3-) have been proposed for 15N analysis in high-concentration NO sources, such as combustion processes. In contrast, NO concentrations in soil surface-near air are usually small (ppbv-range), posing major challenges to conversion efficiency and blank correction. Here we present a modified method in which NO is oxidized quantitatively to NO2 by chromium trioxide (CrO3), before con-version to NO2- and NO3- in an alkaline hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) solution. A denitrifier method was used to reduce NO2- and NO3- in the trapping solution quantitatively to nitrous oxide (N2O) for subsequent 15N analysis. NO trapping efficiencies of > 85% were obtained with 50 ppb NO in a 0.5 L min-1 air stream bubbling through a solution of 1.2 M H2O2 and 0.5 M NaOH. In a laboratory test with distinct 15NO abundances, the overall precision was 0.29‰ (δ-values) for natural abundance NO and 0.13 atom% for labelled NO, suggesting that our method can be used for both natural abundance studies and 15N labelling experiments. In a soil incubation experiment with 15NH4NO3, NH415NO3 or Na15NO2 amendments, we found distinct 15N abundances in NO, indicating that our method is well suited to investigate NO sources in soils.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1703
[Cu] Class update date: 170303
[Lr] Last revision date:170303
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1021/acs.analchem.6b05096

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[PMID]: 28256788
[Au] Autor:Subbiah J; Mitchell VD; Hui NK; Jones DJ; Wong WW
[Ad] Address:School of Chemistry, The University of Melbourne, Bio21 Institute, 30 Flemington Road, Parkville, Victoria, 3010, Australia.
[Ti] Title:A Green Route to Conjugated Polyelectrolyte Interlayers for High-Performance Solar Cells.
[So] Source:Angew Chem Int Ed Engl;, 2017 Mar 03.
[Is] ISSN:1521-3773
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Synthesis of fluorene-based conjugated polyelectrolytes was achieved via Suzuki polycondensation in water and completely open to air. The polyelectrolytes were conveniently purified by dialysis and analysis of the materials showed properties expected for fluorene-based conjugated polyelectrolytes. The materials were then employed in solar cell devices as an interlayer in conjunction with ZnO. The double interlayer led to enhanced power conversion efficiency of 10.75 % and 15.1 % for polymer and perovskite solar cells, respectively.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1703
[Cu] Class update date: 170303
[Lr] Last revision date:170303
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1002/anie.201612021

  9 / 301673 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28256669
[Au] Autor:Ghosh T; Das A; König B
[Ad] Address:Institute of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg, Germany. Burkhard.Koenig@ur.de.
[Ti] Title:Photocatalytic N-formylation of amines via a reductive quenching cycle in the presence of air.
[So] Source:Org Biomol Chem;, 2017 Mar 03.
[Is] ISSN:1477-0539
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Photochemical N-formylation of amines was performed under simple and mild reaction conditions. Amines are common electron donors in reductive photocatalysis, which then typically decompose after donating an electron to the photocatalyst. We have found that these oxidized amines can be utilized to give N-formamides in the presence of air without additional formylating agents. The reaction proceeds via the in situ formation of enamines. Oxygen (air) is necessary for the reaction to occur as it regenerates the photocatalyst forming superoxide radical anions as crucial intermediates involved in the reaction.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1703
[Cu] Class update date: 170303
[Lr] Last revision date:170303
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1039/c7ob00250e

  10 / 301673 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28256659
[Au] Autor:Jiang J; Soo Lim Y; Park S; Kim SH; Yoon S; Piao L
[Ad] Address:Department of Bio & Nano Chemistry, Kookmin University, 861-1, Jeongneung-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-702, Korea. yoona@kookmin.ac.kr.
[Ti] Title:Hollow porous Cu particles from silica-encapsulated Cu O nanoparticle aggregates effectively catalyze 4-nitrophenol reduction.
[So] Source:Nanoscale;, 2017 Mar 03.
[Is] ISSN:2040-3372
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:A hollow metal micro/nanomaterial with a porous wall is one of the most attractive structures for catalysts. The synthesis of hollow porous Cu particles remains a challenge due to their air-sensitive characteristics. In this study, we report a facile and scalable method for the preparation of high-quality hollow porous Cu particles in the range of 500 nm-1.5 µm with a well-defined structure from Cu O nanoparticle aggregates (NPAs). The synthetic procedure involves the silica-encapsulation and depth-controlled reduction of Cu O NPAs followed by heat-treatment in air and selective removal of the encapsulating layer. The catalytic performance of the hollow porous Cu particles was evaluated through the catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol with NaBH as a model reaction. The hollow porous Cu particles exhibited a high activity factor, K = 186 s g , which is the highest K value obtained among the unsupported Cu catalysts to date. And the K value is better than that of some noble metal catalysts, such as Au, Ag, and Pd. In addition, the catalyst could be easily separated from the reaction system and still possessed high activity as well as stability in recycled reactions.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1703
[Cu] Class update date: 170303
[Lr] Last revision date:170303
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1039/c6nr09934c


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