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[PMID]: 25112684
[Au] Autor:Merouani S; Hamdaoui O; Rezgui Y; Guemini M
[Ad] Address:Laboratory of Environmental Engineering, Department of Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Badji Mokhtar - Annaba University, P.O. Box 12, 23000 Annaba, Algeria; Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Engineering Process, University of Constantine 3, 25000 Constantine...
[Ti] Title:Sensitivity of free radicals production in acoustically driven bubble to the ultrasonic frequency and nature of dissolved gases.
[So] Source:Ultrason Sonochem;22:41-50, 2015 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1873-2828
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Central events of ultrasonic action are the bubbles of cavitation that can be considered as powered microreactors within which high-energy chemistry occurs. This work presents the results of a comprehensive numerical assessment of frequency and saturating gases effects on single bubble sonochemistry. Computer simulations of chemical reactions occurring inside a bubble oscillating in liquid water irradiated by an ultrasonic wave have been performed for a wide range of ultrasonic frequencies (213-1100kHz) under different saturating gases (O2, air, N2 and H2). For O2 and H2 bubbles, reactions mechanism consisting in 25 reversible chemical reactions were proposed for studying the internal bubble-chemistry whereas 73 reversible reactions were taken into account for air and N2 bubbles. The numerical simulations have indicated that radicals such as OH, H, HO2 and O are created in the bubble during the strong collapse. In all cases, hydroxyl radical (OH) is the main oxidant created in the bubble. The production rate of the oxidants decreases as the driving ultrasonic frequency increases. The production rate of OH radical followed the order O2>air>N2>H2 and the order becomes more remarkable at higher ultrasonic frequencies. The effect of ultrasonic frequency on single bubble sonochemistry was attributed to its significant impact on the cavitation process whereas the effects of gases were attributed to the nature of the chemistry produced in the bubble at the strong collapse. It was concluded that, in addition to the gas solubility, the nature of the internal bubble chemistry is another parameter of a paramount importance that controls the overall sonochemical activity in aqueous solutions.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1408
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  2 / 259890 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25088186
[Au] Autor:Juretic H; Montalbo-Lomboy M; van Leeuwen JH; Cooper WJ; Grewell D
[Ad] Address:Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-3080, USA; Department of Energy, Power Engineering and Environment, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Zagreb, Ivana Lucica 5, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia; Department of Civ...
[Ti] Title:Hydroxyl radical formation in batch and continuous flow ultrasonic systems.
[So] Source:Ultrason Sonochem;22:600-6, 2015 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1873-2828
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The creation of free radicals by ultrasonic cavitation is the main mechanism that leads to chemical degradation of target pollutants and the process is considered an alternative advanced oxidation technology. The goal of this study was to compare the effects of batch and continuous flow ultrasonic systems on the formation of hydroxyl radicals. Ultrasonic batch experiments were conducted in two reactors (small and large) using a standard 20kHz catenoidal titanium horn at varying amplitudes and sonication times. The effect of saturating gas was also investigated by introducing helium and air at 1Lmin(-1) into the larger 100mL reactor. In the continuous flow system, the experiments were conducted with a 20kHz, 3.3kW ultrasonic systems using a titanium "donut" horn at varying volumetric flow rates and amplitudes. Formation of hydroxyl radicals was determined using terephthalic acid dosimetry measurements. At the same energy densities, higher hydroxyl radical concentrations were formed in the batch system than in the continuous flow system. Sonication time appeared to be the main factor that influenced the results in batch and continuous flow systems. The two gases (helium and air) did not increase the hydroxyl radical formation at any amplitude or sonication time tested.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1408
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  3 / 259890 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25023827
[Au] Autor:Romero J CA; Yépez V BD
[Ad] Address:Food Engineering Program, Department of Engineering, Universidad Jorge Tadeo Lozano, 110311 Bogotá, Colombia. Electronic address: caromerojimenez@alaska.edu.
[Ti] Title:Ultrasound as pretreatment to convective drying of Andean blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth).
[So] Source:Ultrason Sonochem;22:205-10, 2015 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1873-2828
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:In this study, we evaluated the use of ultrasound as a pretreatment for convective drying of Andean blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth). For this, a Box-Behnken experimental design was used to study the effect of ultrasound vibration amplitude (0-90µm), time of sonication (10-30min) and air temperature (40-60°C) on the retention of antioxidant compounds and on the kinetics of convective drying. The results showed that the antioxidant activity on fruit was reduced as the vibration amplitude and time of sonication increased, while was found that vibration amplitude ultrasound and air drying temperature were the variables that more affect the drying rate of blackberries. The drying rate increased by almost five times when samples were treated with ultrasound at 90µm for 20min. They were then dried using air at 60°C. It is concluded that the application of ultrasound in blackberry processing allows to obtain a dehydrated product with better functional quality and shows to be effective in reducing the time necessary to achieve a given value of moisture during convective drying.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1408
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  4 / 259890 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24997048
[Au] Autor:Shahrjerdi A; Hosseiny Davarani SS; Najafi E; Amini MM
[Ad] Address:Department of Chemistry, Institute Shahid Beheshti University G.C., Tehran 1983963113, Iran....
[Ti] Title:Sonoelectrochemical synthesis of a new nano lead(II) complex with quinoline-2-carboxylic acid ligand: A precursor to produce pure phase nano-sized lead(II) oxide.
[So] Source:Ultrason Sonochem;22:382-90, 2015 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1873-2828
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:A new lead complex, [Pb(Q)2] (1) (Q=quinoline-2-carboxylic acid), was prepared via conventional electrochemical method in a fast and facile process and fully characterized by (1)H and (13)C NMR, IR, UV spectroscopies and elemental analysis. The nano-structures of same compound were successfully prepared at 25, 48 and 60°C by a facile and environment-friendly sonoelectrochemical route. The new nano-structure particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, IR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Thermal stability of single-crystal and nano-size samples of the prepared compound was studied by thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis. The effect of sonoelectrochemical temperature on particle size has been investigated, and possible explanations offered. The photoluminescence properties of the nano-structured and crystalline bulk of the prepared complex at room temperature in the solid state have been investigated in detail. The results indicate that the size of the complex particles has an important effect on the optical properties of it. The prepared complexes, as bulk and as nano-particles, were utilized as a precursor for preparation of PbO nanoparticles by direct thermal decomposition at 600°C in air. The nano-structures of PbO were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and IR spectroscopy.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1408
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  5 / 259890 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24614252
[Au] Autor:White NA; Moreno DP; Brown PJ; Gayzik FS; Hsu W; Powers AK; Stitzel JD
[Ad] Address:Center for Injury Biomechanics, Virginia Tech-Wake Forest University, 575 N. Patterson Ave., Suite 120, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA....
[Ti] Title:Effects of cervical arthrodesis and arthroplasty on neck response during a simulated frontal automobile collision.
[So] Source:Spine J;14(9):2195-207, 2014 Sep 1.
[Is] ISSN:1878-1632
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Whereas arthrodesis is the most common surgical intervention for the treatment of symptomatic cervical degenerative disc disease, arthroplasty has become increasingly more popular over the past decade. Although literature exists comparing the effects of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion and cervical total disc replacement (CTDR) on neck kinematics and loading, the vast majority of these studies apply only quasi-static, noninjurious loading conditions to a segment of the cervical spine. PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of arthrodesis and arthroplasty on biomechanical neck response during a simulated frontal automobile collision with air bag deployment. STUDY DESIGN: This study used a full-body, 50th percentile seated male finite element (FE) model to evaluate neck response during a dynamic impact event. The cervical spine was modified to simulate either an arthrodesis or arthroplasty procedure at C5-C6. METHODS: Five simulations of a belted driver, subjected to a 13.3 m/s ΔV frontal impact with air bag deployment, were run in LS-DYNA with the Global Human Body Models Consortium full-body FE model. The first simulation used the original model, with no modifications to the neck, whereas the remaining four were modified to represent either interbody arthrodesis or arthroplasty of C5-C6. Cross-sectional forces and moments at the C5 and C6 cervical levels of the neck, along with interbody and facet forces between C5 and C6, were reported. RESULTS: Adjacent-level, cross-sectional neck loading was maintained in all simulations without exceeding any established injury thresholds. Interbody compression was greatest for the CTDRs, and interbody tension occurred only in the fused and nonmodified spines. Some interbody separation occurred between the superior and inferior components of the CTDRs during flexion-induced tension of the cervical spine, increasing the facet loads. CONCLUSIONS: This study evaluated the effects of C5-C6 cervical arthrodesis and arthroplasty on neck response during a simulated frontal automobile impact. Although cervical arthrodesis and arthroplasty at C5-C6 did not appear to significantly alter the adjacent-level, cross-sectional neck responses during a simulated frontal automobile impact, key differences were noted in the interbody and facet loading.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1408
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  6 / 259890 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25152518
[Au] Autor:Palma-Vera S; Einspanier R; Schoen J
[Ad] Address:Freie Universität Berlin, Institute of Veterinary Biochemistry, Oertzenweg 19b, 14163 Berlin, Germany. Electronic address: sepalma@zedat.fu-berlin.de.
[Ti] Title:Bovine oviductal epithelial cells: Long term culture characterization and impact of insulin on cell morphology.
[So] Source:Reprod Biol;14(3):206-12, 2014 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1642-431X
[Cp] Country of publication:Poland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:In vitro models that resemble cell function in vivo are needed to understand oviduct physiology. This study aimed to assess cell functions and insulin effects on bovine oviductal epithelial cells (BOECs) cultured in an air-liquid interface. BOECs (n=6) were grown in conditioned Ham's F12, DMEM or Ham's F12/DMEM with 10% fetal calf serum (FCS) for 3 weeks. After selecting the most suitable medium (Ham's F12), increasing insulin concentrations (1ng/mL, 20ng/mL and 5µg/mL) were applied, and cell morphology and trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER; n=4) were evaluated after 3 and 6 weeks. Keratin immunohistochemistry and mRNA expression of oviductal glycoprotein 1 (OVGP1) and progesterone receptor (PGR) were conducted (n=4) to assess cell differentiation. BOECs grown without insulin supplementation or with 1ng/mL of insulin displayed polarization and secretory activity. However, cells exhibited only 50% of the height of their in vivo counterparts. Cultures supplemented with 20ng/mL insulin showed the highest quality, but the 5µg/mL concentration induced massive growth. TEER correlated negatively with insulin concentration (r=-0.459; p=0.009). OVGP1 and PGR transcripts were still detectable after 3 and 6 weeks. Cellular localization of keratins closely resembled that of BOECs in vivo. Cultures showed heterogeneous expression of PGR and OVGP1 in response to estradiol (10pg/mL). In summary, BOECs grown for long term in an air-liquid interface expressed markers of cell differentiation. Additionally, insulin supplementation (20ng/mL) improved the cell morphology in vitro.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1408
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  7 / 259890 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25105236
[Au] Autor:Pellegrini E; Bertuzzi S; CandottoCarniel F; Lorenzini G; Nali C; Tretiach M
[Ad] Address:Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, I-56124 Pisa, Italy....
[Ti] Title:Ozone tolerance in lichens: A possible explanation from biochemical to physiological level using Flavoparmelia caperata as test organism.
[So] Source:J Plant Physiol;171(16):1514-23, 2014 Oct 15.
[Is] ISSN:1618-1328
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Lichens are among the best biomonitors of airborne pollutants, but surprisingly they reveal high tolerance to ozone (O3). It was recently suggested that this might be due to the high levels of natural defences against oxidative stress, related to their poikilohydric life strategy. The objective of this work is to give a thorough description of the biochemical and physiological mechanisms that are at the basis of the O3-tolerance of lichens. Chlorophyll a fluorescence (ChlaF) emission, histochemical ROS localization in the lichen thallus, and biochemical markers [enzymes and antioxidants involved in the ascorbate/glutathione (AsA/GSH) cycle; hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide anion (O2(-))] were used to characterize the response of the epiphytic lichen Flavoparmelia caperata (L.) Hale exposed to O3 (250ppb, 5hd(-1), 2 weeks) at different watering regimes and air relative humidity (RH) in a fumigation chamber. After two-week exposure ChlaF was affected by the watering regime but not by O3. The watering regime influenced also the superoxide dismutase activity and the production of ROS. By contrast O3 strongly influenced the AsA/GSH biochemical pathway, decreasing the reduced ascorbate (AsA) content and increasing the enzymatic activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) and glutathione reductase (GR) independently from the watering regime and the relative humidity applied. This study highlights that F. caperata can face the O3-induced oxidative stress thanks to high levels of constitutive enzymatic and non-enzymatic defences against ROS formed naturally during the dehydration-rehydration cycles to which lichens are frequently exposed.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1408
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  8 / 259890 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24915744
[Au] Autor:Mellington FE; Bacon AS; Abu-Bakra MA; Martinez-Devesa P; Norris JH
[Ad] Address:Oxford Eye Hospital, Headington, Oxford, United Kingdom....
[Ti] Title:Orbital compressed air and petroleum injury mimicking necrotizing fasciitis.
[So] Source:J Emerg Med;47(3):e69-72, 2014 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:0736-4679
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Orbital injury secondary to petroleum-based products is rare. We report the first case, to our knowledge, of a combined compressed air and chemical orbital injury, which mimicked necrotizing fasciitis. CASE REPORT: A 58-year-old man was repairing his motorcycle engine when a piston inadvertently fired, discharging compressed air and petroleum-based carburetor cleaner into his left eye. He developed surgical emphysema, skin necrosis, and a chemical cellulitis, causing an orbital compartment syndrome. He was treated initially with antibiotics and subsequently with intravenous steroid and orbital decompression surgery. There was almost complete recovery by 4 weeks postsurgery. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Petroleum-based products can cause severe skin irritation and necrosis. Compressed air injury can cause surgical emphysema. When these two mechanisms of injury are combined, the resulting orbitopathy and skin necrosis can mimic necrotizing fasciitis and cause diagnostic confusion. A favorable outcome is achievable with aggressive timely management.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1408
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  9 / 259890 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25105272
[Au] Autor:Sharara MA; Holeman N; Sadaka SS; Costello TA
[Ad] Address:Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department, University of Arkansas - Division of Agriculture, AR, USA....
[Ti] Title:Pyrolysis kinetics of algal consortia grown using swine manure wastewater.
[So] Source:Bioresour Technol;169:658-66, 2014 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1873-2976
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:In this study, pyrolysis kinetics of periphytic microalgae consortia grown using swine manure slurry in two seasonal climatic patterns in northwest Arkansas were investigated. Four heating rates (5, 10, 20 and 40°Cmin(-1)) were used to determine the pyrolysis kinetics. Differences in proximate, ultimate, and heating value analyses reflected variability in growing substrate conditions, i.e., flocculant use, manure slurry dilution, and differences in diurnal solar radiation and air temperature regimes. Peak decomposition temperature in algal harvests varied with changing the heating rate. Analyzing pyrolysis kinetics using differential and integral isoconversional methods (Friedman, Flynn-Wall-Ozawa, and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose) showed strong dependency of apparent activation energy on the degree of conversion suggesting parallel reaction scheme. Consequently, the weight loss data in each thermogravimetric test was modeled using independent parallel reactions (IPR). The quality of fit (QOF) for the model ranged between 2.09% and 3.31% indicating a good agreement with the experimental data.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1408
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  10 / 259890 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25105268
[Au] Autor:Guo C; Chen Y; Chen J; Wang X; Zhang G; Wang J; Cui W; Zhang Z
[Ad] Address:State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249, China....
[Ti] Title:Combined hydrolysis acidification and bio-contact oxidation system with air-lift tubes and activated carbon bioreactor for oilfield wastewater treatment.
[So] Source:Bioresour Technol;169:630-6, 2014 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1873-2976
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:This paper investigated the enhancement of the COD reduction of an oilfield wastewater treatment process by installing air-lift tubes and adding an activated carbon bioreactor (ACB) to form a combined hydrolysis acidification and bio-contact oxidation system with air-lift tubes (HA/air-lift BCO) and an ACB. Three heat-resistant bacterial strains were cultivated and subsequently applied in above pilot plant test. Installing air-lift tubes in aerobic tanks reduced the necessary air to water ratio from 20 to 5. Continuous operation of the HA/air-lift BCO system for 2months with a hydraulic retention time of 36h, a volumetric load of 0.14kgCOD/(m(3)d) (hydrolysis-acidification or anaerobic tank), and 0.06kgCOD/(m(3)d) (aerobic tanks) achieved an average reduction of COD by 60%, oil and grease by 62%, total suspended solids by 75%, and sulfides by 77%. With a COD load of 0.56kg/(m(3)d), the average COD in the ACB effluent was 58mg/L.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1408
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review


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