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[PMID]: 25710246
[Au] Autor:Hajat A; Allison M; Diez-Roux AV; Jenny NS; Jorgensen NW; Szpiro AA; Vedal S; Kaufman JD
[Ad] Address:From the aDepartment of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA; bDepartment of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA; cSchool of Public Health, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA; dDepartment of Pathology, College of Medicine, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT; and eDepartment of Biostatistics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.
[Ti] Title:Long-term Exposure to Air Pollution and Markers of Inflammation, Coagulation, and Endothelial Activation: A Repeat-measures Analysis in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).
[So] Source:Epidemiology;26(3):310-20, 2015 May.
[Is] ISSN:1531-5487
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Air pollution is associated with cardiovascular disease, and systemic inflammation may mediate this effect. We assessed associations between long- and short-term concentrations of air pollution and markers of inflammation, coagulation, and endothelial activation. METHODS: We studied participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis from 2000 to 2012 with repeat measures of serum C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), fibrinogen, D-dimer, soluble E-selectin, and soluble Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1. Annual average concentrations of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5), individual-level ambient PM2.5 (integrating indoor concentrations and time-location data), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and black carbon were evaluated. Short-term concentrations of PM2.5 reflected the day of blood draw, day prior, and averages of prior 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-day periods. Random-effects models were used for long-term exposures and fixed effects for short-term exposures. The sample size was between 9,000 and 10,000 observations for CRP, IL-6, fibrinogen, and D-dimer; approximately 2,100 for E-selectin; and 3,300 for soluble Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1. RESULTS: After controlling for confounders, 5 µg/m increase in long-term ambient PM2.5 was associated with 6% higher IL-6 (95% confidence interval = 2%, 9%), and 40 parts per billion increase in long-term NOx was associated with 7% (95% confidence interval = 2%, 13%) higher level of D-dimer. PM2.5 measured at day of blood draw was associated with CRP, fibrinogen, and E-selectin. There were no other positive associations between blood markers and short- or long-term air pollution. CONCLUSIONS: These data are consistent with the hypothesis that long-term exposure to air pollution is related to some markers of inflammation and fibrinolysis.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1504
[Cu] Class update date: 150404
[Lr] Last revision date:150404
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1097/EDE.0000000000000267

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[PMID]: 25747819
[Au] Autor:Lucas EL; Bertrand P; Guazzetti S; Donna F; Peli M; Jursa TP; Lucchini R; Smith DR
[Ad] Address:University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA....
[Ti] Title:Impact of ferromanganese alloy plants on household dust manganese levels: Implications for childhood exposure.
[So] Source:Environ Res;138:279-90, 2015 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1096-0953
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Adolescents living in communities with ferromanganese alloy plant activity have been shown to exhibit deficits in olfactory and fine motor function. Household dust may serve as an important manganese (Mn) exposure pathway to children, though dust Mn concentrations have not previously been measured to assess household contamination from ferromanganese alloy plant emissions. Here we determined the association between dust concentrations and surface loadings of Mn and other metals (Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, and Zn) in indoor and outdoor household dust from three Italian communities that differ by history of ferromanganese alloy plant activity: Bagnolo Mella, with an active ferromanganese alloy plant (n=178 households); Valcamonica, with historically active plants (n=166); and Garda Lake, with no history of ferromanganese plant activity (n=99). We also evaluated Mn levels in other environmental (soil, airborne particulates) and candidate biomarker (blood, hair, saliva, fingernails) samples from children within the households. Household dust Mn concentrations and surface loadings were significantly different between the three sites, with levels highest in Bagnolo Mella (outdoor median Mn concentration=4620, range 487-183,000µg/g), intermediate in Valcamonica (median=876, range 407-8240µg/g), and lowest in Garda Lake (median=407, range 258-7240µg/g). Outdoor dust Mn concentrations in Bagnolo Mella, but not the other communities, were significantly inversely related with distance from the plant (R(2)=0.6630, P<0.0001). Moreover, outdoor dust Mn concentrations and loadings were highly predictive of but significantly higher than indoor dust Mn concentrations and loadings by ~2 to ~7-fold (Mn concentrations) and ~7 to ~20-fold (Mn loadings). Finally, both indoor and outdoor dust Mn concentrations and outdoor dust Mn loading values were highly significantly correlated with both soil and air Mn concentrations, and with children's hair and fingernail Mn concentrations, but weakly or not associated with saliva or blood Mn levels. Given the evidence associating elevated Mn exposure with neurological impairments in children, these data support that dust Mn levels should be reduced in contaminated environments to protect the health of resident children.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1504
[Cu] Class update date: 150404
[Lr] Last revision date:150404
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

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[PMID]: 25701812
[Au] Autor:Semmens EO; Noonan CW; Allen RW; Weiler EC; Ward TJ
[Ad] Address:Department of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Center for Environmental Health Sciences, 32 Campus Drive, The University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812, USA. Electronic address: erin.semmens@umontana.edu....
[Ti] Title:Indoor particulate matter in rural, wood stove heated homes.
[So] Source:Environ Res;138:93-100, 2015 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1096-0953
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Ambient particulate matter (PM) exposures have adverse impacts on public health, but research evaluating indoor PM concentrations in rural homes in the United States using wood as fuel for heating is limited. Our objectives were to characterize indoor PM mass and particle number concentrations (PNCs), quantify infiltration of outdoor PM into the indoor environment, and investigate potential predictors of concentrations and infiltration in 96 homes in the northwestern US and Alaska using wood stoves as the primary source of heating. During two forty-eight hour sampling periods during the pre-intervention winter of a randomized trial, we assessed PM mass (<2.5µm) and PNCs (particles/cm(3)) in six size fractions (0.30-0.49, 0.50-0.99, 1.00-2.49, 2.5-5.0, 5.0-10.0, 10.0+µm). Daily mean (sd) PM2.5 concentrations were 28.8 (28.5)µg/m(3) during the first sampling period and 29.1 (30.1)µg/m(3) during the second period. In repeated measures analyses, household income was inversely associated with PM2.5 and smaller size fraction PNCs, in particular. Time of day was a significant predictor of indoor and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations, and infiltration efficiency was relatively low (Finf (sd)=0.27 (0.20)). Our findings demonstrate relatively high mean PM concentrations in these wood burning homes and suggest potential targets for interventions for improving indoor air quality and health in rural settings.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1504
[Cu] Class update date: 150404
[Lr] Last revision date:150404
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

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[PMID]: 25834681
[Au] Autor:Zachariah S; Gharahbaghian L; Perera P; Joshi N
[Ad] Address:Stanford University, Department of Emergency Medicine, Palo Alto, California....
[Ti] Title:Spontaneous pneumomediastinum on bedside ultrasound: case report and review of the literature.
[So] Source:West J Emerg Med;16(2):321-4, 2015 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1936-9018
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Spontaneous pneumomediastinum is a rare disease process with no clear etiology, although it is thought to be related to changes in intrathoracic pressure causing chest pain and dyspnea. We present a case of a 17-year-old male with acute chest pain evaluated initially by bedside ultrasound, which showed normal lung sliding but poor visualization of the parasternal and apical cardiac views due to significant air artifact, representing air in the thoracic cavity. The diagnosis was later verified by chest radiograph. We present a case report on ultrasound-diagnosed pneumomediastinum, and we review the diagnostic modalities to date.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1504
[Cu] Class update date: 150404
[Lr] Last revision date:150404
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.5811/westjem.2015.1.24514

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[PMID]: 25832070
[Au] Autor:Scarboro SB; Cody D; Alvarez P; Followill D; Court L; Stingo FC; Zhang D; McNitt-Gray M; Kry SF
[Ad] Address:The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030; Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center Houston, Houston, Texas 77030; and The Methodist Hospital, Houston, Texas 77030....
[Ti] Title:Characterization of the nanoDot OSLD dosimeter in CT.
[So] Source:Med Phys;42(4):1797, 2015 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:0094-2405
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:PURPOSE: The extensive use of computed tomography (CT) in diagnostic procedures is accompanied by a growing need for more accurate and patient-specific dosimetry techniques. Optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters (OSLDs) offer a potential solution for patient-specific CT point-based surface dosimetry by measuring air kerma. The purpose of this work was to characterize the OSLD nanoDot for CT dosimetry, quantifying necessary correction factors, and evaluating the uncertainty of these factors. METHODS: A characterization of the Landauer OSL nanoDot (Landauer, Inc., Greenwood, IL) was conducted using both measurements and theoretical approaches in a CT environment. The effects of signal depletion, signal fading, dose linearity, and angular dependence were characterized through direct measurement for CT energies (80-140 kV) and delivered doses ranging from ∼5 to >1000 mGy. Energy dependence as a function of scan parameters was evaluated using two independent approaches: direct measurement and a theoretical approach based on Burlin cavity theory and Monte Carlo simulated spectra. This beam-quality dependence was evaluated for a range of CT scanning parameters. RESULTS: Correction factors for the dosimeter response in terms of signal fading, dose linearity, and angular dependence were found to be small for most measurement conditions (<3%). The relative uncertainty was determined for each factor and reported at the two-sigma level. Differences in irradiation geometry (rotational versus static) resulted in a difference in dosimeter signal of 3% on average. Beam quality varied with scan parameters and necessitated the largest correction factor, ranging from 0.80 to 1.15 relative to a calibration performed in air using a 120 kV beam. Good agreement was found between the theoretical and measurement approaches. CONCLUSIONS: Correction factors for the measurement of air kerma were generally small for CT dosimetry, although angular effects, and particularly effects due to changes in beam quality, could be more substantial. In particular, it would likely be necessary to account for variations in CT scan parameters and measurement location when performing CT dosimetry using OSLD.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1504
[Cu] Class update date: 150404
[Lr] Last revision date:150404
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1118/1.4914398

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[PMID]: 25834305
[Au] Autor:Shimizu Y; Dobashi K; Nagase H; Ohta K; Sano T; Matsuzaki S; Ishii Y; Satoh T; Koka M; Yokoyama A; Ohkubo T; Ishii Y; Kamiya T
[Ad] Address:Department of Pulmonary Medicine and Clinical Immunology, Dokkyo Medical University School of Medicine, 880 Kitakobayashi, Mibu-machi, Tochigi 321-0293, Japan ; Department of Respiratory Medicine, Maebashi Red Cross Hospital, 3-21-36 Asahi-cho, Maebashi-shi, Tochigi 371-0014, Japan ; Department of M...
[Ti] Title:Co-localization of iron binding on silica with p62/sequestosome1 (SQSTM1) in lung granulomas of mice with acute silicosis.
[So] Source:J Clin Biochem Nutr;56(1):74-83, 2015 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:0912-0009
[Cp] Country of publication:Japan
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The cellular mechanisms involved in the development of silicosis have not been fully elucidated. This study aimed to examine influence of silica-induced lung injury on autophagy. Suspensions of crystalline silica particles were administered transnasally to C57BL/6j mice. Immunohistochemical examination for Fas and p62 protein expression was performed using lung tissue specimens. Two-dimensional and quantitative analysis of silica deposits in the lungs were performed in situ using lung tissue sections by an in-air microparticle induced X-ray emission (in-air micro-PIXE) analysis system, which was based on irrradiation of specimens with a proton ion microbeam. Quantitative analysis showed a significant increase of iron levels on silica particles (assessed as the ratio of Fe relative to Si) on day 56 compared with day 7 (p<0.05). Fas and p62 were expressed by histiocytes in granulomas on day 7, and the expressions persisted for day 56. Fas- and p62-expressing histiocytes were co-localized in granulomas with silica particles that showed an increase of iron levels on silica particles in mouse lungs. Iron complexed with silica induces apoptosis, and may lead to dysregulations of autophagy in histiocytes of granulomas, and these mechanisms may contribute to granuloma development and progression in silicosis.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1504
[Cu] Class update date: 150404
[Lr] Last revision date:150404
[Da] Date of entry for processing:150402
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3164/jcbn.14-44

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[PMID]: 25739801
[Au] Autor:Sakhvidi MJ; Mihanpoor H; Mostaghaci M; Mehrparvar A; Barkhordari A
[Ad] Address:Department of Occupational Health, Faculty of Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
[Ti] Title:Determinants of the accuracy of occupational hygiene expert judgment.
[So] Source:Ind Health;53(2):184-91, 2015 Apr 1.
[Is] ISSN:1880-8026
[Cp] Country of publication:Japan
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:An experimental study was performed to determine the applicability and accuracy of occupational hygienist's expert judgment in occupational exposure assessment. The effect of tier 1 model application on improvement of expert judgments were also realized. Hygienists were asked to evaluate inhalation exposure intensity in seven operating units in a tile factory before and after an exposure training session. Participants' judgments were compared to air sampling data in the units; then after relative errors for judgments were calculated. Stepwise regressions were performed to investigate the defining variables. In all situations there were almost a perfect agreement (ICC >0.80) among raters. Correlations between estimated mean exposure and relative percentage error of participants before and after training were significant at 0.01 (correlation coefficients were -0.462 and -0.443, respectively). Results showed that actual concentration and experience resulted in 22.4% prediction variance for expert error as an independent variable. Exposure rating by hygienists was susceptible to error from several sources. Experienced subjects had a better ability to predict the exposures intensity. In lower concentrations, the rating error increased significantly. Leading causes of judgment error should be taken into account in epidemiological studies.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1504
[Cu] Class update date: 150404
[Lr] Last revision date:150404
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.2486/indhealth.2014-0066

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[PMID]: 25736778
[Au] Autor:Adam-Poupart A; Labrèche F; Busque MA; Brand A; Duguay P; Fournier M; Zayed J; Smargiassi A
[Ad] Address:Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Université de Montréal, Canada.
[Ti] Title:Association between outdoor ozone and compensated acute respiratory diseases among workers in Quebec (Canada).
[So] Source:Ind Health;53(2):171-5, 2015 Apr 1.
[Is] ISSN:1880-8026
[Cp] Country of publication:Japan
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Respiratory effects of ozone in the workplace have not been extensively studied. Our aim was to explore the relationship between daily average ozone levels and compensated acute respiratory problems among workers in Quebec between 2003 and 2010 using a time-stratified case-crossover design. Health data came from the Workers' Compensation Board. Daily concentrations of ozone were estimated using a spatiotemporal model. Conditional logistic regressions, with and without adjustment for temperature, were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs, per 1 ppb increase of ozone), and lag effects were assessed. Relationships with respiratory compensations in all industrial sectors were essentially null. Positive non-statistically significant associations were observed for outdoor sectors, and decreased after controlling for temperature (ORs of 0.98; 1.01 and 1.05 at Lags 0, 1 and 2 respectively). Considering the predicted increase of air pollutant concentrations in the context of climate change, closer investigation should be carried out on outdoor workers.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1504
[Cu] Class update date: 150404
[Lr] Last revision date:150404
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.2486/indhealth.2014-0136

  9 / 268282 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25382381
[Au] Autor:Yuasa H; Kumita M; Honda T; Kimura K; Nozaki K; Emi H; Otani Y
[Ad] Address:Koken Ltd., Japan.
[Ti] Title:Breathing simulator of workers for respirator performance test.
[So] Source:Ind Health;53(2):124-31, 2015 Apr 1.
[Is] ISSN:1880-8026
[Cp] Country of publication:Japan
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Breathing machines are widely used to evaluate respirator performance but they are capable of generating only limited air flow patterns, such as, sine, triangular and square waves. In order to evaluate the respirator performance in practical use, it is desirable to test the respirator using the actual breathing patterns of wearers. However, it has been a difficult task for a breathing machine to generate such complicated flow patterns, since the human respiratory volume changes depending on the human activities and workload. In this study, we have developed an electromechanical breathing simulator and a respiration sampling device to record and reproduce worker's respiration. It is capable of generating various flow patterns by inputting breathing pattern signals recorded by a computer, as well as the fixed air flow patterns. The device is equipped with a self-control program to compensate the difference in inhalation and exhalation volume and the measurement errors on the breathing flow rate. The system was successfully applied to record the breathing patterns of workers engaging in welding and reproduced the breathing patterns.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1504
[Cu] Class update date: 150404
[Lr] Last revision date:150404
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.2486/indhealth.2014-0079

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[PMID]: 25625652
[Au] Autor:van Rossem L; Rifas-Shiman SL; Melly SJ; Kloog I; Luttmann-Gibson H; Zanobetti A; Coull BA; Schwartz JD; Mittleman MA; Oken E; Gillman MW; Koutrakis P; Gold DR
[Ad] Address:Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
[Ti] Title:Prenatal air pollution exposure and newborn blood pressure.
[So] Source:Environ Health Perspect;123(4):353-9, 2015 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1552-9924
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Air pollution exposure has been associated with increased blood pressure in adults. OBJECTIVE: We examined associations of antenatal exposure to ambient air pollution with newborn systolic blood pressure (SBP). METHODS: We studied 1,131 mother-infant pairs in a Boston, Massachusetts, area pre-birth cohort. We calculated average exposures by trimester and during the 2 to 90 days before birth for temporally resolved fine particulate matter (≤ 2.5 µm; PM2.5), black carbon (BC), nitrogen oxides, nitrogen dioxide, ozone (O3), and carbon monoxide measured at stationary monitoring sites, and for spatiotemporally resolved estimates of PM2.5 and BC at the residence level. We measured SBP at a mean age of 30 ± 18 hr with an automated device. We used mixed-effects models to examine associations between air pollutant exposures and SBP, taking into account measurement circumstances; child's birth weight; mother's age, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic position, and third-trimester BP; and time trend. Estimates represent differences in SBP associated with an interquartile range (IQR) increase in each pollutant. RESULTS: Higher mean PM2.5 and BC exposures during the third trimester were associated with higher SBP (e.g., 1.0 mmHg; 95% CI: 0.1, 1.8 for a 0.32-µg/m3 increase in mean 90-day residential BC). In contrast, O3 was negatively associated with SBP (e.g., -2.3 mmHg; 95% CI: -4.4, -0.2 for a 13.5-ppb increase during the 90 days before birth). CONCLUSIONS: Exposures to PM2.5 and BC in late pregnancy were positively associated with newborn SBP, whereas O3 was negatively associated with SBP. Longitudinal follow-up will enable us to assess the implications of these findings for health during later childhood and adulthood. CITATION: van Rossem L, Rifas-Shiman SL, Melly SJ, Kloog I, Luttmann-Gibson H, Zanobetti A, Coull BA, Schwartz JD, Mittleman MA, Oken E, Gillman MW, Koutrakis P, Gold DR. 2015. Prenatal air pollution exposure and newborn blood pressure. Environ Health Perspect 123:353-359; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307419.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1504
[Cu] Class update date: 150404
[Lr] Last revision date:150404
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1289/ehp.1307419


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