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[PMID]: 25135641
[Au] Autor:Jia N; Barclay WS; Roberts K; Yen HL; Chan RW; Lam AK; Air G; Peiris JS; Dell A; Nicholls JM; Haslam SM
[Ad] Address:From the Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom....
[Ti] Title:Glycomic Characterization of Respiratory Tract Tissues of Ferrets: IMPLICATIONS FOR ITS USE IN INFLUENZA VIRUS INFECTION STUDIES.
[So] Source:J Biol Chem;289(41):28489-504, 2014 Oct 10.
[Is] ISSN:1083-351X
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The initial recognition between influenza virus and the host cell is mediated by interactions between the viral surface protein hemagglutinin and sialic acid-terminated glycoconjugates on the host cell surface. The sialic acid residues can be linked to the adjacent monosaccharide by α2-3- or α2-6-type glycosidic bonds. It is this linkage difference that primarily defines the species barrier of the influenza virus infection with α2-3 binding being associated with avian influenza viruses and α2-6 binding being associated with human strains. The ferret has been extensively used as an animal model to study the transmission of influenza. To better understand the validity of this model system, we undertook glycomic characterization of respiratory tissues of ferret, which allows a comparison of potential viral receptors to be made between humans and ferrets. To complement the structural analysis, lectin staining experiments were performed to characterize the regional distributions of glycans along the respiratory tract of ferrets. Finally, the binding between the glycans identified and the hemagglutinins of different strains of influenza viruses was assessed by glycan array experiments. Our data indicated that the respiratory tissues of ferret heterogeneously express both α2-3- and α2-6-linked sialic acids. However, the respiratory tissues of ferret also expressed the Sda epitope (NeuAcα2-3(GalNAc1-4)Gal1-4GlcNAc) and sialylated N,N'-diacetyllactosamine (NeuAcα2-6GalNAc1-4GlcNAc), which have not been observed in the human respiratory tract surface epithelium. The presence of the Sda epitope reduces potential binding sites for avian viruses and thus may have implications for the usefulness of the ferret in the study of influenza virus infection.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1410
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1074/jbc.M114.588541

  2 / 261854 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25298272
[Au] Autor:Perryman SA; Clark SJ; West JS
[Ad] Address:Plant Biology and Crop Science Dept. Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Herts., AL5 2JQ, UK.
[Ti] Title:Splash dispersal of Phyllosticta citricarpa conidia from infected citrus fruit.
[So] Source:Sci Rep;4:6568, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:2045-2322
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Rain-splash dispersal of Phyllosticta citricarpa (syn. Guignardia citricarpa) conidia (pycnidiospores) from infected oranges was studied in still air and combined with wind. High power microscopy demonstrated the presence of conidia in splash droplets from diseased oranges, which exuded conidia for over one hour during repeated wetting. The largest (5 mm) incident drops produced the highest splashes (up to 41.0 cm). A linear-by-quadratic surface model predicted highest splashes to be 41.91 cm at a horizontal distance of 25.97 cm from the target orange. Large splash droplets contained most conidia (4-5.5 mm splashes averaged 308 conidia), but were splashed <30 cm horizontal distance. Most (80-90%) splashes were <1 mm diameter but carried only 0-4 conidia per droplet. In multiple splash experiments, splashes combined to reach higher maxima (up to 61.7 cm; linear-by-quadratic surface model prediction, 62.1 cm) than in the single splash experiments. In combination with wind, higher wind speeds carried an increasing proportion of splashes downwind travelling horizontally at least 8 m at the highest wind speed tested (7 m/s), due to a small proportion of droplets (<1 mm) being aerosolised. These experiments suggest that P. citricarpa conidia can be dispersed from infected oranges by splashes of water in rainfall events.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1410
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1038/srep06568

  3 / 261854 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25297709
[Au] Autor:Shen H; Tao S; Liu J; Huang Y; Chen H; Li W; Zhang Y; Chen Y; Su S; Lin N; Xu Y; Li B; Wang X; Liu W
[Ad] Address:Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China....
[Ti] Title:Global lung cancer risk from PAH exposure highly depends on emission sources and individual susceptibility.
[So] Source:Sci Rep;4:6561, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:2045-2322
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The health impacts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the most concerning organic pollutants, depend not only on the locations and strengths of emission sources, but also on individual susceptibility. Moreover, trans-boundary transport makes them a global concern. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of the global health impacts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air is presented. Model resolution is critical in exposure modelling. Globally, incremental lifetime lung cancer risk (ILCR) induced by ambient PAH exposure is 3.1 10(-5). If the individual susceptibility was not taken into consideration, the overall risk would be underestimated by 55% and the proportion of highly vulnerable population would be underestimated by more than 90%. Emphasizing on individual susceptibility, our study provides an instrumental revision of current risk assessment methodology. In terms of lung cancer risk, the most important sources are combustion of biomass fuels (40%) and fossil fuels (14%) in the residential/commercial sector, coke (13%) and aluminium (12%) production, and motor vehicles (9%). PAHs can travel long distance globally especially within the Eurasian continent. Still, the risk is dominantly contributed by local.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1410
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1038/srep06561

  4 / 261854 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25298680
[Au] Autor:Sudha A; Srinivasan P
[Ad] Address:Department of Bioinformatics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi, Tamil Nadu, India.
[Ti] Title:Bioassay-guided isolation, identification and molecular ligand-target insight of lipoxygenase inhibitors from leaves of Anisomeles malabarica R.Br.
[So] Source:Pharmacogn Mag;10(Suppl 3):S596-605, 2014 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:0973-1296
[Cp] Country of publication:India
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Anisomeles malabarica R. Br. (Lamiaceae) is extensively used in traditional medicine in major parts of India for several medicinal purposes, including their use in rheumatism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The air-dried leaves of A. malabarica were extracted with ethanol, defatted with n-hexane and then successively partitioned into chloroform and n-butanol fractions. Bioassay-guided fractionation and purification of chloroform fraction from A. malabarica lead to the isolation of lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitors. The structures of isolated compounds were elucidated by ultraviolet, infrared, (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), (13)C NMR and mass spectrometry spectroscopic techniques and assessed further by in vitro soybean lipoxygenase (sLOX) assay. In addition, the enzyme type inhibition was evaluated through molecular docking technique as a part of computational study. RESULTS: The bioactive compounds 3, 4 dihydroxy benzoic acid (1) and 4', 5, 7-trihydroxyflavone (2) were isolated from chloroform fraction of A. malabarica, whose bioactivity was observed to be dose-dependent compared to n-butanol fraction. Among the compounds, 3, 4 dihydroxy benzoic acid showed significant sLOX inhibitory activity with 74.04% 2.6% followed by 4', 5, 7-trihydroxyflavone (34.68% 1.9%). The computational analysis of compounds showed their molecular interaction with important amino acid residues and nonheme iron atom in the catalytic site of LOX by enlightening their potential binding mode at molecular level. CONCLUSIONS: The LOX inhibitory constituents were identified from A. malabarica by means of bioassay-guided fractionation process. The results derived from in vitro and computational experiments confirm the potential of the isolated compounds and provide additional evidence for its traditional use in inflammatory disorders.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1410
[Cu] Class update date: 141011
[Lr] Last revision date:141011
[Da] Date of entry for processing:141009
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.139795

  5 / 261854 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25296036
[Au] Autor:Sancini G; Farina F; Battaglia C; Cifola I; Mangano E; Mantecca P; Camatini M; Palestini P
[Ad] Address:Department of Health Science, POLARIS Research Center, University of Milano-Bicocca, Monza, Italy....
[Ti] Title:Health Risk Assessment for Air Pollutants: Alterations in Lung and Cardiac Gene Expression in Mice Exposed to Milano Winter Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5).
[So] Source:PLoS One;9(10):e109685, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Oxidative stress, pulmonary and systemic inflammation, endothelial cell dysfunction, atherosclerosis and cardiac autonomic dysfunction have been linked to urban particulate matter exposure. The chemical composition of airborne pollutants in Milano is similar to those of other European cities though with a higher PM2.5 fraction. Milano winter fine particles (PM2.5win) are characterized by the presence of nitrate, organic carbon fraction, with high amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and elements such as Pb, Al, Zn, V, Fe, Cr and others, with a negligible endotoxin presence. In BALB/c mice, we examined, at biochemical and transcriptomic levels, the adverse effects of repeated Milano PM2.5win exposure in lung and heart. We found that ET-1, Hsp70, Cyp1A1, Cyp1B1 and Hsp-70, HO-1, MPO respectively increased within lung and heart of PM2.5win-treated mice. The PM2.5win exposure had a strong impact on global gene expression of heart tissue (181 up-regulated and 178 down-regulated genes) but a lesser impact on lung tissue (14 up-regulated genes and 43 down-regulated genes). Focusing on modulated genes, in lung we found two- to three-fold changes of those genes related to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposure and calcium signalling. Within heart the most striking aspect is the twofold to threefold increase in collagen and laminin related genes as well as in genes involved in calcium signaling. The current study extends our previous findings, showing that repeated instillations of PM2.5win trigger systemic adverse effects. PM2.5win thus likely poses an acute threat primarily to susceptible people, such as the elderly and those with unrecognized coronary artery or structural heart disease. The study of genomic responses will improve understanding of disease mechanisms and enable future clinical testing of interventions against the toxic effects of air pollutant.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1410
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0109685

  6 / 261854 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25295956
[Au] Autor:Faivre JP; Maureille B; Bayle P; Crevecoeur I; Duval M; Grn R; Bemilli C; Bonilauri S; Coutard S; Bessou M; Limondin-Lozouet N; Cottard A; Deshayes T; Douillard A; Henaff X; Pautret-Homerville C; Kinsley L; Trinkaus E
[Ad] Address:Unit Mixte de Recherche 5199, de la Prhistoire l'Actuel: Culture, Environnement et Anthropologie (UMR 5199 - PACEA), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Universit de Bordeaux, Talence, France....
[Ti] Title:Middle Pleistocene Human Remains from Tourville-la-Rivire (Normandy, France) and Their Archaeological Context.
[So] Source:PLoS One;9(10):e104111, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Despite numerous sites of great antiquity having been excavated since the end of the 19th century, Middle Pleistocene human fossils are still extremely rare in northwestern Europe. Apart from the two partial crania from Biache-Saint-Vaast in northern France, all known human fossils from this period have been found from ten sites in either Germany or England. Here we report the discovery of three long bones from the same left upper limb discovered at the open-air site of Tourville-la-Rivire in the Seine Valley of northern France. New U-series and combined US-ESR dating on animal teeth produced an age range for the site of 183 to 236 ka. In combination with paleoecological indicators, they indicate an age toward the end of MIS 7. The human remains from Tourville-la-Rivire are attributable to the Neandertal lineage based on morphological and metric analyses. An abnormal crest on the left humerus represents a deltoid muscle enthesis. Micro- and or macro-traumas connected to repetitive movements similar to those documented for professional throwing athletes could be origin of abnormality.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1410
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0104111

  7 / 261854 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25295730
[Au] Autor:Katsev S; Aaberg AA; Crowe SA; Hecky RE
[Ad] Address:Large Lakes Observatory, University of Minnesota Duluth, Duluth, Minnesota, United States of America; Department of Physics, University of Minnesota Duluth, Duluth, Minnesota, United States of America....
[Ti] Title:Recent warming of lake kivu.
[So] Source:PLoS One;9(10):e109084, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Lake Kivu in East Africa has gained notoriety for its prodigious amounts of dissolved methane and dangers of limnic eruption. Being meromictic, it is also expected to accumulate heat due to rising regional air temperatures. To investigate the warming trend and distinguish between atmospheric and geothermal heating sources, we compiled historical temperature data, performed measurements with logging instruments, and simulated heat propagation. We also performed isotopic analyses of water from the lake's main basin and isolated Kabuno Bay. The results reveal that the lake surface is warming at the rate of 0.12C per decade, which matches the warming rates in other East African lakes. Temperatures increase throughout the entire water column. Though warming is strongest near the surface, warming rates in the deep waters cannot be accounted for solely by propagation of atmospheric heat at presently assumed rates of vertical mixing. Unless the transport rates are significantly higher than presently believed, this indicates significant contributions from subterranean heat sources. Temperature time series in the deep monimolimnion suggest evidence of convection. The progressive deepening of the depth of temperature minimum in the water column is expected to accelerate the warming in deeper waters. The warming trend, however, is unlikely to strongly affect the physical stability of the lake, which depends primarily on salinity gradient.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1410
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0109084

  8 / 261854 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25298582
[Au] Autor:Durgashivaprasad E; Mathew G; Sebastian S; Reddy SA; Mudgal J; Nampurath GK
[Ad] Address:Department of Pharmacology, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, India....
[Ti] Title:Novel 2,5-disubstituted-1,3,4-oxadiazoles as anti-inflammatory drugs.
[So] Source:Indian J Pharmacol;46(5):521-6, 2014 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1998-3751
[Cp] Country of publication:India
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE: 1,3,4-oxadiazole ring is a versatile moiety with a wide range of pharmacological properties. The present work deals with the synthesis and evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity of two novel 2,5-disubstituted-1,3,4-oxadiazoles (OSD and OPD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Carrageenan-induced rat hind paw edema was employed as an acute model of inflammation. For evaluating sub-acute anti-inflammatory activity, carrageenan-induced inflammation in rat air pouch was employed. Complete Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats was used as a model of chronic inflammation. To evaluate in vitro anti-inflammatory activity, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells were used. RESULTS: OSD (100 mg/kg) reduced carrageen-induced paw edema by 60%, and OPD (100 mg/kg) produced a modest 32.5% reduction. OSD also reduced leukocyte influx and myeloperoxidase in carrageenan-induced rat air pouch model. In complete Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis model, both OSD and OPD (200 mg/kg for 14 days) reduced paw edema and NO levels. In LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, OSD and OPD inhibited formation of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species, with OPD showing a better activity in comparison to OSD. CONCLUSIONS: OSD was the better of the two compounds in in vivo models of inflammation. The o-phenol substitution at position 2 of oxadiazole ring in OSD may be responsible for its better in vivo anti-inflammatory activity. The ability of the compounds to inhibit LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediator release suggests an anti-inflammatory mechanism targeting LPS-TLR4-NF-κB signalling pathway, which needs to be explored in detail. The disparate efficacy in vitro and in vivo also requires in-depth evaluation of the pharmacokinetics of these novel oxadiazoles.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1410
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.140584

  9 / 261854 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25298834
[Au] Autor:Shiraishi Y
[Ad] Address:Shiraishi Cardiovascular Clinic, Takamatsu, Kagawa, Japan.
[Ti] Title:Relationship between Arterial Inflow Rate and Venous Filling Index of the Lower Extremities Assessed by Air Plethysmography in Subjects with or without Axial Reflux in the Great Saphenous Vein.
[So] Source:Ann Vasc Dis;7(3):306-11, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1881-641X
[Cp] Country of publication:Japan
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between arterial inflow rate (AIR) and venous filling index (VFI) in limbs with or without varicose veins, assessed by air plethysmography (APG). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 142 patients (142 limbs) visiting our clinic with leg complaints, but without arterial and venous disease, were defined as the normal group (NG), and 65 patients (65 limbs) with leg varices were defined as the varicose vein group (VG). Both groups underwent duplex ultrasonography and APG to identify venous reflux and measure hemodynamic parameters, respectively. Examinations were performed at the first visit in the NG and before and one month after treatment in the VG. RESULTS: A strong correlation between resting AIR and VFI was found in the NG (r = 0.72) and postoperative VG (r = 0.71). Twenty-two and three limbs in the NG and postoperative VG, respectively, had a VFI over 2.0 mL/s because of the high AIR. In the VG, AIR tended to decrease after treatment (P >0.01). CONCLUSIONS: High leg AIR lead to high VFI measured by APG. AIR and VFI should be measured at the same session to assess venous hemodynamic changes after varicose vein treatment when residual venous reflux cannot be diagnosed with duplex ultrasonography.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1410
[Cu] Class update date: 141011
[Lr] Last revision date:141011
[Da] Date of entry for processing:141009
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3400/avd.oa.14-00028

  10 / 261854 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25253088
[Au] Autor:Eze IC; Schaffner E; Zemp E; von Eckardstein A; Turk A; Bettschart R; Schindler C; Probst-Hensch N
[Ti] Title:Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and diabetes in adult never-smokers.
[So] Source:Environ Health;13:74, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1476-069X
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Active smoking has been linked to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) but only few recent studies have shown environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) to be associated with DM in never-smokers. We assessed the association between long term ETS exposure and DM, and explored effect modifications of this association in our sample. METHODS: We analysed 6392 participants of the Swiss study on air pollution and lung and heart diseases in adults (SAPALDIA). We used mixed logistic regression models to assess the cross-sectional association between ETS and DM. Selected variables were tested for effect modification and several sensitivity analyses were performed, mostly treating participants' study area as a random effect. RESULTS: The prevalence of DM and ETS in the sample was 5.5% and 47% respectively. There were 2779 never-smokers with 4% diabetes prevalence. Exposure to ETS increased risk of DM in never-smokers by 50% [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00, 2.26], and we observed a positive dose-response relationship between ETS exposure level and DM in never-smokers. Associations were strengthened (more than three-folds) by older age and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and were stronger in post-menopausal, obese, hypertriglyceridaemic and physically inactive participants. Estimates of association were robust across all sensitivity analyses (including inverse probability weighting for participation bias and fixed-effect analysis for study area). ETS had no substantial associations in current and ex-smokers in our study. CONCLUSIONS: We found a positive association between ETS exposure and DM in never smokers. Additional longitudinal studies involving biomarkers are needed to further explore underlying mechanisms and susceptibilities.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1410
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1186/1476-069X-13-74


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