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[PMID]: 29510746
[Au] Autor:Saeed MA; Rashid MH; Vaughan J; Jabbar A
[Ad] Address:Department of Veterinary Biosciences, Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Werribee, Victoria, 3030, Australia.
[Ti] Title:Sarcocystosis in South American camelids: The state of play revisited.
[So] Source:Parasit Vectors;11(1):146, 2018 Mar 06.
[Is] ISSN:1756-3305
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Members of the genus Sarcocystis (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) are intracellular protozoan parasites that infect a wide range of domestic and wild animals, resulting in economic losses in production animals worldwide. Sarcocystis spp. have indirect life-cycles where canids and felids serve as main definitive hosts while a range of domestic and wild animals serve as intermediate hosts, including South American camelids (SACs) such as alpacas, llamas and guanacos. These animals primarily occur in South American countries on Andean, elevated plains but in recent years, alpacas and llamas have become emerging animal industries in other parts of the world such as Australia, Europe and the USA due to their high-quality fiber, meat and hides. For instance, alpaca meat is becoming popular in many parts of the world due to its lower cholesterol content than other red meat, thereby it has the potential of a valuable product for both local and international markets. However, SAC meat can be degraded and/or even condemned due to the presence of macroscopic sarcocysts in skeletal muscles, leading to significant economic losses to farmers. The infection is generally asymptomatic, though highly pathogenic or even fatal Sarcocystis infections have also been reported in alpacas and llamas. Despite the economic importance of sarcocystosis in SACs, little is known about the life-cycle of parasites involved, disease transmission, epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, control and public health significance. This review article provides an in-depth analysis of the existing knowledge on the taxonomy, epidemiology, clinicopathology and diagnosis of Sarcocystis in SACs, highlights knowledge gaps and proposes future areas of research that could contribute to our better understanding of sarcocystosis in these animals.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1186/s13071-018-2748-1

  2 / 25164 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29428424
[Au] Autor:Simões ACL; de Souza Aarão TL; de Sousa JR; Prudente DL; de Castro YG; Maneschy RB; Fuzii HT; Quaresma JAS
[Ad] Address:Tropical Medicine Center, Federal do Para University, Belem, Brazil.
[Ti] Title:Parvovirus B19 and in situ immune response in eczema and psoriasis skin lesions of patients from the Brazilian Amazon region.
[So] Source:Microb Pathog;117:27-31, 2018 Feb 09.
[Is] ISSN:1096-1208
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Parvovirus B19 (PVB19) is a virus found in the skin that causes asymptomatic infections and can exist in the host for long periods to time. The virus induces a local inflammatory response and is associated with the development of arthritis and other autoimmunes diseases. Parvovirus B19 DNA was investigated by PCR in the skin of 20 patients with psoriasis and 20 patients with eczema. Additionally, immunohistochemistry was used to characterize the expression of cytokines in these lesions. The sociodemographic variables were similar in the two groups studied. Psoriasis vulgaris was the most common clinical type in men (50%) and women (80%) (p = 0.0106). Comorbidities were observed in most patients with psoriasis (75%), with an OR of 14 (p = 0.0068). Another important finding was the high prevalence (50%) of psychiatric disorders in patients with psoriasis (OR = 16, p = 0.0218). Only two patients (10%) with psoriasis were positive for PVB19. Comparison of cytokine expression showed the same cytokine profile in the two groups (p > 0.05). However, expression of TNF-α tended to be higher in psoriasis patients. There was no significant positivity for PVB19 in the two groups studied. Immunohistochemistry showed higher expression of TNF-α in psoriasis lesions compared to the eczema group.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  3 / 25164 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29523087
[Au] Autor:Czajka U; Wiatrzyk A; Mosiej E; Forminska K; Zasada AA
[Ad] Address:Department of Vaccines and Sera Evaluation, National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene, Chocimska 24, 00-791, Warsaw, Poland.
[Ti] Title:Changes in MLST profiles and biotypes of Corynebacterium diphtheriae isolates from the diphtheria outbreak period to the period of invasive infections caused by nontoxigenic strains in Poland (1950-2016).
[So] Source:BMC Infect Dis;18(1):121, 2018 Mar 09.
[Is] ISSN:1471-2334
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Corynebacterium diphtheriae is a re-emerging pathogen in Europe causing invasive infections in vaccinated persons and classical diphtheria in unvaccinated persons. In the presented study we analysed genetic changes in C. diphtheriae isolates collected in Poland from the period before the introduction of the mass anti-diphtheria vaccination to the present time when over 98% of the population is vaccinated. METHODS: A total of 62 C. diphtheriae isolates collected in the 1950s-1960s, 1990s and 2000-2016 in Poland were investigated. Examined properties of the isolates included toxigenic status, presence of tox gene, biotype, MLST type (ST) and type of infection. RESULTS: A total of 12 sequence types (STs) were identified among the analysed C. diphtheriae isolates. The highest variability of STs was observed among isolates from diphtheria and asymptomatic carriers collected in the XX century. Over 95% of isolates collected from invasive and wound infections in 2004-2016 belonged to ST8. Isolates from the XX century represented all four biotypes: mitis, gravis, intermedius and belfanti, but the belfanti biotype appeared only after the epidemic in the 1990s. All except three isolates from the XXI century represented the biotype gravis. CONCLUSIONS: During a diphtheria epidemic period, non-epidemic clones of C. diphtheriae might also disseminate and persist in a particular area after the epidemic. An increase of the anti-diphtheria antibody level in the population causes not only the elimination of toxigenic strains from the population but may also influence the reduction of diversity of C. diphtheriae isolates. MLST types do not reflect the virulence of isolates. Each ST can be represented by various virulent variants representing various pathogenic capacities, for example toxigenic non-invasive, nontoxigenic invasive and nontoxigenic non-invasive.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12879-018-3020-1

  4 / 25164 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29505534
[Au] Autor:Wu X; Yu C; Li T; Lin L; Xu Q; Zhu Q; Ye L; Gao X
[Ad] Address:Department of Urology, Fujian Provincial Hospital, Provincial Clinical College of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian, PR China.
[Ti] Title:Obesity was an independent risk factor for febrile infection after prostate biopsy: A 10-year single center study in South China.
[So] Source:Medicine (Baltimore);97(1):e9549, 2018 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1536-5964
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:To detect the best antibiotic protocol for prostate biopsy and to assess the potential risk factors postbiopsy in Chinese patients.A total of 1526 patients underwent biopsy were assessed retrospectively. The effect of 3 antibiotic protocols was compared, including fluoroquinolone (FQ) monotherapy, third-generation cephalosporin combined with FQ and targeted antibiotics according to the prebiopsy rectal swab culture result. Postbiopsy infection (PBI) was defined as fever and/or active urinary tract symptoms such as dysuria or frequency with pyuria and/or leucocytosis, sepsis is defined as the presence of clinically or microbiologically documented infection in conjunction with systemic inflammatory response syndrome. The relationship between infections and clinical characteristics of patients was assessed. Data were first picked out in univariate analysis and then enter multivariate logistic regression.Thirty-three (2.2%) patients developed febrile infection. The combination antibiotic prophylaxis could significantly decrease the rate of PBI than FQ monotherapy (1.0% vs 4.0%, P = .000). The infection rate of the targeted antibiotic group was 1.1%, but there was no significant statistic difference compared with FQ alone (P = .349). Escherichia coli was the most predominant pathogen causing infection. Rectal swab revealed as high as 47.1% and 36.0% patients harbored FQ resistant and ESBL-producing organisms, respectively. In univariate analysis, overweight (BMI between 25 and 28 kg/m), obesity (BMI > 28 kg/m), diabetes were picked out as potential risk factors. Obesity remained as risk factor (OR = 12.827, 95% CI: 0.983-8.925, P = .001) while overweight and diabetes were close to significance (P = .052, .053, respectively).The combined cephalosporin with FQ prophylaxis could significantly decrease the risk of infectious complications. Obesity was an independent risk factor for PBI.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
Antibiotic Prophylaxis
Obesity/complications
Prostate/surgery
Prostatitis/prevention & control
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Biopsy/adverse effects
Cephalosporins/therapeutic use
China
Fluoroquinolones/therapeutic use
Humans
Infection/etiology
Male
Middle Aged
Prostatitis/etiology
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; OBSERVATIONAL STUDY
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents); 0 (Cephalosporins); 0 (Fluoroquinolones)
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[Js] Journal subset:AIM; IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:180306
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1097/MD.0000000000009549

  5 / 25164 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29410402
[Au] Autor:Ismail AM; Cui T; Dommaraju K; Singh G; Dehghan S; Seto J; Shrivastava S; Fedorova NB; Gupta N; Stockwell TB; Madupu R; Heim A; Kajon AE; Romanowski EG; Kowalski RP; Malathi J; Therese KL; Madhavan HN; Zhang Q; Ferreyra LJ; Jones MS; Rajaiya J; Dyer DW; Chodosh J; Seto D
[Ad] Address:Department of Ophthalmology, Howe Laboratory, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 02114, USA.
[Ti] Title:Genomic analysis of a large set of currently-and historically-important human adenovirus pathogens.
[So] Source:Emerg Microbes Infect;7(1):10, 2018 Feb 07.
[Is] ISSN:2222-1751
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are uniquely important "model organisms" as they have been used to elucidate fundamental biological processes, are recognized as complex pathogens, and are used as remedies for human health. As pathogens, HAdVs may effect asymptomatic or mild and severe symptomatic disease upon their infection of respiratory, ocular, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary systems. High-resolution genomic data have enhanced the understanding of HAdV epidemiology, with recombination recognized as an important and major pathway in the molecular evolution and genesis of emergent HAdV pathogens. To support this view and to actualize an algorithm for identifying, characterizing, and typing novel HAdVs, we determined the DNA sequence of 95 isolates from archives containing historically important pathogens and collections housing currently circulating strains to be sequenced. Of the 85 samples that were completely sequenced, 18 novel recombinants within species HAdV-B and D were identified. Two HAdV-D genomes were found to contain novel penton base and fiber genes with significant divergence from known molecular types. In this data set, we found additional isolates of HAdV-D53 and HAdV-D58, two novel genotypes recognized recently using genomics. This supports the thesis that novel HAdV genotypes are not limited to "one-time" appearances of the prototype but are of importance in HAdV epidemiology. These data underscore the significance of lateral genomic transfer in HAdV evolution and reinforce the potential public health impact of novel genotypes of HAdVs emerging in the population.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1038/s41426-017-0004-y

  6 / 25164 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29290000
[Au] Autor:Qiao LD; Chen S; Lin YH; Li JX; Hu WG; Hou JP; Cui L
[Ad] Address:Department of Urology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, No. 1 Dongjiaominxiang, Dongcheng District, 100730, Beijing, China.
[Ti] Title:Evaluation of perioperative prophylaxis with fosfomycin tromethamine in ureteroscopic stone removal: an investigator-driven prospective, multicenter, randomized, controlled study.
[So] Source:Int Urol Nephrol;50(3):427-432, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1573-2584
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:PURPOSE: To compare efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of fosfomycin tromethamine with other standard-of-care antibiotics in patients undergoing ureteroscopic lithotripsy. METHODS: This study was a prospective, multicenter, randomized, controlled trial. Eligible patients scheduled for ureteroscopic lithotripsy were randomly assigned to receive either fosfomycin (fosfomycin group, N = 101 patients) or standard-of-care antibiotic therapy as prophylaxis (control group, N = 115 patients). The incidence of infectious complications and adverse events was analyzed between the two groups, as well as the cost-benefit analysis. RESULTS: The incidence of infections following lithotripsy was 3.0% in the fosfomycin group and 6.1% in the control group (p > 0.05). Only asymptomatic bacteriuria was reported in fosfomycin group. In the control group was reported asymptomatic bacteriuria (3.5%), fever (0.9%), bacteremia (0.9%), and genitourinary infection (0.9%). The rate of adverse events was very low, with no adverse event reported in the fosfomycin group and only one in the control group (forearm phlebitis). The average cost per patient of antibiotic therapy with fosfomycin was 151.45 ± 8.62 yuan (22.7 ± 1.3 USD), significantly lower compared to the average cost per patient of antibiotics used in the control group 305.10 ± 245.95 yuan (45.7 ± 36.9 USD; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Two oral doses of 3 g fosfomycin tromethamine showed good efficacy and safety and low cost in perioperative prophylaxis of infections following ureteroscopic stone removal.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1007/s11255-017-1776-7

  7 / 25164 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29262776
[Au] Autor:Visser M; van Aar F; Koedijk FDH; Kampman CJG; Heijne JCM
[Ad] Address:National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, P.O. Box 1, 3720, BA, Bilthoven, the Netherlands. maartje.visser@rivm.nl.
[Ti] Title:Repeat Chlamydia trachomatis testing among heterosexual STI outpatient clinic visitors in the Netherlands: a longitudinal study.
[So] Source:BMC Infect Dis;17(1):782, 2017 Dec 20.
[Is] ISSN:1471-2334
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Chlamydia infections are common in both men and women, are often asymptomatic and can cause serious complications. Repeat testing in high-risk groups is therefore indicated. In the Netherlands, guidelines on repeat chlamydia testing differ between testing facilities, and knowledge on repeat testing behaviour is limited. Here, we analyse the current repeat testing behaviour of heterosexual STI clinic visitors, and aim to identify groups for which repeat testing advice could be advantageous. METHODS: Longitudinal surveillance data from all Dutch STI outpatient clinics were used, which included all STI clinic consultations carried out among heterosexual men and women between June 2014 and December 2015. Repeat testing was defined as returning to the same STI clinic between 35 days and 12 months after initial consultation. We calculated chlamydia positivity at repeat test stratified by initial test result and time between consultations. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify predictors of repeat testing, and predictors of having a chlamydia positive repeat test. RESULTS: In total, 140,486 consultations in 75,487 women and 46,286 men were available for analyses. Overall, 15.4% of women and 11.1% of men returned to the STI clinic within the study period. Highest chlamydia positivity at repeat test was seen 3-5 months after initial positive test. Among both women and men, repeat testing was associated with non-Western ethnicity, having had more than two sex partners in the past 6 months, reporting STI symptoms, having a history of STI, and having a chlamydia positive initial test. Among repeat testers, chlamydia positive repeat test was most strongly associated with younger age, followed by a chlamydia positive initial test. CONCLUSIONS: Repeat testing most often resulted in a positive test result among young heterosexuals (<25) and heterosexuals of any age with a chlamydia infection at the initial consultation. Further efforts are needed to determine optimal repeat testing strategies.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Ambulatory Care Facilities/statistics & numerical data
Chlamydia Infections
Chlamydia trachomatis
Heterosexuality/statistics & numerical data
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adolescent
Adult
Chlamydia Infections/diagnosis
Chlamydia Infections/epidemiology
Female
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Netherlands/epidemiology
Young Adult
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:171222
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12879-017-2871-1

  8 / 25164 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29520519
[Au] Autor:Ohri M; Parashar S; Pai VS; Ghosh S; Chakraborti A
[Ad] Address:Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India. manjuohripai@gmail.com.
[Ti] Title:A cytosol derived factor of Group B streptococcus prevent its invasion into human epithelial cells.
[So] Source:World J Microbiol Biotechnol;34(3):45, 2018 Mar 08.
[Is] ISSN:1573-0972
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Group B streptococcus (GBS) or Streptococcus agalactiae, is an opportunistic pathogen causing a wide range of infections like pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis in newborn, pregnant women and adults. While this bacterium has adapted well to asymptomatic colonization of adult humans, it still remains a potentially devastating pathogen to susceptible infants. Advances in molecular techniques and refinement of in vitro and in vivo model systems have elucidated key elements of the pathogenic process, from initial attachment to the maternal vaginal epithelium to penetration of the newborn blood-brain barrier. Still, the formidable array of GBS virulence factors makes this bacterium at the forefront of neonatal pathogens. The involvement of bacterial components in the host-pathogen interaction of GBS pathogenesis and its related diseases is not clearly understood. In this study we demonstrated the role of a 39 kDa factor from GBS which plays an important role in the process of its invasion. We found a homogeneous 39 kDa factor from the cytosol of GBS after following a combination of sequential purification steps involving molecular sieving and ion exchange chromatography using ACTA-FPLC system. Its N-terminal sequence showed a homology with xenobiotic response element type transcriptional regulator protein, a 40 kDa protein of Streptococcus. This factor leads to inhibition of GBS invasion in HeLa and A549 cells. This protein also showed sensitivity and specific cross reactivity with the antibodies raised against it in New Zealand white rabbits by western immunoblotting. This inhibitory factor was further confirmed tolerant for its cytotoxicity. These results add a novel aspect to bacterial pathogenesis where bacteria's own intracellular protein component can act as a potential therapeutic candidate by decreasing the severity of disease thus promoting its invasion inhibition.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1007/s11274-018-2428-5

  9 / 25164 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29518067
[Au] Autor:Hall V; Walker WL; Lindsey NP; Lehman JA; Kolsin J; Landry K; Rabe IB; Hills SL; Fischer M; Staples JE; Gould CV; Martin SW
[Ti] Title:Update: Noncongenital Zika Virus Disease Cases - 50 U.S. States and the District of Columbia, 2016.
[So] Source:MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep;67(9):265-269, 2018 Mar 09.
[Is] ISSN:1545-861X
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Zika virus is a flavivirus primarily transmitted to humans by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes (1). Zika virus infections also have been documented through intrauterine transmission resulting in congenital infection; intrapartum transmission from a viremic mother to her newborn; sexual transmission; blood transfusion; and laboratory exposure (1-3). Most Zika virus infections are asymptomatic or result in mild clinical illness, characterized by acute onset of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia, or nonpurulent conjunctivitis; Guillain-Barré syndrome, meningoencephalitis, and severe thrombocytopenia rarely have been associated with Zika virus infection (1). However, congenital Zika virus infection can result in fetal loss, microcephaly, and other birth defects (1,2). In 2016, a total of 5,168 noncongenital Zika virus disease cases were reported from U.S. states and the District of Columbia. Most cases (4,897, 95%) were in travelers returning from Zika virus-affected areas. A total of 224 (4%) cases were acquired through presumed local mosquitoborne transmission, and 47 (1%) were acquired by other routes. It is important that providers in the United States continue to test symptomatic patients who live in or recently traveled to areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission or had unprotected sex with someone who lives in or traveled to those areas. All pregnant women and their partners should take measures to prevent Zika virus infection during pregnancy. A list of affected areas and specific recommendations on how to prevent Zika virus infection during pregnancy are available at https://www.cdc.gov/pregnancy/zika/protect-yourself.html.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.15585/mmwr.mm6709a1

  10 / 25164 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29502512
[Au] Autor:Damitie M; Mekonnen Z; Getahun T; Santiago D; Leyns L
[Ad] Address:Department of Environmental Health Sciences and Technology, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia. mdamtie195@gmail.com.
[Ti] Title:Molecular epidemiology of Giardia duodenalis infection in humans in Southern Ethiopia: a triosephosphate isomerase gene-targeted analysis.
[So] Source:Infect Dis Poverty;7(1):17, 2018 Mar 05.
[Is] ISSN:2049-9957
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Giardia duodenalis is a species complex consisting of multiple genetically distinct assemblages. The species imposes a major public health crisis on developing countries. However, the molecular diversity, transmission dynamics and risk factors of the species in these countries are indeterminate. This study was conducted to determine the molecular epidemiology of G. duodenalis infection in asymptomatic individuals in Southern Ethiopia. METHODS: From March to June 2014, fresh stool samples were collected from 590 randomly selected individuals. Socio-demographic data were gathered using a pre-tested structured questionnaire. The genotyping was done using triosephosphate isomerase gene-based nested polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing. The genetic identity and relatedness of isolates were determined using the basic local alignment search tool and phylogenetic analysis. Risk factors associated with G. duodenalis infection were analysed using binary and multinomial logistic regression models. RESULTS: The results showed that 18.1% (92/509) of the study subjects were infected by G. duodenalis. Among the isolates, 35.9% (33/92) and 21.7% (20/92) were sub-typed into assemblages A and B, respectively, whereas 42.4% (39/92) showed mixed infections of A and B. Most of the assemblage A isolates (94%,31/33) were 100% identical to sequences registered in GenBank, of which the majority belonged to sub-assemblage AII. However, the high genetic variability and frequency of double peaks made sub-genotyping of assemblage B more problematic and only 20% (4/20) of the isolates matched 100% with the sequences. The risk factors of age (P = 0.032) and type of drinking water source (P = 0.003) both showed a significant association with the occurrence G. duodenalis infection. CONCLUSIONS: This study established the endemicity of G. duodenalis in Southern Ethiopia. Infection with assemblage A was more frequent than with assemblage B, and the rate of infection was higher in children and in municipal/tap and open spring water consumers than the other groups. Sub-typing of assemblage B and determining the origin of double peaks were challenging. The present study confirms the need for further inclusive studies to be conducted focusing on sub-types of assemblage B and the origin of heterogeneity.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1186/s40249-018-0397-4


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