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[PMID]: 24440650
[Au] Autor:Homolka P; Leithner R; Billinger J; Gruber M
[Ad] Address:Zentrum für Medizinische Physik und Biomedizinische Technik, Medizinische Universität Wien, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, A-1090 Wien, Österreich. Electronic address: peter.homolka@meduniwien.ac.at....
[Ti] Title:Ergebnisse der Österreichischen CT-Dosisstudie 2010: Effektive Dosen der häufigsten CT-Untersuchungen und Unterschiede zwischen Anwendern. [Results of the Austrian CT dose study 2010: Typical effective doses of the most frequent CT examinations].
[So] Source:Z Med Phys;24(3):224-30, 2014 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1876-4436
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:ger
[Ab] Abstract:PURPOSE: To determine typical doses from common CT examinations of standard sized adult patients and their variability between CT operators for common CT indications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a nationwide Austrian CT dose survey doses from approx. 10,000 common CT examinations of adults during 2009 and 2010 were collected and "typical" radiation doses to the "average patient", which turned out to have 75.6kg body mass, calculated. Conversion coefficients from DLP to effective dose were determined and effective doses calculated according to ICRP 103. Variations of typically applied doses to the "average patient" were expressed as ratios between 90(th) and 10(th) percentile (inter-percentile width, IPW90/10), 1(st) and 3(rd) quartile (IPW75/25), and Maximum/Minimum. RESULTS: Median effective doses to the average patients for standard head and neck scans were 1.8 mSv (cervical spine), 1.9 mSv (brain: trauma/bleeding, stroke) to 2.2 mSv (brain: masses) with typical variation between facilities of a factor 2.5 (IPW90/10) and 1.7 (IPW75/25). In the thorax region doses were 6.4 to 6.8 mSv (pulmonary embolism, pneumonia and inflammation, oncologic scans), the variation between facilities was by a factor of 2.1 (IPW90/10) and 1.5 (IPW75/25), respectively. In the abdominal region median effective doses from 6.5 mSv (kidney stone search) to 22 mSv (liver lesions) were found (acute abdomen, staging/metastases, lumbar spine: 9-12 mSv; oncologic abdomen plus chest 16 mSv; renal tumor 20 mSv). Variation factors between facilities were on average for abdominal scans 2.7 (IPW90/10) and 1.8 (IPW75/25). CONCLUSION: Variations between CT operators are generally moderate for most operators, but in some indications the ratio between the minimum and the maximum of average dose to the typical standard patients exceeds a factor of 4 or even 5. Therefore, comparing average doses to Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRLs) and optimizing protocols need to be encouraged.
[Pt] Publication type:ENGLISH ABSTRACT; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1408
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  2 / 1230803 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25127527
[Au] Autor:Parisi DN; Martinez LR
[Ad] Address:Department of Biomedical Sciences; Long Island University-Post; Brookville, NY USA.
[Ti] Title:Intracellular Haemophilus influenzae invades the brain: Is zyxin a critical blood brain barrier component regulated by TNF-α?
[So] Source:Virulence;5(6):645-7, 2014 Aug 15.
[Is] ISSN:2150-5608
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Pt] Publication type:EDITORIAL
[Em] Entry month:1408
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.4161/viru.36086

  3 / 1230803 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25025691
[Au] Autor:Miyazaki Y; Yusa T; Matsuo S; Terauchi Y; Miyazaki S
[Ad] Address:Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism; Yokohama City University School of Medicine; Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan....
[Ti] Title:Zyxin modulates the transmigration of Haemophilus influenzae to the central nervous system.
[So] Source:Virulence;5(6):665-72, 2014 Aug 15.
[Is] ISSN:2150-5608
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The mechanism by which Haemophilus influenzae causes meningitis is unclear. Previously, we established murine meningitis by intranasal instillation of H. influenzae as a cell-bound organism (CBO). In this study, we aimed to identify the molecules associated with inhibiting the transmigration of cells across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and protein identification by mass spectrometry were used for proteomic analysis. Analysis of the membranous extract from a tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-treated human brain microvascular endothelial cell (HBMEC) monolayer revealed 41 differentially expressed proteins. Zyxin, which is thought to be essential for tight cell-to-cell junctions, decreased 1.8-fold in TNF-α-treated HBMECs. In addition, zyxin transcript levels decreased 1.5-fold in cells derived from TNF-α-treated HBMECs. Intranasal instillation of CBOs in zyxin-deficient mice resulted in a significant higher mortality rate than in wild-type mice. Transmigration of CBOs across a HBMEC monolayer pretreated with TNF-α (1 ng/mL), interleukin (IL)-1ß (10 ng/mL), or lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 10 ng/mL) was assayed by counting CBOs that migrated from an upper chamber into a lower chamber. HBMEC pretreated with TNF-α exhibited significantly greater migration (P<0.01) than did control cells or cells treated with IL-1ß or LPS. Our findings highlight that zyxin is an important protein protecting the tight junction of the BBB against cell transmigration across the BBB. Finally, TNF-α produced in respiratory infection when the primary infection reached the BBB caused decreased zyxin levels in BBB cell membranes. Furthermore, H. influenzae reaching the BBB as CBOs could transmigrate into cerebrospinal fluid across the zyxin-decreased BBB.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1408
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.4161/viru.29786

  4 / 1230803 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25053651
[Au] Autor:Volk DW; Lewis DA
[Ad] Address:Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA; volkdw@upmc.edu.
[Ti] Title:Early developmental disturbances of cortical inhibitory neurons: contribution to cognitive deficits in schizophrenia.
[So] Source:Schizophr Bull;40(5):952-7, 2014 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1745-1701
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Cognitive dysfunction is a disabling and core feature of schizophrenia. Cognitive impairments have been linked to disturbances in inhibitory (gamma-aminobutyric acid [GABA]) neurons in the prefrontal cortex. Cognitive deficits are present well before the onset of psychotic symptoms and have been detected in early childhood with developmental delays reported during the first year of life. These data suggest that the pathogenetic process that produces dysfunction of prefrontal GABA neurons in schizophrenia may be related to altered prenatal development. Interestingly, adult postmortem schizophrenia brain tissue studies have provided evidence consistent with a disease process that affects different stages of prenatal development of specific subpopulations of prefrontal GABA neurons. Prenatal ontogeny (ie, birth, proliferation, migration, and phenotypic specification) of distinct subpopulations of cortical GABA neurons is differentially regulated by a host of transcription factors, chemokine receptors, and other molecular markers. In this review article, we propose a strategy to investigate how alterations in the expression of these developmental regulators of subpopulations of cortical GABA neurons may contribute to the pathogenesis of cortical GABA neuron dysfunction and consequently cognitive impairments in schizophrenia.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1408
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1093/schbul/sbu111

  5 / 1230803 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24366718
[Au] Autor:Anticevic A; Tang Y; Cho YT; Repovs G; Cole MW; Savic A; Wang F; Krystal JH; Xu K
[Ti] Title:Amygdala connectivity differs among chronic, early course, and individuals at risk for developing schizophrenia.
[So] Source:Schizophr Bull;40(5):1105-16, 2014 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1745-1701
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Alterations in circuits involving the amygdala have been repeatedly implicated in schizophrenia neuropathology, given their role in stress, affective salience processing, and psychosis onset. Disturbances in amygdala whole-brain functional connectivity associated with schizophrenia have yet to be fully characterized despite their importance in psychosis. Moreover, it remains unknown if there are functional alterations in amygdala circuits across illness phases. To evaluate this possibility, we compared whole-brain amygdala connectivity in healthy comparison subjects (HCS), individuals at high risk (HR) for schizophrenia, individuals in the early course of schizophrenia (EC-SCZ), and patients with chronic schizophrenia (C-SCZ). We computed whole-brain resting-state connectivity using functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3T via anatomically defined individual-specific amygdala seeds. We identified significant alterations in amygdala connectivity with orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), driven by reductions in EC-SCZ and C-SCZ (effect sizes of 1.0 and 0.97, respectively), but not in HR for schizophrenia, relative to HCS. Reduced amygdala-OFC coupling was associated with schizophrenia symptom severity (r = .32, P < .015). Conversely, we identified a robust increase in amygdala connectivity with a brainstem region around noradrenergic arousal nuclei, particularly for HR individuals relative to HCS (effect size = 1.54), but not as prominently for other clinical groups. These results suggest that deficits in amygdala-OFC coupling could emerge during the initial episode of schizophrenia (EC-SCZ) and may present as an enduring feature of the illness (C-SCZ) in association with symptom severity but are not present in individuals with elevated risk for developing schizophrenia. Instead, in HR individuals, there appears to be increased connectivity in a circuit implicated in stress response.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1408
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1093/schbul/sbt165

  6 / 1230803 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24191160
[Au] Autor:Ebisch SJ; Mantini D; Northoff G; Salone A; De Berardis D; Ferri F; Ferro FM; Di Giannantonio M; Romani GL; Gallese V
[Ad] Address:Department of Neuroscience and Imaging, G. d'Annunzio University, Chieti, Italy; Institute of Advanced Biomedical Technologies, G. d'Annunzio Foundation, Chieti, Italy; sjoerdebisch@yahoo.com....
[Ti] Title:Altered Brain Long-Range Functional Interactions Underlying the Link Between Aberrant Self-experience and Self-other Relationship in First-Episode Schizophrenia.
[So] Source:Schizophr Bull;40(5):1072-82, 2014 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1745-1701
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Self-experience anomalies are elementary features of schizophrenic pathology. Such deficits can have a profound impact on self-other relationship, but how they are related through aberrant brain function remains poorly understood. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we provide new evidence for a cortical link between aberrant self-experience and social cognition in first-episode schizophrenia (FES). As identified in previous studies, ventral premotor cortex (vPMC) and posterior insula (pIC) are candidate brain regions underlying disturbances in both self-experience and self-other relationship due to their processing of predominantly externally guided (vPMC; goal-oriented behavior) and internally guided (pIC; interoception) stimuli. Results from functional interaction analysis in a sample of 24 FES patients and 22 healthy controls show aberrant functional interactions (background/intrinsic connectivity) of right vPMC and bilateral pIC with posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), a midline region that has been shown central in mediating self-experience. More specifically, our results show increased functional coupling between vPMC and PCC, which positively correlated with basic symptoms (subjective self-experience disturbances). pIC showed reduced functional coupling with PCC and postcentral gyrus and increased functional interactions with anterior insula. Taken together, our results suggest an imbalance in the processing between internally and externally guided information and its abnormal integration with self-referential processing as mediated by PCC. Due to our correlation findings, we suggest this imbalance to be closely related to basic symptoms in FES and thus anomalous self-experience. The findings further disentangle the cortical basis of how self-experience anomalies may pervade the social domain.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1408
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1093/schbul/sbt153

  7 / 1230803 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24126515
[Au] Autor:Koutsouleris N; Davatzikos C; Borgwardt S; Gaser C; Bottlender R; Frodl T; Falkai P; Riecher-Rössler A; Möller HJ; Reiser M; Pantelis C; Meisenzahl E
[Ad] Address:Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Ludwig-Maximilian University, Munich, Germany; nikolaos.koutsouleris@med.uni-muenchen.de....
[Ti] Title:Accelerated brain aging in schizophrenia and beyond: a neuroanatomical marker of psychiatric disorders.
[So] Source:Schizophr Bull;40(5):1140-53, 2014 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1745-1701
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Structural brain abnormalities are central to schizophrenia (SZ), but it remains unknown whether they are linked to dysmaturational processes crossing diagnostic boundaries, aggravating across disease stages, and driving the neurodiagnostic signature of the illness. Therefore, we investigated whether patients with SZ (N = 141), major depression (MD; N = 104), borderline personality disorder (BPD; N = 57), and individuals in at-risk mental states for psychosis (ARMS; N = 89) deviated from the trajectory of normal brain maturation. This deviation was measured as difference between chronological and the neuroanatomical age (brain age gap estimation [BrainAGE]). Neuroanatomical age was determined by a machine learning system trained to individually estimate age from the structural magnetic resonance imagings of 800 healthy controls. Group-level analyses showed that BrainAGE was highest in SZ (+5.5 y) group, followed by MD (+4.0), BPD (+3.1), and the ARMS (+1.7) groups. Earlier disease onset in MD and BPD groups correlated with more pronounced BrainAGE, reaching effect sizes of the SZ group. Second, BrainAGE increased across at-risk, recent onset, and recurrent states of SZ. Finally, BrainAGE predicted both patient status as well as negative and disorganized symptoms. These findings suggest that an individually quantifiable "accelerated aging" effect may particularly impact on the neuroanatomical signature of SZ but may extend also to other mental disorders.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1408
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1093/schbul/sbt142

  8 / 1230803 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24023251
[Au] Autor:Natsubori T; Inoue H; Abe O; Takano Y; Iwashiro N; Aoki Y; Koike S; Yahata N; Katsura M; Gonoi W; Sasaki H; Takao H; Kasai K; Yamasue H
[Ad] Address:Department of Neuropsychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan;...
[Ti] Title:Reduced Frontal Glutamate + Glutamine and N-Acetylaspartate Levels in Patients With Chronic Schizophrenia but not in Those at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis or With First-Episode Schizophrenia.
[So] Source:Schizophr Bull;40(5):1128-39, 2014 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1745-1701
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Changes in brain pathology as schizophrenia progresses have been repeatedly suggested by previous studies. Meta-analyses of previous proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) studies at each clinical stage of schizophrenia indicate that the abnormalities of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and glutamatergic metabolites change progressively. However, to our knowledge, no single study has addressed the possible differences in (1)H MRS abnormalities in subjects at 3 different stages of disease, including those at ultrahigh risk for psychosis (UHR), with first-episode schizophrenia (FES), and with chronic schizophrenia (ChSz). In the current study, 24 patients with UHR, 19 FES, 25 ChSz, and their demographically matched 3 independent control groups (n = 26/19/28 for the UHR, FES, and ChSz control groups, respectively) underwent (1)H MRS in a 3-Tesla scanner to examine metabolites in medial prefrontal cortex. The analysis revealed significant decreases in the medial prefrontal NAA and glutamate + glutamine (Glx) levels, specifically in the ChSz group as indexed by a significant interaction between stage (UHR/FES/ChSz) and clinical status (patients/controls) (P = .008). Furthermore, the specificity of NAA and Glx reductions compared with the other metabolites in the patients with ChSz was also supported by a significant interaction between the clinical status and types of metabolites that only occurred at the ChSz stage (P = .001 for NAA, P = .004 for Glx). The present study demonstrates significant differences in (1)H MRS abnormalities at different stages of schizophrenia, which potentially correspond to changes in glutamatergic neurotransmission, plasticity, and/or excitotoxicity and regional neuronal integrity with relevance for the progression of schizophrenia.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1408
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1093/schbul/sbt124

  9 / 1230803 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24773559
[Au] Autor:Wang WH; Hu LS; Lin H; Li J; Luo F; Huang W; Lin JM; Cai GP; Liu CC
[Ad] Address:Department of Neurosurgery, the 175th Hospital of PLA, Affiliated Southeast Hospital of Xiamen University , Zhangzhou, China .
[Ti] Title:Risk factors for post-traumatic massive cerebral infarction secondary to space-occupying epidural hematoma.
[So] Source:J Neurotrauma;31(16):1444-50, 2014 Aug 15.
[Is] ISSN:1557-9042
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Abstract Post-traumatic massive cerebral infarction (MCI) is a fatal complication of concurrent epidural hematoma (EDH) and brain herniation that commonly requires an aggressive decompressive craniectomy. The risk factors and surgical indications of MCI have not been fully elucidated. In this retrospective study, post-traumatic MCI was diagnosed in 32 of 176 patients. The performance of a decompressive craniectomy simultaneously with the initial hematoma-evacuation surgery improved their functional outcomes, compared with delayed surgery (on the 6-month Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale, 5.6±1.5 vs. 3.4±0.6; p<0.001). Significantly increased risks for MCI were observed in patients with an EDH at a transtemporal location (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 16.48; p=0.003), an EDH larger than 100 mL in volume (OR, 7.04; p=0.001), preoperative shock for longer than 30 min (OR, 13.78; p=0.002), bilateral mydriasis (OR, 7.08; p=0.004), preoperative brain herniation for longer than 90 min (OR, 6.41; p<0.001), and a Glasgow Coma Score of 3-5 points (OR, 2.86; p<0.053). Multi-variate logistic regression analysis revealed no significant association between post-traumatic MCI and age, gender, mid-line shift, Rotterdam computed tomography score, intraoperative hypotension, or serum concentrations of sodium or glucose. Incidence of post-traumatic MCI increased from 16.4% in those having any two of the six risk factors to 47.7% in those having any three or more of the six risk factors (p<0.001). Patients with concurrent EDH and brain herniation exhibited an increased risk for post-traumatic MCI with the accumulation of several critical clinical factors. Early decompressive craniectomy based on accurate risk estimation is recommended in efforts to improve patient functional outcomes.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1408
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1089/neu.2013.3142

  10 / 1230803 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24773520
[Au] Autor:Shein SL; Shellington DK; Exo JL; Jackson TC; Wisniewski SR; Jackson EK; Vagni VA; Bayir H; Clark RS; Dixon CE; Janesko-Feldman KL; Kochanek PM
[Ad] Address:1 Safar Center for Resuscitation Research, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine , Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
[Ti] Title:Hemorrhagic shock shifts the serum cytokine profile from pro- to anti-inflammatory after experimental traumatic brain injury in mice.
[So] Source:J Neurotrauma;31(16):1386-95, 2014 Aug 15.
[Is] ISSN:1557-9042
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Abstract Secondary insults, such as hemorrhagic shock (HS), worsen outcome from traumatic brain injury (TBI). Both TBI and HS modulate levels of inflammatory mediators. We evaluated the addition of HS on the inflammatory response to TBI. Adult male C57BL6J mice were randomized into five groups (n=4 [naïve] or 8/group): naïve; sham; TBI (through mild-to-moderate controlled cortical impact [CCI] at 5 m/sec, 1-mm depth), HS; and CCI+HS. All non-naïve mice underwent identical monitoring and anesthesia. HS and CCI+HS underwent a 35-min period of pressure-controlled hemorrhage (target mean arterial pressure, 25-27 mm Hg) and a 90-min resuscitation with lactated Ringer's injection and autologous blood transfusion. Mice were sacrificed at 2 or 24 h after injury. Levels of 13 cytokines, six chemokines, and three growth factors were measured in serum and in five brain tissue regions. Serum levels of several proinflammatory mediators (eotaxin, interferon-inducible protein 10 [IP-10], keratinocyte chemoattractant [KC], monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 [MCP-1], macrophage inflammatory protein 1alpha [MIP-1α], interleukin [IL]-5, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor [G-CSF]) were increased after CCI alone. Serum levels of fewer proinflammatory mediators (IL-5, IL-6, regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed, and secreted, and G-CSF) were increased after CCI+HS. Serum level of anti-inflammatory IL-10 was significantly increased after CCI+HS versus CCI alone. Brain tissue levels of eotaxin, IP-10, KC, MCP-1, MIP-1α, IL-6, and G-CSF were increased after both CCI and CCI+HS. There were no significant differences between levels after CCI alone and CCI+HS in any mediator. Addition of HS to experimental TBI led to a shift toward an anti-inflammatory serum profile-specifically, a marked increase in IL-10 levels. The brain cytokine and chemokine profile after TBI was minimally affected by the addition of HS.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1408
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1089/neu.2013.2985


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