Database : MEDLINE
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[PMID]: 27050930
[Au] Autor:Salzman J
[Ad] Address:Department of Biochemistry and Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA. Electronic address: Julia.salzman@stanford.edu.
[Ti] Title:Circular RNA Expression: Its Potential Regulation and Function.
[So] Source:Trends Genet;32(5):309-16, 2016 May.
[Is] ISSN:0168-9525
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:In 2012, a new feature of eukaryotic gene expression emerged: ubiquitous expression of circular RNA (circRNA) from genes traditionally thought to express messenger or linear noncoding (nc)RNA only. CircRNAs are covalently closed, circular RNA molecules that typically comprise exonic sequences and are spliced at canonical splice sites. This feature of gene expression was first recognized in humans and mouse, but it quickly emerged that it was common across essentially all eukaryotes studied by molecular biologists. CircRNA abundance, and even which alternatively spliced circRNA isoforms are expressed, varies by cell type and can exceed the abundance of the traditional linear mRNA or ncRNA transcript. CircRNAs are enriched in the brain and increase in abundance during fetal development. Together, these features raise fundamental questions regarding the regulation of circRNA in cis and in trans, and its function.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1604
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  2 / 1342397 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 26838094
[Au] Autor:Aday S; Cecchelli R; Hallier-Vanuxeem D; Dehouck MP; Ferreira L
[Ad] Address:Center of Neurosciences and Cell Biology (CNC), University of Coimbra, 3004-517 Coimbra, Portugal; Center of Innovation in Biotechnology (Biocant), 3060-197 Cantanhede, Portugal; Institute for Interdisciplinary Research, University of Coimbra (IIIUC), 3030-789 Coimbra, Portugal....
[Ti] Title:Stem Cell-Based Human Blood-Brain Barrier Models for Drug Discovery and Delivery.
[So] Source:Trends Biotechnol;34(5):382-93, 2016 May.
[Is] ISSN:1879-3096
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The development of novel neuropharmaceuticals requires the evaluation of blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and toxicity. Recent studies have highlighted differences in the BBB among different species, with the most important differences involving the expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated proteins, transporters, and claudins. In addition, functional studies have shown that brain pharmacokinetics of P-glycoprotein substrates are different in humans and rodents. Therefore, human BBB models may be an important platform for initial drug screening before in vivo studies. This strategy might help to reduce costs in drug development and failures in clinical studies. We review the differences in the BBB among species, recent advances in the generation of human BBB models, and their applications in drug discovery and delivery.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1604
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  3 / 1342397 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 27107157
[Au] Autor:Huang P; Lou Y; Xuan M; Gu Q; Guan X; Xu X; Song Z; Luo W; Zhang M
[Ad] Address:Department of Radiology, 2nd Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China....
[Ti] Title:Cortical abnormalities in Parkinson's disease patients and relationship to depression: A surface-based morphometry study.
[So] Source:Psychiatry Res;250:24-8, 2016 Apr 30.
[Is] ISSN:1872-7123
[Cp] Country of publication:Ireland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Depression is a common occurrence in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Brain deficits may be the underlying cause of depression in PD. In the present study, we investigated whether morphometric alterations contribute to depression in PD. Seventeen depressed PD patients, 17 non-depressed PD patients and 45 normal controls were enrolled in the study. All subjects went through neurological and psychiatric clinical assessments. T1 weighted magnetic resonance imaging and surface-based morphometric analyses were performed to examine morphometric abnormalities in PD patients and their relationship to depression. We found that compared with normal controls, PD patients exhibited significantly decreased cortical thickness in the left precentral gyrus and the right postcentral gyrus extending to the middle frontal gyrus. Compared with non-depressed PD patients, depressed patients showed significantly increased cortical areas in the orbitofrontal regions and insula, which may imply white matter atrophy in these areas. The results of orbitofrontal and insula white matter atrophy are consistent with our previous finding that white matter integrity and functional connectivity are damaged in these regions in depressed PD patients, confirming their contribution to depression in PD.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1604
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  4 / 1342397 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 27107156
[Au] Autor:Jung WH; Chang KJ; Kim NH
[Ad] Address:Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
[Ti] Title:Disrupted topological organization in the whole-brain functional network of trauma-exposed firefighters: A preliminary study.
[So] Source:Psychiatry Res;250:15-23, 2016 Apr 30.
[Is] ISSN:1872-7123
[Cp] Country of publication:Ireland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Given that partial posttraumatic stress disorder (pPTSD) may be a specific risk factor for the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), it is important to understand the neurobiology of pPTSD. However, there are few extant studies in this domain. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and a graph theoretical approach, we compared the topological organization of the whole-brain functional network in trauma-exposed firefighters with pPTSD (pPTSD group, n=9) with those without pPTSD (PC group, n=8) and non-traumatized healthy controls (HC group, n=11). We also examined changes in the network topology of five individuals with pPTSD before and after eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy. Individuals with pPTSD exhibited altered global properties, including a reduction in values of a normalized clustering coefficient, normalized local efficiency, and small-worldness. We also observed altered local properties, particularly in the association cortex, including the temporal and parietal cortices, across groups. These disruptive global and local network properties presented in pPTSD before treatment were ameliorated after treatment. Our preliminary results suggest that subthreshold manifestation of PTSD may be due to a disruption in the optimal balance in the functional brain networks and that this disruption can be ameliorated by psychotherapy.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1604
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  5 / 1342397 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 27107155
[Au] Autor:Smallwood RF; Potter JS; Robin DA
[Ad] Address:University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio, Research Imaging Institute, 8403 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA; University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio, Department of Psychiatry, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA. Electronic address: rachel.smallwood@nih.gov.
[Ti] Title:Neurophysiological mechanisms in acceptance and commitment therapy in opioid-addicted patients with chronic pain.
[So] Source:Psychiatry Res;250:12-4, 2016 Apr 30.
[Is] ISSN:1872-7123
[Cp] Country of publication:Ireland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) has been effectively utilized to treat both chronic pain and substance use disorder independently. Given these results and the vital need to treat the comorbidity of the two disorders, a pilot ACT treatment was implemented in individuals with comorbid chronic pain and opioid addiction. This pilot study supported using neurophysiology to characterize treatment effects and revealed that, following ACT, participants with this comorbidity exhibited reductions in brain activation due to painful stimulus and in connectivity at rest.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1604
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  6 / 1342397 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 27107154
[Au] Autor:Hentze C; Walter H; Schramm E; Drost S; Schoepf D; Fangmeier T; Mattern M; Normann C; Zobel I; Schnell K
[Ad] Address:Department of General Psychiatry, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Vossstrasse 4, 69115 Heidelberg, Germany. Electronic address: Charlotte.Hentze@med.uni-heidelberg.de....
[Ti] Title:Functional Correlates of childhood maltreatment and symptom severity during affective theory of mind tasks in chronic depression.
[So] Source:Psychiatry Res;250:1-11, 2016 Apr 30.
[Is] ISSN:1872-7123
[Cp] Country of publication:Ireland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Among multiple etiological factors of depressive disorders, childhood maltreatment (CM) gains increasing attention as it confers susceptibility for depression and predisposes to chronicity. CM assumedly inhibits social-cognitive development, entailing interactional problems as observed in chronic depression (CD), especially in affective theory of mind (ToM). However, the extent of CM among CD patients varies notably as does the severity of depressive symptoms. We tested whether the extent of CM or depressive symptoms correlates with affective ToM functions in CD patients. Regional brain activation measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging during an affective ToM task was tested for correlation with CM, assessed by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), and symptom severity, assessed by the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), in 25 unmedicated CD patients (mean age 41.52, SD 11.13). Amygdala activation during affective ToM correlated positively with CTQ total scores, while (para)hippocampal response correlated negatively with MADRS scores. Our findings suggest that differential amygdala activation in affective ToM in CD is substantially modulated by previous CM and not by the pathophysiological equivalents of current depressive symptoms. This illustrates the amygdala's role in the mediation of CM effects. The negative correlation of differential (para)hippocampal activation and depressive symptom severity indicates reduced integration of interactional experiences during depressive states.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1604
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  7 / 1342397 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 27035062
[Au] Autor:Zahr NM; Carr RA; Rohlfing T; Mayer D; Sullivan EV; Colrain IM; Pfefferbaum A
[Ad] Address:Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, 401 Quarry Road, Stanford, CA 94305, USA; Center for Health Sciences, SRI International, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA. Electronic address: nzahr@stanford.edu....
[Ti] Title:Brain metabolite levels in recently sober individuals with alcohol use disorder: Relation to drinking variables and relapse.
[So] Source:Psychiatry Res;250:42-9, 2016 Apr 30.
[Is] ISSN:1872-7123
[Cp] Country of publication:Ireland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies in alcohol use disorder (AUD) typically report lower levels of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and choline-containing compounds (Cho) in several brain regions. Metabolite levels, however, are labile and can be affected by several competing factors, some related to drinking variables.. This in vivo MRS study included 20 recently sober (19.6±12.6 days) individuals with AUD and 15 controls. MRS was performed in single voxels placed in frontal white matter and thalamic regions using Constant-Time Point Resolved Spectroscopy (CT-PRESS) for absolute quantification of NAA, Cho, total creatine (tCr), and glutamate (Glu). A trend toward a thalamic NAA deficit in the total AUD group compared with controls was attributable to the subgroup of alcoholics who relapsed 3 or so months after scanning. In the total AUD group, frontal and thalamic NAA and Cho levels were lower with more recent drinking; frontal and thalamic Cho levels were also lower in AUD individuals with past stimulant abuse. Thalamic Cho levels were higher in binge-drinking AUD individuals and in those with longer length of alcohol dependence. MRS-visible metabolite peaks appear to be modulated by variables related to drinking behaviors, suggesting a sensitivity of MRS in tracking and predicting the dynamic course of alcoholism.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1604
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  8 / 1342397 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 27017423
[Au] Autor:Cooper CM; Briggs RW; Farris EA; Bartlett J; Haley RW; Odegard TN
[Ad] Address:Department of Psychiatry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA. Electronic address: crystal.cooper@utsouthwestern.edu....
[Ti] Title:Memory and functional brain differences in a national sample of U.S. veterans with Gulf War Illness.
[So] Source:Psychiatry Res;250:33-41, 2016 Apr 30.
[Is] ISSN:1872-7123
[Cp] Country of publication:Ireland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Roughly 26-32% of U. S. veterans who served in the 1991 Persian Gulf War report suffering from chronic health problems. Memory complaints are regularly reported by ill Gulf War veterans (GWV), but limited data verify their complaints. This study investigated episodic memory and brain function in a nationally representative sample of GWV, using a face-name memory task and functional magnetic resonance imaging during encoding. A syndrome classification system was used to subdivide ill GWV into the three major Gulf War Illness syndrome types, "impaired cognition" (GWV-1), "confusion ataxia" (GWV-2), and "central pain" (GWV-3). Memory and brain function of ill GWV were contrasted to deployed and nondeployed well GWV controls (GWV-C). Ill GWV exhibited impaired memory function relative to GWV-C but the patterns of functional brain differences varied. Brain activation differentiated the GWV-C from the ill GWV. The different syndrome types also differed from one another in several brain regions. Additionally, the current study was the first to observe differences in brain function between deployed and nondeployed GWV-C. These results provide (1) evidence of memory impairment in ill GWV and differentiate the syndrome types at a functional neurobiological level, and (2) the role of deployment in the war on brain function.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1604
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  9 / 1342397 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 27020247
[Au] Autor:Altintas O; Kumas M; Altintas MO
[Ad] Address:Bor State Hospital, Neurology Clinic, Istasyon Street, 51700 Bor, Nigde, Turkey. Electronic address: dr.ozgealtintas@gmail.com.
[Ti] Title:Neuroprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning via modulating the expression of adropin and oxidative markers against transient cerebral ischemia in diabetic rats.
[So] Source:Peptides;79:31-8, 2016 May.
[Is] ISSN:1873-5169
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:INTRODUCTION: Ischemic preconditioning (IPreC) can render the brain more tolerant to a subsequent potential lethal ischemic injury. Hyperglycemia has been shown to increase the size of ischemic stroke and worsen the clinical outcome following a stroke, thus exacerbating oxidative stress. Adropin has a significant association with cardiovascular disease, especially with diabetes. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the role of the IPreC due to modulating the expression of adropin and oxidative damage markers against stroke by induced transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. MATERIAL-METHOD: 72 male Spraque Dawley rats were allocated to 8 groups. In order to evaluate alterations of anti/oxidative status and adropin level, we induced transient MCAo seven days after STZ-induced diabetes. Also we performed IPreC 72h before transient MCAo to assess whether IPreC could have a neuroprotective effect against ischemia-reperfusion injury. RESULTS: The general characteristics of STZ-treated rats (STZ) included reduced body weight and elevated blood glucose levels compared to non-diabetic ones. Ischemic preconditioning before cerebral ischemia significantly reduced infarction size compared with the other groups [IPreC+MCAo (27±11mm(3)) vs. MCAo (109±17mm(3)) p<0.001; STZ+IPreC+MCAo (38±10mm(3)) vs. STZ+MCAo (165±45mm(3)) p<0.001, respectively]. The mean total antioxidant status level in IPreC groups was higher than other groups (p≤0.05). Moreover, IPreC considerably decreased mean adropin levels compared with other groups (p≤0.05). CONCLUSION: The study results supported the neuroprotective effects of ischemic preconditioning in MCA infarcts correlated with the level of oxidative damage markers and adropin.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1604
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  10 / 1342397 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 27002387
[Au] Autor:Chang GQ; Karatayev O; Lukatskaya O; Leibowitz SF
[Ad] Address:Laboratory of Behavioral Neurobiology, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY, USA....
[Ti] Title:Prenatal fat exposure and hypothalamic PPAR ß/δ: Possible relationship to increased neurogenesis of orexigenic peptide neurons.
[So] Source:Peptides;79:16-26, 2016 May.
[Is] ISSN:1873-5169
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Gestational exposure to a fat-rich diet, while elevating maternal circulating fatty acids, increases in the offspring's hypothalamus and amygdala the proliferation and density of neurons that express neuropeptides known to stimulate consummatory behavior. To understand the relationship between these phenomena, this study examined in the brain of postnatal offspring (day 15) the effect of prenatal fat exposure on the transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ß/δ, which is sensitive to fatty acids, and the relationship of PPAR ß/δ to the orexigenic neuropeptides, orexin, melanin-concentrating hormone, and enkephalin. Prenatal exposure to a fat-rich diet compared to low-fat chow increased the density of cells immunoreactive for PPAR ß/δ in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), perifornical lateral hypothalamus (PFLH), and central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), but not the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus or basolateral amygdaloid nucleus. It also increased co-labeling of PPAR ß/δ with the cell proliferation marker, BrdU, or neuronal marker, NeuN, and the triple labeling of PPAR ß/δ with BrdU plus NeuN, indicating an increase in proliferation and density of new PPAR ß/δ neurons. Prenatal fat exposure stimulated the double-labeling of PPAR ß/δ with orexin or melanin-concentrating hormone in the PFLH and enkephalin in the PVN and CeA and also triple-labeling of PPAR ß/δ with BrdU and these neuropeptides, indicating that dietary fat increases the genesis of PPAR ß/δ neurons that produce these peptides. These findings demonstrate a close anatomical relationship between PPAR ß/δ and the increased proliferation and density of peptide-expressing neurons in the hypothalamus and amygdala of fat-exposed offspring.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1604
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review


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