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[PMID]: 25239954
[Au] Autor:Li J; Bo L; Zhang P; Gao Q; Li L; Tang J; Wu C; Li D; Xiao J; Chen J; Tao J; Mao C; Xu Z
[Ad] Address:Institute for Fetology, First Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China;...
[Ti] Title:Exposure to nicotine during pregnancy and altered learning and memory in the rat offspring.
[So] Source:Nicotine Tob Res;17(6):661-6, 2015 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1469-994X
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:INTRODUCTION: Prenatal exposure to nicotine can cause many fetal developmental problems. This study determined the influence of nicotine during pregnancy on the development of cognitive behavior in the offspring. METHODS: Nicotine was administered to pregnant rats through implanted osmotic mini-pumps at 6mg/kg/day and flow rate of 60 µl/day for whole pregnancy from gestational day 4. Fetal and offspring body and brain weight was measured. Learning and memory were tested in adult offspring with Morris water maze; Learning and memory-related receptors were measured. RESULTS: The results showed that exposure to prenatal nicotine (PN) not only caused fetal growth restriction, but also had long-term effects on learning and memory in the offspring. The PN offspring exhibited longer escape latency regardless of sex. The number of passing the platform was significantly less in the PN offspring than that of the control. The expression of messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR) in the hippocampus was significantly increased, whereas alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR) protein was decreased with unchanged α7 nAChR mRNA in the PN offspring. CONCLUSION: The data provided novel information on the PN-affected development in learning and memory in the offspring, suggesting that α7 nAChR and NMDAR1 in the hippocampus might be the targets for actions of PN in association with memory impairment.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1505
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1093/ntr/ntu178

  2 / 1277263 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25491929
[Au] Autor:Smucny J; Olincy A; Eichman LS; Tregellas JR
[Ad] Address:Research Service, Denver VA Medical Center, Denver, CO, USA, jason.smucny@ucdenver.edu.
[Ti] Title:Neuronal effects of nicotine during auditory selective attention.
[So] Source:Psychopharmacology (Berl);232(11):2017-28, 2015 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1432-2072
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:RATIONALE: Although the attention-enhancing effects of nicotine have been behaviorally and neurophysiologically well-documented, its localized functional effects during selective attention are poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we examined the neuronal effects of nicotine during auditory selective attention in healthy human nonsmokers. We hypothesized to observe significant effects of nicotine in attention-associated brain areas, driven by nicotine-induced increases in activity as a function of increasing task demands. METHODS: A single-blind, prospective, randomized crossover design was used to examine neuronal response associated with a go/no-go task after 7 mg nicotine or placebo patch administration in 20 individuals who underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3T. The task design included two levels of difficulty (ordered vs. random stimuli) and two levels of auditory distraction (silence vs. noise). RESULTS: Significant treatment × difficulty × distraction interaction effects on neuronal response were observed in the hippocampus, ventral parietal cortex, and anterior cingulate. In contrast to our hypothesis, U and inverted U-shaped dependencies were observed between the effects of nicotine on response and task demands, depending on the brain area. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that nicotine may differentially affect neuronal response depending on task conditions. These results have important theoretical implications for understanding how cholinergic tone may influence the neurobiology of selective attention.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1505
[Cu] Class update date: 150509
[Lr] Last revision date:150509
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00213-014-3832-7

  3 / 1277263 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25765593
[Au] Autor:Shafritz KM; Bregman JD; Ikuta T; Szeszko PR
[Ad] Address:Department of Psychology, 135 Hofstra University, Hempstead, NY 11549, United States; Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, North Shore-LIJ Health System, 350 Community Drive, Manhasset, NY 11030, United States. Electronic address: keith.shafritz@hofstra.edu....
[Ti] Title:Neural systems mediating decision-making and response inhibition for social and nonsocial stimuli in autism.
[So] Source:Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry;60:112-20, 2015 Jul 3.
[Is] ISSN:1878-4216
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Autism is marked by impairments in social reciprocity and communication, along with restricted, repetitive and stereotyped behaviors. Prior studies have separately investigated social processing and executive function in autism, but little is known about the brain mechanisms of cognitive control for both emotional and nonemotional stimuli. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify differences in neurocircuitry between individuals with high functioning autism (HFA) and neurotypical controls during two versions of a go/no-go task: emotional (fear and happy faces) and nonemotional (English letters). During the letter task, HFA participants showed hypoactivation in the ventral prefrontal cortex. During the emotion task, happy faces elicited activation in the ventral striatum, nucleus accumbens and anterior amygdala in neurotypical, but not HFA, participants. Response inhibition for fear faces compared with happy faces recruited occipitotemporal regions in HFA, but not neurotypical, participants. In a direct contrast of emotional no-go and letter no-go blocks, HFA participants showed hyperactivation in extrastriate cortex and fusiform gyrus. Accuracy for emotional no-go trials was negatively correlated with activation in fusiform gyrus in the HFA group. These results indicate that autism is associated with abnormal processing in socioemotional brain networks, and support the theory that autism is marked by a social motivational deficit.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1505
[Cu] Class update date: 150509
[Lr] Last revision date:150509
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  4 / 1277263 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25921527
[Au] Autor:Gross C; Raj N; Molinaro G; Allen AG; Whyte AJ; Gibson JR; Huber KM; Gourley SL; Bassell GJ
[Ad] Address:Department of Cell Biology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA. Electronic address: christina.gross@cchmc.org....
[Ti] Title:Selective Role of the Catalytic PI3K Subunit p110ß in Impaired Higher Order Cognition in Fragile X Syndrome.
[So] Source:Cell Rep;11(5):681-8, 2015 May 5.
[Is] ISSN:2211-1247
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Distinct isoforms of the PI3K catalytic subunit have specialized functions in the brain, but their role in cognition is unknown. Here, we show that the catalytic subunit p110ß plays an important role in prefrontal cortex (PFC)-dependent cognitive defects in mouse models of Fragile X syndrome (FXS), an inherited intellectual disability. FXS is caused by loss of function of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), which binds and translationally represses mRNAs. PFC-selective knockdown of p110ß, an FMRP target that is translationally upregulated in FXS, reverses deficits in higher cognition in Fmr1 knockout mice. Genetic full-body reduction of p110ß in Fmr1 knockout mice normalizes excessive PI3K activity, restores stimulus-induced protein synthesis, and corrects increased dendritic spine density and behavior. Notably, adult-onset PFC-selective Fmr1 knockdown mice show impaired cognition, which is rescued by simultaneous p110ß knockdown. Our results suggest that FMRP-mediated control of p110ß is crucial for neuronal protein synthesis and cognition.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1505
[Cu] Class update date: 150509
[Lr] Last revision date:150509
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  5 / 1277263 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25858513
[Au] Autor:Bois F; Gallezot JD; Zheng MQ; Lin SF; Esterlis I; Cosgrove KP; Carson RE; Huang Y
[Ad] Address:PET Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA. Electronic address: frederic.bois@yale.edu....
[Ti] Title:Evaluation of [(18)F]-(-)-norchlorofluorohomoepibatidine ([(18)F]-(-)-NCFHEB) as a PET radioligand to image the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in non-human primates.
[So] Source:Nucl Med Biol;42(6):570-7, 2015 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1872-9614
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:INTRODUCTION: The aims of the present study were to develop an optimized microfluidic method for the production of the selective nicotinic acetylcholine α4ß2 receptor radiotracer [(18)F]-(-)-NCFHEB ([(18)F]-Flubatine) and to investigate its receptor binding profile and pharmacokinetic properties in rhesus monkeys in vivo. METHODS: [(18)F]-(-)-NCFHEB was prepared in two steps, a nucleophilic fluorination followed by N-Boc deprotection. PET measurements were performed in rhesus monkeys including baseline and preblocking experiments with nicotine (0.24mg/kg). Radiometabolites in plasma were measured using HPLC. RESULTS: [(18)F]-(-)-NCFHEB was prepared in a total synthesis time of 140min. The radiochemical purity in its final formulation was >98% and the mean specific radioactivity was 97.3±16.1GBq/µmol (n=6) at end of synthesis (EOS). In the monkey brain, radioactivity concentration was high in the thalamus, moderate in the putamen, hippocampus, frontal cortex, and lower in the cerebellum. Nicotine blocked 98-100% of [(18)F]-(-)-NCFHEB specific binding, and the non-displaceable distribution volume (VND) was estimated at 5.9±1.0mL/cm(3) (n=2), or 6.6±1.1mL/cm(3) after normalization by the plasma free fraction fP. Imaging data are amenable to kinetic modeling analysis using the multilinear analysis (MA1) method, and model-derived binding parameters display good test-retest reproducibility. In rhesus monkeys, [(18)F]-(-)-NCFHEB can yield robust regional binding potential (BPND) values (thalamus=4.1±1.5, frontal cortex=1.2±0.2, putamen=0.96±0.45, and cerebellum=0.10±0.29). CONCLUSION: An efficient microfluidic synthetic method was developed for preparation of [(18)F]-(-)-NCFHEB. PET examination in rhesus monkeys showed that [(18)F]-(-)-NCFHEB entered the brain readily and its regional radioactivity uptake pattern was in accordance with the known distribution of α4ß2 receptors. Estimated non-displaceable binding potential (BPND) values in brain regions were better than those of [(18)F]2-FA and comparable to [(18)F]AZAN. These results confirm previous findings and support further examination of [(18)F]-(-)-NCFHEB in humans.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1505
[Cu] Class update date: 150509
[Lr] Last revision date:150509
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  6 / 1277263 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25913858
[Au] Autor:Mukai J; Tamura M; Fénelon K; Rosen AM; Spellman TJ; Kang R; MacDermott AB; Karayiorgou M; Gordon JA; Gogos JA
[Ad] Address:Department of Physiology and Cellular Biophysics, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA....
[Ti] Title:Molecular substrates of altered axonal growth and brain connectivity in a mouse model of schizophrenia.
[So] Source:Neuron;86(3):680-95, 2015 May 6.
[Is] ISSN:1097-4199
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:22q11.2 deletion carriers show specific cognitive deficits, and ∼30% of them develop schizophrenia. One of the disrupted genes is ZDHHC8, which encodes for a palmitoyltransferase. We show that Zdhhc8-deficient mice have reduced palmitoylation of proteins that regulate axonal growth and branching. Analysis of axonal projections of pyramidal neurons from both Zdhhc8-deficient and Df(16)A(+/-) mice, which model the 22q11.2 deletion, revealed deficits in axonal growth and terminal arborization, which can be prevented by reintroduction of active ZDHHC8 protein. Impaired terminal arborization is accompanied by a reduction in the strength of synaptic connections and altered functional connectivity and working memory. The effect of ZDHHC8 is mediated in part via Cdc42-dependent modulation of Akt/Gsk3ß signaling at the tip of the axon and can be reversed by pharmacologically decreasing Gsk3ß activity during postnatal brain development. Our findings provide valuable mechanistic insights into the cognitive and psychiatric symptoms associated with a schizophrenia-predisposing mutation.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1505
[Cu] Class update date: 150509
[Lr] Last revision date:150509
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  7 / 1277263 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25308310
[Au] Autor:Korzyukov O; Tapaskar N; Pflieger ME; Behroozmand R; Lodhavia A; Patel S; Robin DA; Larson C
[Ad] Address:Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Northwestern University, 2240 Campus Dr., Evanston, IL 60208, USA. Electronic address: o-korzyukov@northwestern.edu....
[Ti] Title:Event related potentials study of aberrations in voice control mechanisms in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
[So] Source:Clin Neurophysiol;126(6):1159-70, 2015 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1872-8952
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to test for neural signs of impulsivity related to voice motor control in young adults with ADHD using EEG recordings in a voice pitch perturbation paradigm. METHODS: Two age-matched groups of young adults were presented with brief pitch shifts of auditory feedback during vocalization. Compensatory behavioral and corresponding bioelectrical brain responses were elicited by the pitch-shifted voice feedback. RESULTS: The analysis of bioelectrical responses showed that the ADHD group had shorter peak latency and onset time of motor-related bioelectrical brain responses as compared to the controls. CONCLUSIONS: These results were interpreted to suggest differences in executive functions between ADHD and control participants. SIGNIFICANCE: We hypothesize that more rapid motor-related bioelectrical responses found in the present study may be a manifestation of impulsiveness in adults with ADHD at the involuntary level of voice control.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1505
[Cu] Class update date: 150509
[Lr] Last revision date:150509
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  8 / 1277263 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25879418
[Au] Autor:Salisbury JP; Sîrbulescu RF; Moran BM; Auclair JR; Zupanc GKh; Agar JN
[Ad] Address:Barnett Institute, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Northeastern University, 360 Huntington Avenue, 412 TF, Boston, MA, 02115, USA. j.salisbury@neu.edu....
[Ti] Title:The central nervous system transcriptome of the weakly electric brown ghost knifefish (Apteronotus leptorhynchus): de novo assembly, annotation, and proteomics validation.
[So] Source:BMC Genomics;16:166, 2015.
[Is] ISSN:1471-2164
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: The brown ghost knifefish (Apteronotus leptorhynchus) is a weakly electric teleost fish of particular interest as a versatile model system for a variety of research areas in neuroscience and biology. The comprehensive information available on the neurophysiology and neuroanatomy of this organism has enabled significant advances in such areas as the study of the neural basis of behavior, the development of adult-born neurons in the central nervous system and their involvement in the regeneration of nervous tissue, as well as brain aging and senescence. Despite substantial scientific interest in this species, no genomic resources are currently available. RESULTS: Here, we report the de novo assembly and annotation of the A. leptorhynchus transcriptome. After evaluating several trimming and transcript reconstruction strategies, de novo assembly using Trinity uncovered 42,459 unique contigs containing at least a partial protein-coding sequence based on alignment to a reference set of known Actinopterygii sequences. As many as 11,847 of these contigs contained full or near-full length protein sequences, providing broad coverage of the proteome. A variety of non-coding RNA sequences were also identified and annotated, including conserved long intergenic non-coding RNA and other long non-coding RNA observed previously to be expressed in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) brain, as well as a variety of miRNA, snRNA, and snoRNA. Shotgun proteomics confirmed translation of open reading frames from over 2,000 transcripts, including alternative splice variants. Assignment of tandem mass spectra was greatly improved by use of the assembly compared to databases of sequences from closely related organisms. The assembly and raw reads have been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession number GBKR00000000. Tandem mass spectrometry data is available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001285. CONCLUSIONS: Presented here is the first release of an annotated de novo transcriptome assembly from Apteronotus leptorhynchus, providing a broad overview of RNA expressed in central nervous system tissue. The assembly, which includes substantial coverage of a wide variety of both protein coding and non-coding transcripts, will allow the development of better tools to understand the mechanisms underlying unique characteristics of the knifefish model system, such as their tremendous regenerative capacity and negligible brain senescence.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1505
[Cu] Class update date: 150509
[Lr] Last revision date:150509
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12864-015-1354-2

  9 / 1277263 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25649272
[Au] Autor:Zheng M; Du H; Ni W; Koch LG; Britton SL; Keep RF; Xi G; Hua Y
[Ad] Address:Department of Neurosurgery, University of Michigan, R5018 BSRB, 109 Zina Pitcher Place, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109-2200, USA.
[Ti] Title:Iron-induced necrotic brain cell death in rats with different aerobic capacity.
[So] Source:Transl Stroke Res;6(3):215-23, 2015 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1868-601X
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Brain iron overload has a key role in brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Our recent study demonstrated that ICH-induced brain injury was greater in low capacity runner (LCR) than in high capacity runner (HCR) rats. The present study examines whether iron-induced brain injury differs between LCRs and HCRs. Adult male LCR and HCR rats had an intracaudate injection of iron or saline. Rats were euthanized at 2 and at 24 h after T2 magnetic resonance imaging, and the brains were used for immunostaining and Western blotting. LCRs had more hemispheric swelling, T2 lesion volumes, blood-brain barrier disruption, and neuronal death at 24 h after iron injection (p < 0.05). Many propidium iodide (PI)-positive cells, indicative of necrotic cell death, were observed in the ipsilateral basal ganglia of both HCRs and LCRs at 2 h after iron injection. PI fluorescence intensity was higher in LCRs than in HCRs. In addition, membrane attack complex (MAC) expression was increased at 2 h after iron injection and was higher in LCRs than in HCRs. The PI-positive cells co-localized with MAC-positive cells in the ipsilateral basal ganglia. Iron induces more severe necrotic brain cell death, brain swelling, and blood-brain barrier disruption in LCR rats, which may be related with complement activation and MAC formation.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1505
[Cu] Class update date: 150509
[Lr] Last revision date:150509
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1007/s12975-015-0388-8

  10 / 1277263 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25949851
[Au] Autor:Moore KA; Bohnstedt BN; Shah SU; Abdulkader MM; Bonnin JM; Ackerman LL; Shaikh KA; Kralik SF; Shah MV
[Ad] Address:Goodman Campbell Brain and Spine, Department of Neurological Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, 355 W. 16 Street, Suite 5100, Indianapolis, IN, USA....
[Ti] Title:Intracranial chordoma presenting as acute hemorrhage in a child: Case report and literature review.
[So] Source:Surg Neurol Int;6:63, 2015.
[Is] ISSN:2229-5097
[Cp] Country of publication:India
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Chordomas are rare, slow-growing malignant neoplasms derived from remnants of the embryological notochord. Pediatric cases comprise only 5% of all chordomas, but more than half of the reported pediatric chordomas are intracranial. For patients of all ages, intracranial chordomas typically present with symptoms such as headaches and progressive neurological deficits occurring over several weeks to many years as they compress or invade local structures. There are only reports of these tumors presenting acutely with intracranial hemorrhage in adult patients. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 10-year-old boy presented with acute onset of headache, emesis, and diplopia. Head computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of brain were suspicious for a hemorrhagic mass located in the left petroclival region, compressing the ventral pons. The mass was surgically resected and demonstrated acute intratumoral hemorrhage. Pathologic examination was consistent with chordoma. CONCLUSION: There are few previous reports of petroclival chordomas causing acute intracranial hemorrhage. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of a petroclival chordoma presenting as acute intracranial hemorrhage in a pediatric patient. Although uncommon, it is important to consider chordoma when evaluating a patient of any age presenting with a hemorrhagic lesion of the clivus.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1505
[Cu] Class update date: 150509
[Lr] Last revision date:150509
[Da] Date of entry for processing:150507
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.4103/2152-7806.155445


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