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[PMID]: 24207053
[Au] Autor:Shyu LY; Tsai HH; Lin DP; Chang HH; Tyan YS; Weng JC
[Ad] Address:Department of Parasitology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; Department of Clinical Laboratory, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan.
[Ti] Title:An 8-week Brain MRI Follow-up Analysis of Rat Eosinophilic Meningitis Caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis Infection.
[So] Source:Zoonoses Public Health;61(6):411-9, 2014 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1863-2378
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Early differential diagnosis and timely follow-up are advantageous in the management of Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection. This study aimed to characterize angiostrongyliasis in the rat brain for an 8-week period using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images (T1WI), T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) and R2 mapping sequences. The data were analysed with Mathematica and Matlab software programs for weekly changes in each brain following the infection of 20, 50, 100 and 300 third-stage larvae (L3), respectively. The results showed that the average subarachnoid space detected by T2WI technique was peaked up to 10% increase of original size on day 35 after 100 or 300 larvae infection, while those infected with 20 or 50 larvae showed less than 4% increase during the entire course of observation. This increase was relevant to the mortality of the infected rats, because those with 100 or 300 larvae infections showed a sharp decrease in survival rate before day 40. After day 40, the average subarachnoid space was decreased, but the average ventricle size was persistently increased, with the highest increase observed in the group infected with 300 larvae on day 56. Furthermore, the R2 mapping mean and R2 mapping size were significantly different between the brains with severe infection (100 and 300 larvae groups together) and those with mild infection (20 and 50 larvae groups together) on day 49, but not on day 35. Our results showed that diagnosis for different quantity of larvae infection using MRI is possible and follow-up characterization is informative in revealing the effects of angiostrongyliasis on different brain areas. In conclusion, our results support the use of MRI as a non-invasive diagnostic technique for eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis infection.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1111/zph.12087

  2 / 1226306 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25042923
[Au] Autor:Wang J; Ma X; Zhang Y; Wang H; Yang J; Dong J; Wang J; Yang Y; Li B
[Ad] Address:Department of Cardiology, Shanxi Cardiovascular Hospital, Taiyuan 030024, China....
[Ti] Title:[Cardiac protective effect of the autoantibody against ß3-adrenoceptor in rats with experimental heart failure].
[So] Source:Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi;42(5):424-7, 2014 May.
[Is] ISSN:0253-3758
[Cp] Country of publication:China
[La] Language:chi
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of the autoantibody against the ß3-adrenoceptor on rats with experimental heart failure. METHOD: The peptide corresponding to the sequence of ß3 adrenoceptor was synthesized to actively immunize the rats, ELISA was used to detect the serum level of autoantibody against the ß3-adrenoceptor (ß3AA). Total IgGs were extracted from the serum containing ß3AA in immunized rats. Aortic banding surgery was used to establish the heart failure model in male Wistar rats and rats were divided into the sham group (n = 8), heart failure group(n = 8),ß3AA-immunized heart failure group (HF+ß3AA, n = 8) and corresponding negative IgG-immunized heart failure group (HF+ IgG, n = 8).In 6 weeks and 8 weeks after aortic banding surgery, the serum levels of NT-pro brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) were assayed with ELISA assay and cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography. RESULTS: ß3AA was used to immunize rat with heart failure, the serum level of ß3AA was stable at 50 days post immunization. At 8 weeks after aortic banding surgery, heart failure group showed significantly increased LVEDD [(6.92 ± 0.22) mm vs.(5.62 ± 0.19) mm, P < 0.001], LVESD [(4.63 ± 0.23) mm vs.(3.50 ± 0.20) mm, P < 0.01] and IVS [(2.44 ± 0.06) mm vs.(2.28 ± 0.05) mm, P < 0.05], and decreased LVEF[(62.07 ± 3.99)% vs.(79.63 ± 3.02)%, P < 0.01] and LVFS [(31.46 ± 3.22)% vs.(43.65 ± 2.68) %, P < 0.05] compared with the sham group.HF+ß3AA IgG group showed decreased LVEDD [(6.07 ± 0.30) mm vs.(6.92 ± 0.24) mm, P < 0.05] and LVESD [(3.92 ± 0.22) mm vs.(4.68 ± 0.23) mm, P < 0.05], and higher LVEF [(70.29 ± 1.78)% vs.(61.95 ± 3.03)%, P < 0.05] and LVFS [(38.08 ± 2.32)% vs.(30.50 ± 1.82)%, P < 0.05] compared to the HF+ IgG group.In addition, compared with the HF+ IgG group, HF+ß3AA IgG group showed decreased serum levels of NT-proBNP [(196.43 ± 6.56) pg/ml vs.(242.13 ± 7.86) pg/ml, P < 0.01]. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that ß3AA can improve cardiac function and reduce the serum levels of NT-proBNP in rat with heart failure.
[Pt] Publication type:ENGLISH ABSTRACT; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  3 / 1226306 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24547764
[Au] Autor:Viitmaa R; Haaparanta-Solin M; Snellman M; Cizinauskas S; Orro T; Kuusela E; Johansson J; Viljanen T; Jokinen TS; Bergamasco L; Metsähonkala L
[Ad] Address:Department of Equine and Small Animal Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Institute of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Tartu, Estonia.
[Ti] Title:Cerebral glucose utilization measured with high resolution positron emission tomography in epileptic finnish spitz dogs and healthy dogs.
[So] Source:Vet Radiol Ultrasound;55(4):453-61, 2014 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1740-8261
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:In human epileptic patients, changes in cerebral glucose utilization can be detected 2-deoxy-2-[(18) F] fluoro-d-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). The purpose of this prospective study was to determine whether epileptic dogs might show similar findings. Eleven Finnish Spitz dogs with focal idiopathic epilepsy and six healthy dogs were included. Dogs were examined using electroencephalography (EEG) and FDG-PET, with epileptic dogs being evaluated during the interictal period. Visual and semi-quantitative assessment methods of FDG-PET were compared and contrasted with EEG findings. Three independent observers, unaware of dog clinical status, detected FDG-PET uptake abnormalities in 9/11 epileptic (82%), and 4/8 healthy dogs (50%). Occipital cortex findings were significantly associated with epileptic status (P = 0.013). Epileptic dogs had significantly lower standardized uptake values (SUVs) in numerous cortical regions, the cerebellum, and the hippocampus compared to the control dogs. The lowest SUVs were found in the occipital lobe. White matter normalized and left-right asymmetry index values for all pairs of homologous regions did not differ between groups. Visual evaluation of the EEGs was less sensitive (36%) than FDG-PET. Both diagnostic tests were consensual and specific (100%) for occipital findings, but EEG had a lower sensitivity for detecting lateralized foci than FDG-PET. Findings supported the use of FDG-PET as a diagnostic test for dogs with suspected idiopathic epilepsy. Visual and semiquantitative analyses of FDG-PET scans provided complementary information. Findings also supported the theory that epileptogenesis may occur in multiple brain regions in Finnish Spitz dogs with idiopathic epilepsy.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1111/vru.12147

  4 / 1226306 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24506077
[Au] Autor:Zarelli M; Schwarz T; Puggioni A; Pinilla M; O'Doherty JV; McAllister H
[Ad] Address:University College Dublin Veterinary Teaching Hospital, UCD, Ireland.
[Ti] Title:An optimized protocol for multislice computed tomography of the canine brain.
[So] Source:Vet Radiol Ultrasound;55(4):387-92, 2014 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1740-8261
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Computed tomography (CT) is commonly used in veterinary practice to evaluate dogs with suspected brain disease, however contrast resolution limitations and artifacts may reduce visualization of clinically important anatomic features. The purpose of this study was to develop an optimized CT protocol for evaluating the canine brain. The head of a 5-year-old Springer Spaniel with no neurological signs was imaged immediately following euthanasia using a 4-slice CT scanner and 282 protocols. Each protocol used a fixed tube voltage of 120 kVp and 10 cm display field of view. Other acquisition and reconstruction parameters were varied. For each protocol, four selected images of the brain were reconstructed, anonymized and saved in DICOM format. Three board-certified veterinary radiologists independently reviewed each of the four images for each protocol and recorded a numerical quality score for each image. The protocol yielding the lowest total numerical score was defined as the optimal protocol. There was overall agreement that the optimal protocol was the one with the following parameters: sequential mode, 300 mAs, 1 mm slice thickness, 1 s tube rotation time, medium image reconstruction algorithm and applied beam hardening correction. Sequential imaging provided optimal image resolution. The thin-sliced images provided a small blur due to partial volume artifacts. A high tube current resulted in a relatively low noise level. Use of a medium frequency image reconstruction algorithm provided optimal contrast resolution for brain tissue. Use of a proprietary beam hardening correction filter (Posterior Fossa Optimization) markedly reduced beam-hardening artifact.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1111/vru.12144

  5 / 1226306 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24467341
[Au] Autor:Young BD; Fosgate GT; Holmes SP; Wolff CA; Chen-Allen AV; Kent M; Platt SR; Savage MY; Schatzberg SJ; Levine JM
[Ad] Address:Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 77843.
[Ti] Title:Evaluation of standard magnetic resonance characteristics used to differentiate neoplastic, inflammatory, and vascular brain lesions in dogs.
[So] Source:Vet Radiol Ultrasound;55(4):399-406, 2014 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1740-8261
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging characteristics are commonly used to help predict intracranial disease categories in dogs, however, few large studies have objectively evaluated these characteristics. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate MR characteristics that have been used to differentiate neoplastic, inflammatory, and vascular intracranial diseases in a large, multi-institutional population of dogs. Medical records from three veterinary teaching hospitals were searched over a 6-year period for dogs that had diagnostic quality brain MR scans and histologically confirmed intracranial disease. Three examiners who were unaware of histologic diagnosis independently evaluated 19 MR lesion characteristics totaling 57 possible responses. A total of 75 dogs with histologically confirmed intracranial disease were included in analyses: 51 with neoplasia, 18 with inflammatory disease, and six with cerebrovascular disease. Only strong contrast enhancement was more common in neoplasia than other disease categories. A multivariable statistical model suggested that extra-axial origin, T2-FLAIR mixed intensity, and defined lesion margins were also predictive of neoplasia. Meningeal enhancement, irregular lesion shape, and multifocal location distinguished inflammatory diseases from the other disease categories. No MR characteristics distinguished vascular lesions and these appeared most similar to neoplasia. These results differed from a previous report describing seven MR characteristics that were predictive of neoplasia in dogs and cats. Findings from the current study indicated that the high performance of MR for diagnosing canine intracranial diseases might be due to evaluator recognition of combinations of MR characteristics vs. relying on any one MR characteristic alone.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1111/vru.12137

  6 / 1226306 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25045600
[Au] Autor:Jiménez AJ; Domínguez-Pinos MD; Guerra MM; Fernández-Llebrez P; Pérez-Fígares JM
[Ad] Address:Department of Cell Biology, Genetics, and Physiology; University of Malaga; Malaga, Spain....
[Ti] Title:Structure and function of the ependymal barrier and diseases associated with ependyma disruption.
[So] Source:Tissue Barriers;2:e28426, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:2168-8362
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The neuroepithelium is a germinal epithelium containing progenitor cells that produce almost all of the central nervous system cells, including the ependyma. The neuroepithelium and ependyma constitute barriers containing polarized cells covering the embryonic or mature brain ventricles, respectively; therefore, they separate the cerebrospinal fluid that fills cavities from the developing or mature brain parenchyma. As barriers, the neuroepithelium and ependyma play key roles in the central nervous system development processes and physiology. These roles depend on mechanisms related to cell polarity, sensory primary cilia, motile cilia, tight junctions, adherens junctions and gap junctions, machinery for endocytosis and molecule secretion, and water channels. Here, the role of both barriers related to the development of diseases, such as neural tube defects, ciliary dyskinesia, and hydrocephalus, is reviewed.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Da] Date of entry for processing:140721
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.4161/tisb.28426

  7 / 1226306 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24895226
[Au] Autor:Vieira A; Michels M; Florentino D; Lauriano AA; Danielski LG; Fortunato JJ; Barichello T; Felipe DP; Quevedo J; Petronilho F
[Ad] Address:Clinical and Experimental Pathophysiology Laboratory - FICEXP, Graduate Program in Health Sciences, Universidade do Sul de Santa Catarina (UNISUL), Tubarão, Santa Catarina, Brazil.
[Ti] Title:Increased on oxidative brain injury in the diabetic rats following sepsis.
[So] Source:Synapse;68(9):410-8, 2014 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1098-2396
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Diabetes has been the subject of recent research by increase susceptibility to infections, thus the aim of this study was to evaluate in animal model of diabetes induced by alloxan (ALX) and subjected to sepsis the parameters of oxidative stress on the brain. Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by ALX (150 mg/kg), and 15 days after, sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). The myeloperoxidase activity (MPO), nitrite/nitrate, oxidative damage parameters, and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were measured in the cerebellum, hippocampus, striatum, prefrontal, and cortex in 6, 12, and 24 h after CLP. The results showed the potentiation of diabetes with sepsis. We verified these potentiation on MPO levels in the cerebellum, hippocampus, and prefrontal and an increase of the nitrite/nitrate concentration in the hippocampus, striatum, prefrontal, and cortex in 24 h after sepsis surgery. To oxidative damage, we verified in 6 h an increase on lipid and protein damage parameters in the striatum and hippocampus in 24 h. When we associate sepsis and diabetes, the SOD and CAT activity not were altered. Thus, diabetes associated with sepsis exacerbates brain damage resulting from inflammation and oxidative stress in brain. Synapse, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1002/syn.21753

  8 / 1226306 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24889205
[Au] Autor:Jie L; Guohui J; Chen Y; Chen L; Li Z; Wang Z; Wang X
[Ad] Address:Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurology, Chongqing, 400016, China.
[Ti] Title:Altered expression of hypoxia-Inducible factor-1α participates in the epileptogenesis in animal models.
[So] Source:Synapse;68(9):402-9, 2014 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1098-2396
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Although epilepsy is a common neurological disorder, its mechanism(s) are still not completely understood. Hypoxia can lead to neuronal cell death and angiogenesis, and the same mechanisms were also found in epilepsy. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is an important transcription protein that regulates gene expression in the brain and other tissues in response to decreases in oxygen availability. However, little is known regarding the expression of HIF-1α in the epileptic brain and whether HIF-1α interventions affect the epileptic process. The aims of this study are to investigate the expression profile of HIF-1α in rat models and to explore the role of HIF-1α in epilepsy. We performed Western blots and immunofluorescence in a lithium-pilocarpine rat epilepsy model. To determine the role of HIF-1α in epilepsy, we used the HIF-1α agonist DMOG and inhibitor KC7F2 to detect changes in the animal behavior in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and lithium-pilocarpine epilepsy models. The expression of HIF-1α was significantly increased after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. DMOG significantly prolonged the latent period in the PTZ kindling model and decreased the rate of spontaneous recurrent seizures during the chronic stage in the lithium-pilocarpine model. Conversely, the inhibitor KC7F2 produced an opposite behavioral change. Interestingly, both KC7F2 and DMOG had no effect on the acute stage of pilocarpine model and PTZ convulsive model. Our study suggests that upregulated HIF-1α may be involved in the process of epileptogenesis but not in the acute stage of epilepsy. The modulation of HIF-1α may offer a novel therapeutic target in epilepsy. Synapse, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1002/syn.21752

  9 / 1226306 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24753016
[Au] Autor:Farhang S; Barar J; Fakhari A; Mesgariabbasi M; Khani S; Omidi Y; Farnam A
[Ad] Address:Clinical Psychiatry Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; Research Center for Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
[Ti] Title:Asymmetrical expression of BDNF and NTRK3 genes in frontoparietal cortex of stress-resilient rats in an animal model of depression.
[So] Source:Synapse;68(9):387-93, 2014 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1098-2396
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The current study is based on the "approach-withdrawal" theory of emotional regulation and lateralization of brain function in rodents, which has little been studied. The aim was to indentify asymmetry in hemispheric genes expression during depression. Depressive-like symptoms were induced in rats using chronic mild stress protocol. The sucrose consumption test was performed to identify the anhedonic and stress-resilient rats. After decapitation, RNA was extracted from frontotemporal cortex of both hemispheres of anhedonic and stress-resilient rats. The pattern of gene expression in these samples was compared with controls by real-time polymerase chain reaction. A linear mixed model analysis of variance was fitted to the data to estimate the effect of rat line. From the total of 30 rats in the experimental group, five rats were identified to be anhedonic and five were stress-resilient, according to the result of sucrose-consumption test. BDNF and NTRK-3 were expressed at significantly lower levels in the right hemisphere of anhedonic rats compared with stress-resilient rats. No significant difference was found between left hemispheres. Hemispheric asymmetry in the level of gene expression was only observed for the BDNF gene in stress-resilient rats, upregulated in right hemisphere compared with the left. Expression of NTRK3, HTR2A, COMT, and SERT was not lateralized. There was no significant asymmetry between hemispheres of anhedonic rats. This study supports the evidence for the role of genes responsible for neural plasticity in pathophysiology of depression, emphasizing probable hemispheric asymmetry at level of gene expression. Synapse, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1002/syn.21746

  10 / 1226306 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 24831540
[Au] Autor:Fang X; Huang Z; Zhou W; Wu Q; Sloan AE; Ouyang G; McLendon RE; Yu JS; Rich JN; Bao S
[Ad] Address:Department of Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.
[Ti] Title:The Zinc Finger Transcription Factor ZFX Is Required for Maintaining the Tumorigenic Potential of Glioblastoma Stem Cells.
[So] Source:Stem Cells;32(8):2033-47, 2014 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1549-4918
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Glioblastomas are highly lethal brain tumors containing tumor-propagating glioma stem cells (GSCs). The molecular mechanisms underlying the maintenance of the GSC phenotype are not fully defined. Here we demonstrate that the zinc finger and X-linked transcription factor (ZFX) maintains GSC self-renewal and tumorigenic potential by upregulating c-Myc expression. ZFX is differentially expressed in GSCs relative to non-stem glioma cells and neural progenitor cells. Disrupting ZFX by shRNA reduced c-Myc expression and potently inhibited GSC self-renewal and tumor growth. Ectopic expression of c-Myc to its endogenous level rescued the effects caused by ZFX disruption, supporting that ZFX controls GSC properties through c-Myc. Furthermore, ZFX binds to a specific sequence (GGGCCCCG) on the human c-Myc promoter to upregulate c-Myc expression. These data demonstrate that ZFX functions as a critical upstream regulator of c-Myc and plays essential roles in the maintenance of the GSC phenotype. This study also supports that c-Myc is a dominant driver linking self-renewal to malignancy. Stem Cells 2014;32:2033-2047.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1407
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1002/stem.1730


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