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[PMID]: 25769572
[Au] Autor:Cao S; Yan B; Lu Y; Zhang G; Li J; Guo W; Zhao Y; Zhang S
[Ad] Address:Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, China; Key Laboratory of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery & Digestive Organ Transplantation of Henan Province, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Z...
[Ti] Title:C/EBP Homologous Protein-Mediated Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Related Renal Apoptosis Is Involved in Rats With Brain Death.
[So] Source:Transplant Proc;47(2):354-8, 2015 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1873-2623
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) is an important marker in endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS)-associated cell apoptosis. The role of CHOP-induced renal apoptosis remains unclear in rats with brain death (BD). The present study aims to investigate the possible implication of CHOP-mediated, ERS-related BD-induced apoptosis in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into 4 experimental groups. We examined activation of ERS and apoptosis-related protein expression using Western blot and immunohistochemical staining. In addition, apoptosis is assessed by terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay. RESULTS: Kidneys harvested after BD show increased ERS- and apoptosis-related protein markers compared with kidneys of non-BD rats. Salubrinal (Sal) significantly increased levels of p-eIF2a and decreased the activity of CHOP at 6 hours after BD compared with vehicle-treated dimethylsulfoxide. CONCLUSIONS: Treating the BD donor with Sal influences renal apoptosis compared with vehicle-treated BD rats. Our results indicate that targeting the CHOP pathway provides a promising therapeutic approach for kidney injury associated with donor BD.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1503
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  2 / 1267068 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25769558
[Au] Autor:Mohite PN; Patil NP; Sabashnikov A; Zych B; García Sáez D; Popov AF; De Robertis F; Bahrami T; Amrani M; Reed A; Carby M; Simon AR
[Ad] Address:Department of Cardiothoracic Transplantation and Mechanical Circulatory Support, Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Foundation Trust, Harefield Hospital, Harefield, Middlesex, United Kingdom. Electronic address: p.mohite@rbht.nhs.uk....
[Ti] Title:"Hanging donors": are we still skeptical about the lungs?
[So] Source:Transplant Proc;47(2):261-6, 2015 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1873-2623
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Suicidal hanging may cause compression of the neck blood vessels and the airway leading, to hypoxic brain damage caused by cerebral ischemia and respiratory distress. Hanging engenders global tissue hypoxia, particularly affecting the lungs as the result of pulmonary edema and barotrauma. There is scant evidence about outcomes of transplantation with the use of lungs from "hanging donors." This study evaluates the outcomes of lung transplantations (LTx) that use organs from this group. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed lung "organ offers" and LTx at our center between January 2007 and November 2013. The outcomes of LTx with lungs from donors with hanging as the cause of death ("hanging group") were compared with those with donors having other causes of death (control group), with the use of an unadjusted model as well as propensity score matching. RESULTS: LTx (n = 302) were performed during this period and were grouped on the basis of the cause of death in donors: the hanging group (n = 8) and the control group (n = 294). No statistically significant difference was found in the donor characteristics except for the incidence of cardiac arrest, which was significantly higher in hanging donors. Preoperative characteristics in recipients in both groups were comparable. Intra-operative and post-LTx variables including PaO2/FiO2 ratios, duration of mechanical ventilation, and intensive care unit and hospital stays were comparable. One-year and 3-year survival rates were also comparable in both groups. Two recipients in the hanging group required extracorporeal life support after LTx and could not survive. CONCLUSIONS: Suicidal hanging is a relatively rare cause of death for potential organ donors. Because it does not appear to negatively affect outcomes after LTx, it should not be considered per se a contraindication for lung donation. A word of caution is necessary until we gather larger experience with lungs from hanging donors.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1503
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  3 / 1267068 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25769557
[Au] Autor:Bedi KK; Hakeem AR; Dave R; Lewington A; Sanfey H; Ahmad N
[Ad] Address:School of Medicine, University of Leeds, Leeds, West Yorkshire, United Kingdom....
[Ti] Title:Survey of the knowledge, perception, and attitude of medical students at the university of leeds toward organ donation and transplantation.
[So] Source:Transplant Proc;47(2):247-60, 2015 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1873-2623
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: The shortage of organ donors is the key rate-limiting factor for organ transplantation in the United Kingdom. Many strategies have been proposed to increase donation; one strategy aims to improve awareness of organ donation and transplantation (ODT) among medical students. This survey seeks to investigate the knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes of the medical students in the United Kingdom toward ODT and the curriculum content. METHODS: A 32-item online questionnaire was distributed to 957 medical students at the University of Leeds (October to December 2012). RESULTS: There were 216 (22.6%) respondents. Students were aware of kidney, heart, and liver transplantation (91.6%, 88.8%, and 86.5%). Awareness of small intestine (36.7%) and islet of Langerhans (33.0%) transplantation was poor. Students understood the term "brain stem death" (82.3%); however, they lacked understanding of criteria used for brain stem death testing (75.8%). Their perceptions and attitudes were favorable toward ODT; 43.3% of the students were unhappy with their current knowledge, and 87.6% of the students agree that ODT teaching should be included in the curriculum. CONCLUSIONS: Students have a basic understanding of ODT but lack detailed knowledge. They accept its importance and desire further teaching to supplement their current knowledge to be able to understand the issues related to ODT.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1503
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

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[PMID]: 25445633
[Au] Autor:Almeida LE; Kamimura S; Kenyon N; Khaibullina A; Wang L; de Souza Batista CM; Quezado ZM
[Ad] Address:The Sheikh Zayed Institute for Pediatric Surgical Innovation, Division of Pain Medicine, Children's National Medical Center, School of Medicine and Health Sciences George Washington University, Washington, DC 20010, USA....
[Ti] Title:Validation of a method to directly and specifically measure nitrite in biological matrices.
[So] Source:Nitric Oxide;45:54-64, 2015 Feb 15.
[Is] ISSN:1089-8611
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The bioactivity of nitric oxide (NO) is influenced by chemical species generated through reactions with proteins, lipids, metals, and its conversion to nitrite and nitrate. A better understanding of the functions played by each of these species could be achieved by developing selective assays able of distinguishing nitrite from other NO species. Nagababu and Rifkind developed a method using acetic and ascorbic acids to measure nitrite-derived NO in plasma. Here, we adapted, optimized, and validated this method to assay nitrite in tissues. The method yielded linear measurements over 1-300 pmol of nitrite and was validated for tissue preserved in a nitrite stabilization solution composed of potassium ferricyanide, N-ethylmaleimide and NP-40. When samples were processed with chloroform, but not with methanol, ethanol, acetic acid or acetonitrile, reliable and reproducible nitrite measurements in up to 20 sample replicates were obtained. The method's accuracy in tissue was ≈90% and in plasma 99.9%. In mice, during basal conditions, brain, heart, lung, liver, spleen and kidney cortex had similar nitrite levels. In addition, nitrite tissue levels were similar regardless of when organs were processed: immediately upon collection, kept in stabilization solution for later analysis or frozen and later processed. After ip nitrite injections, rapidly changing nitrite concentrations in tissue and plasma could be measured and were shown to change in significantly distinct patterns. This validated method could be valuable for investigations of nitrite biology in conditions such as sickle cell disease, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes, where nitrite is thought to play a role.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1503
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  5 / 1267068 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25769266
[Au] Autor:Krajmalnik-Brown R; Lozupone C; Kang DW; Adams JB
[Ad] Address:Swette Center for Environmental Biotechnology, Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA....
[Ti] Title:Gut bacteria in children with autism spectrum disorders: challenges and promise of studying how a complex community influences a complex disease.
[So] Source:Microb Ecol Health Dis;26:26914, 2015.
[Is] ISSN:0891-060X
[Cp] Country of publication:Sweden
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Recent studies suggest a role for the microbiota in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), potentially arising from their role in modulating the immune system and gastrointestinal (GI) function or from gut-brain interactions dependent or independent from the immune system. GI problems such as chronic constipation and/or diarrhea are common in children with ASD, and significantly worsen their behavior and their quality of life. Here we first summarize previously published data supporting that GI dysfunction is common in individuals with ASD and the role of the microbiota in ASD. Second, by comparing with other publically available microbiome datasets, we provide some evidence that the shifted microbiota can be a result of westernization and that this shift could also be framing an altered immune system. Third, we explore the possibility that gut-brain interactions could also be a direct result of microbially produced metabolites.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1503
[Da] Date of entry for processing:150315
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3402/mehd.v26.26914

  6 / 1267068 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25749656
[Au] Autor:Blakely T; Atkinson J; Kvizhinadze G; Wilson N; Davies A; Clarke P
[Ad] Address:*Department of Public Health, University of Otago, Wellington, New Zealand †Centre for Health Policy, Programs and Economics School of Population Health, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia.
[Ti] Title:Patterns of cancer care costs in a country with detailed individual data.
[So] Source:Med Care;53(4):302-9, 2015 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1537-1948
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE: To determine health system expenditure on cancers by time since diagnosis using data for an entire country. METHODS: New Zealand cancer registry data was linked to hospitalization, pharmaceutical, outpatient, general practice, laboratory, and other datasets, with costs ascribed to each event occurring in 2006-2011. "Excess" cancer costs were estimated by subtracting "expected costs" for citizens without cancer from the "total cost" for cancer patients ($2011 inflation-adjusted). Gamma regressions were used to estimate costs per person-month. RESULTS: For first adult cancer diagnosed that the excess cost per person was between US$3400 and US$4300 in the first month postdiagnosis (varied by sex and age), fell to US$50-US$150 per month at 2 or more years postdiagnosis (excluding those within a year of death), but increased again if dying from their cancer (US$3800-US$8300 in the last month of life). Such patterns varied by cancer, for example, in the first month postdiagnosis for 65 year olds it varied 20-fold from US$800 for prostate to US$15,900 for brain cancer.Per diagnosed case, total excess costs varied from US$8000 (melanoma) to US$98,000 (bone and connective tissue).Excess cancer costs made up 6.5% of total Vote:Health expenditure in 2010-2011, with colorectal (14.7%), breast (14.4%) being the top 2 contributors, and prostate, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, leukemia, and lung each contributing about 6%. CONCLUSIONS: Costs vary substantially by time since diagnosis and cancer type. The results and regression equations reported in this paper can be used in modeling requiring cancer costs by time since diagnosis and proximity to death.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1503
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1097/MLR.0000000000000330

  7 / 1267068 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25665716
[Au] Autor:Pantic I; Dacic S; Brkic P; Lavrnja I; Jovanovic T; Pantic S; Pekovic S
[Ad] Address:Institute of Medical Physiology, School of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Visegradska 26/II, RS-11129, Belgrade, Serbia. Electronic address: igor.pantic@mfub.bg.ac.rs....
[Ti] Title:Discriminatory ability of fractal and grey level co-occurrence matrix methods in structural analysis of hippocampus layers.
[So] Source:J Theor Biol;370:151-6, 2015 Apr 7.
[Is] ISSN:1095-8541
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Fractal and grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) analysis represent two mathematical computer-assisted algorithms that are today thought to be able to accurately detect and quantify changes in tissue architecture during various physiological and pathological processes. However, despite their numerous applications in histology and pathology, their sensitivity, specificity and validity regarding evaluation of brain tissue remain unclear. In this article we present the results indicating that certain parameters of fractal and GLCM analysis have high discriminatory ability in distinguishing two morphologically similar regions of rat hippocampus: stratum lacunosum-moleculare and stratum radiatum. Fractal and GLCM algorithms were performed on a total of 240 thionine-stained hippocampus micrographs of 12 male Wistar albino rats. 120 digital micrographs represented stratum lacunosum-moleculare, and another 120 stratum radiatum. For each image, 7 parameters were calculated: fractal dimension, lacunarity, GLCM angular second moment, GLCM contrast, inverse difference moment, GLCM correlation, and GLCM variance. GLCM variance (VAR) resulted in the largest area under the Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.96, demonstrating an outstanding discriminatory power in analysis of stratum lacunosum-moleculare (average VAR equaled 478.1±179.8) and stratum radiatum (average VAR of 145.9±59.2, p<0.0001). For the criterion VAR≤227.5, sensitivity and specificity were 90% and 86.7%, respectively. GLCM correlation as a parameter also produced large area under the ROC curve of 0.95. Our results are in accordance with the findings of our previous study regarding brain white mass fractal and textural analysis. GLCM algorithm as an image analysis method has potentially high applicability in structural analysis of brain tissue cytoarcitecture.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1503
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  8 / 1267068 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25661071
[Au] Autor:Fan D; Wang Q
[Ad] Address:Department of Dynamics and Control, Beihang University, Beijing 100191, China.
[Ti] Title:Improving desynchronization of parkinsonian neuronal network via triplet-structure coordinated reset stimulation.
[So] Source:J Theor Biol;370:157-70, 2015 Apr 7.
[Is] ISSN:1095-8541
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:We investigate how the triplet-structure coordinated reset stimulations (CRS), which acts on the GPe, STN and GPi within the basal ganglia-thalamocortical motor circuit, can destabilize the strong synchronous state and improve the reliability of thalamic relay in the parkinsonian network. It is shown that compared with the permanent (1:0 ON-OFF) CRS or the classic deep brain stimulation paradigm, the periodic m:n ON-OFF CRS (i.e., m ON-cycles stimulation followed by n OFF-cycles stimulation) can significantly desynchronize the neuronal network of Parkinson׳s disease, and evidently improve the fidelity of thalamic relay. In addition, the CRS-induced desynchronization can be greatly enhanced when the STN subpopulation within the pathologic network is subjected to the synaptic plasticity. Furthermore, the desynchronization and reliability can also be further improved as the closed-loop CRS strategy is introduced. The obtained results can be helpful for us to understand the pathophysiology mechanism of Parkinson׳s disease, even though the feasibility of CRS still needs to be explored in clinic.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1503
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  9 / 1267068 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25091365
[Au] Autor:Sutter R; Kaplan PW
[Ad] Address:Division of Neurosciences Critical Care, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland, USA Clinic of Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland Department of Neurology, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
[Ti] Title:What to see when you are looking at confusion: a review of the neuroimaging of acute encephalopathy.
[So] Source:J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry;86(4):446-59, 2015 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1468-330X
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Acute encephalopathy is a clinical conundrum in neurocritical care facing physicians with diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Encephalopathy arises from several concurrent causes, and delayed diagnosis adds to its grim prognosis. Diagnosis is reached by melding clinical, neurophysiological and biochemical features with various neuroimaging studies. We aimed to compile the pathophysiology of acute encephalopathies in adults, and the contribution of cerebral CT, MRI, MR spectroscopy (MRS), positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission CT (SPECT) to early diagnosis, treatment and prognostication. Reports from 1990 to 2013 were identified. Therefore, reference lists were searched to identify additional publications. Encephalopathy syndromes best studied by neuroimaging emerge from hypoxic-ischaemic injury, sepsis, metabolic derangements, autoimmune diseases, infections and rapidly evolving dementias. Typical and pathognomonic neuroimaging patterns are presented. Cerebral imaging constitutes an important component of diagnosis, management and prognosis of acute encephalopathy. Its respective contribution is dominated by rapid exclusion of acute cerebral lesions and further varies greatly depending on the underlying aetiology and the range of possible differential diagnoses. CT has been well studied, but is largely insensitive, while MRI appears to be the most helpful in the evaluation of encephalopathies. MRS may provide supplementary biochemical information and determines spectral changes in the affected brain tissue. The less frequently used PET and SPECT may delineate areas of high or low metabolic activity or cerebral blood flow. However, publications of MRS, PET and SPECT are limited only providing anecdotal evidence of their usefulness and sensitivity.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1503
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1136/jnnp-2014-308216

  10 / 1267068 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25091363
[Au] Autor:Absoud M; Lim MJ; Appleton R; Jacob A; Kitley J; Leite MI; Pike MG; Vincent A; Wassmer E; Waters P; Woodhall M; Hemingway C; Palace J
[Ad] Address:Department of Children's Neurosciences, Evelina Children's Hospital at Guy's & St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, Kings Health Partners Academic Health Science Centre, London, UK....
[Ti] Title:Paediatric neuromyelitis optica: clinical, MRI of the brain and prognostic features.
[So] Source:J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry;86(4):470-2, 2015 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1468-330X
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO) is a severe and rare inflammatory condition, where relapses are predictive of disability. METHODS: We describe a national paediatric NMO cohort's clinical, MRI, outcome, and prognostic features in relation to Aquaporin-4 antibody (AQP4-Ab) status, and compared to a non NMO control cohort. OBSERVATIONS: Twenty NMO cases (females=90%; AQP4-Ab positive=60%; median age=10.5yrs) with median follow-up=6.1yrs were compared to a national cohort sample of known sequential AQP4-Ab negative first episode CNS acquired demyelination cases (n=29; females=55%; all AQP4-Ab negative; median age=13.6yrs). At presentation, 40% NMO cases had unilateral optic neuritis (ON); 20% bilateral ON; 15% transverse myelitis (TM); 15% simultaneous TM&ON; 10% Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. At follow up, 55% had a clinical demyelinating episode involving the brain; 30% of cases had abnormal brain MRI at onset and 75% by follow up. NMO brain scan lesions compared to controls were large (>2 cm), acute lesions largely resolved on repeat imaging, and often showed T1 hypointense lesions. Mean time to relapse=0.76yrs (95% CI 0.43-1.1yrs) for AQP4-Ab positive vs 2.4yrs in AQP4-Ab negative cases (95% CI 1.1-3.6yrs). In AQP4-Ab positive cases, 10/12 had visual acuity<6/60 Snellen in ≥1 eye (0/8 AQP4-Ab negative), and 3 AQP4-Ab negative cases were wheelchair-dependent. CONCLUSIONS: In children, NMO is associated with early recurrence and visual impairment in AQP4-Ab positivity and physical disability in AP4-Ab negative relapsing cases. Distinct MRI changes appear more commonly and earlier compared to adult NMO. Early AQP4-Ab testing may allow prompt immunomodulatory treatment to minimise disability.
[Pt] Publication type:LETTER
[Em] Entry month:1503
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1136/jnnp-2014-308550


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