Database : MEDLINE
Search on : brain [Words]
References found : 1363517 [refine]
Displaying: 1 .. 10   in format [Detailed]

page 1 of 136352 go to page                         

  1 / 1363517 MEDLINE  
              next record last record
select
to print
Photocopy
Full text

[PMID]: 27356236
[Au] Autor:Pang AP; Sugai C; Maunakea AK
[Ti] Title:High-throughput sequencing offers new insights into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine.
[So] Source:Biomol Concepts;7(3):169-78, 2016 Jun 1.
[Is] ISSN:1868-503X
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Chemical modifications of DNA comprise epigenetic mechanisms that contribute to the maintenance of cellular activities and memory. Although the function of 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) has been extensively studied, little is known about the function(s) of relatively rarer and underappreciated cytosine modifications including 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC). The discovery that ten-eleven translocation (Tet) proteins mediate conversion of 5-mC to 5-hmC, and other oxidation derivatives, sparked renewed interest to understand the biological role of 5-hmC. Studies examining total 5-hmC levels revealed the highly dynamic yet tissue-specific nature of this modification, implicating a role in epigenetic regulation and development. Intriguingly, 5-hmC levels are highest during early development and in the brain where abnormal patterns of 5-hmC have been observed in disease conditions. Thus, 5-hmC adds to the growing list of epigenetic modifications with potential utility in clinical applications and warrants further investigation. This review discusses the emerging functional roles of 5-hmC in normal and disease states, focusing primarily on insights provided by recent studies exploring the genome-wide distribution of this modification in mammals.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1607
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  2 / 1363517 MEDLINE  
              first record previous record next record last record
select
to print
Photocopy
Full text

[PMID]: 27199455
[Au] Autor:Stump M; Guo DF; Lu KT; Mukohda M; Liu X; Rahmouni K; Sigmund CD
[Ad] Address:Medical Scientist Training Program, Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa; Department of Pharmacology, Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa; and....
[Ti] Title:Effect of selective expression of dominant-negative PPARγ in pro-opiomelanocortin neurons on the control of energy balance.
[So] Source:Physiol Genomics;48(7):491-501, 2016 Jul 1.
[Is] ISSN:1531-2267
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), a master regulator of adipogenesis, was recently shown to affect energy homeostasis through its actions in the brain. Deletion of PPARγ in mouse brain, and specifically in the pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons, results in resistance to diet-induced obesity. To study the mechanisms by which PPARγ in POMC neurons controls energy balance, we constructed a Cre-recombinase-dependent conditionally activatable transgene expressing either wild-type (WT) or dominant-negative (P467L) PPARγ and the tdTomato reporter. Inducible expression of both forms of PPARγ was validated in cells in culture, in liver of mice infected with an adenovirus expressing Cre-recombinase (AdCre), and in the brain of mice expressing Cre-recombinase either in all neurons (NES(Cre)/PPARγ-P467L) or selectively in POMC neurons (POMC(Cre)/PPARγ-P467L). Whereas POMC(Cre)/PPARγ-P467L mice exhibited a normal pattern of weight gain when fed 60% high-fat diet, they exhibited increased weight gain and fat mass accumulation in response to a 10% fat isocaloric-matched control diet. POMC(Cre)/PPARγ-P467L mice were leptin sensitive on control diet but became leptin resistant when fed 60% high-fat diet. There was no difference in body weight between POMC(Cre)/PPARγ-WT mice and controls in response to 60% high-fat diet. However, POMC(Cre)/PPARγ-WT, but not POMC(Cre)/PPARγ-P467L, mice increased body weight in response to rosiglitazone, a PPARγ agonist. These observations support the concept that alterations in PPARγ-driven mechanisms in POMC neurons can play a role in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis under certain dietary conditions.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1607
[Cu] Class update date: 160702
[Lr] Last revision date:160702
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1152/physiolgenomics.00032.2016

  3 / 1363517 MEDLINE  
              first record previous record next record last record
select
to print
Photocopy
Full text

[PMID]: 27142685
[Au] Autor:Larpthaveesarp A; Georgevits M; Ferriero DM; Gonzalez FF
[Ad] Address:Department of Pediatrics, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, United States....
[Ti] Title:Delayed erythropoietin therapy improves histological and behavioral outcomes after transient neonatal stroke.
[So] Source:Neurobiol Dis;93:57-63, 2016 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1095-953X
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Stroke is a major cause of neonatal morbidity, often with delayed diagnosis and with no accepted therapeutic options. The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficacy of delayed initiation of multiple dose erythropoietin (EPO) therapy in improving histological and behavioral outcomes after early transient ischemic stroke. METHODS: 32 postnatal day 10 (P10) Sprague-Dawley rats underwent sham surgery or transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) for 3h, resulting in injury involving the striatum and parieto-temporal cortex. EPO (1000U/kg per dose3 doses) or vehicle was administered intraperitoneally starting one week after tMCAO (at P17, P20, and P23). At four weeks after tMCAO, sensorimotor function was assessed in these four groups (6 vehicle-sham, 6 EPO-sham, 10 vehicle-tMCAO and 10 EPO-tMCAO) with forepaw preference in cylinder rearing trials. Brains were then harvested for hemispheric volume and Western blot analysis. RESULTS: EPO-tMCAO animals had significant improvement in forepaw symmetry in cylinder rearing trials compared to vehicle-tMCAO animals, and did not differ from sham animals. There was also significant preservation of hemispheric brain volume in EPO-tMCAO compared to vehicle-tMCAO animals. No differences in ongoing cell death at P17 or P24 were noted by spectrin cleavage in either EPO-tMCAO or vehicle-tMCAO groups. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that delayed EPO therapy improves both behavioral and histological outcomes at one month following transient neonatal stroke, and may provide a late treatment alternative for early brain injury.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1607
[Cu] Class update date: 160702
[Lr] Last revision date:160702
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  4 / 1363517 MEDLINE  
              first record previous record next record last record
select
to print
Photocopy
Full text

[PMID]: 27355881
[Au] Autor:Devine KA; Bukowski WM; Sahler OJ; Ohman-Strickland P; Smith TH; Lown EA; Patenaude AF; Korones DN; Noll RB
[Ad] Address:*Department of Medicine, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ; Department of Psychology, Concordia University, Montreal, QC, Canada; Department of Pediatrics, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY; School of Public Health, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ; ‖Department of Social Behavioral Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA; Department of Psychiatry, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA; **Department of Pediatrics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA.
[Ti] Title:Social Competence in Childhood Brain Tumor Survivors: Feasibility and Preliminary Outcomes of a Peer-Mediated Intervention.
[So] Source:J Dev Behav Pediatr;37(6):475-82, 2016 Jul-Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1536-7312
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the acceptability, feasibility, and preliminary outcomes of a peer-mediated intervention to improve social competence of brain tumor survivors and classmates. METHOD: Twelve childhood brain tumor survivors and 217 classroom peers in intervention (n = 8) or comparison (n = 4) classrooms completed measures of social acceptance and reputation at 2 time points in the year. The intervention (5-8 sessions over 4-6 weeks) taught peer leaders skills for engaging classmates. Individual and classroom outcomes were analyzed with analysis of covariance. RESULTS: Recruitment rates of families of brain tumor survivors (81%) and schools (100%) were adequate. Peer leaders reported satisfaction with the intervention. Preliminary outcome data trended toward some benefit in increasing the number of friend nominations for survivors of brain tumors but no changes in other peer-reported metrics. Preliminary results also suggested some positive effects on classroom levels of victimization and rejection. CONCLUSION: A peer-mediated intervention was acceptable to families of brain tumor survivors and feasible to implement in schools. Findings warrant a larger trial to evaluate improvements for children with brain tumors and their peers.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1607
[Cu] Class update date: 160702
[Lr] Last revision date:160702
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1097/DBP.0000000000000315

  5 / 1363517 MEDLINE  
              first record previous record next record last record
select
to print
Photocopy
Full text

[PMID]: 27322058
[Au] Autor:Fan X
[Ti] Title:γ-Secretase inhibitor-resistant glioblastoma stem cells require RBPJ to propagate.
[So] Source:J Clin Invest;126(7):2415-8, 2016 Jul 1.
[Is] ISSN:1558-8238
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Targeting glioblastoma stem cells with γ-secretase inhibitors (GSIs) disrupts the Notch pathway and has shown some benefit in both pre-clinical models and in patients during phase I/II clinical trials. However, it is largely unknown why some glioblastoma (GBM) does not respond to GSI treatment. In this issue of the JCI, Xie et al. determined that GSI-resistant brain tumor-initiating cells (BTICs) from GBM express a higher level of the gene RBPJ, which encodes a mediator of canonical Notch signaling, compared to non-BTICs. Knockdown of RBPJ in BTICs decreased propagation in vitro and in vivo by inducing apoptosis. Interestingly, RBPJ was shown to regulate a different transcription program than Notch in BTICs by binding CDK9, thereby affecting Pol II-regulated transcript elongation. Targeting CDK9 or c-MYC, an upstream regulator of RBPJ, with small molecules also decreased BTIC propagation, and prolonged survival in mice bearing orthotopic GBM xenografts. This study not only provides a mechanism for GSI treatment resistance, but also identifies two potential therapeutic strategies to target GSI-resistant BTICs.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1607
[Cu] Class update date: 160702
[Lr] Last revision date:160702
[Js] Journal subset:AIM; IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  6 / 1363517 MEDLINE  
              first record previous record next record last record
select
to print
Photocopy
Full text

[PMID]: 27062552
[Au] Autor:Stevens JS; Ely TD; Sawamura T; Guzman D; Bradley B; Ressler KJ; Jovanovic T
[Ad] Address:Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia....
[Ti] Title:CHILDHOOD MALTREATMENT PREDICTS REDUCED INHIBITION-RELATED ACTIVITY IN THE ROSTRAL ANTERIOR CINGULATE IN PTSD, BUT NOT TRAUMA-EXPOSED CONTROLS.
[So] Source:Depress Anxiety;33(7):614-22, 2016 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1520-6394
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: A deficit in the ability to inhibit fear has been proposed as a biomarker of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Previous research indicates that individuals with PTSD show reduced inhibition-related activation in rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC). The goal of the current study was to investigate differential influences of an early environmental risk factor for PTSD-childhood maltreatment-on inhibition-related brain function in individuals with PTSD versus trauma-exposed controls. METHODS: Individuals with PTSD (n = 37) and trauma-exposed controls (n = 53) were recruited from the primary care waiting rooms of an urban public hospital in Atlanta, GA. Participants completed an inhibition task during fMRI, and reported childhood and adult traumatic experiences. The groups were matched for adult and child trauma load. RESULTS: We observed an interaction between childhood maltreatment severity and PTSD status in the rACC (P < .05, corrected), such that maltreatment was negatively associated with inhibition-related rACC activation in the PTSD group, but did not influence rACC activation in the TC group. Rostral ACC activation was associated with inhibition-related task performance in the TC group but not the PTSD group, suggesting a possible contribution to stress resilience. CONCLUSIONS: Findings highlight individual differences in neural function following childhood trauma, and point to inhibition-related activation in rostral ACC as a risk factor for PTSD.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1607
[Cu] Class update date: 160702
[Lr] Last revision date:160702
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1002/da.22506

  7 / 1363517 MEDLINE  
              first record previous record next record last record
select
to print
Photocopy
Full text

[PMID]: 27238020
[Au] Autor:Williams EK; Chang RB; Strochlic DE; Umans BD; Lowell BB; Liberles SD
[Ad] Address:Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA....
[Ti] Title:Sensory Neurons that Detect Stretch and Nutrients in the Digestive System.
[So] Source:Cell;166(1):209-21, 2016 Jun 30.
[Is] ISSN:1097-4172
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Neural inputs from internal organs are essential for normal autonomic function. The vagus nerve is a key body-brain connection that monitors the digestive, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems. Within the gastrointestinal tract, vagal sensory neurons detect gut hormones and organ distension. Here, we investigate the molecular diversity of vagal sensory neurons and their roles in sensing gastrointestinal inputs. Genetic approaches allowed targeted investigation of gut-to-brain afferents involved in homeostatic responses to ingested nutrients (GPR65 neurons) and mechanical distension of the stomach and intestine (GLP1R neurons). Optogenetics, invivo ganglion imaging, and genetically guided anatomical mapping provide direct links between neuron identity, peripheral anatomy, central anatomy, conduction velocity, response properties invitro and invivo, and physiological function. These studies clarify the roles of vagal afferents in mediating particular gut hormone responses. Moreover, genetic control over gut-to-brain neurons provides a molecular framework for understanding neural control of gastrointestinal physiology.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1607
[Cu] Class update date: 160702
[Lr] Last revision date:160702
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  8 / 1363517 MEDLINE  
              first record previous record next record last record
select
to print
Photocopy
Full text

[PMID]: 27122368
[Au] Autor:Santollo J; Marshall A; Curtis KS; Speth RC; Clark SD; Daniels D
[Ad] Address:Department of Psychology, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, New York;...
[Ti] Title:Divergent effects of ERα and ER on fluid intake by female rats are not dependent on concomitant changes in AT1R expression or body weight.
[So] Source:Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol;311(1):R14-23, 2016 Jul 1.
[Is] ISSN:1522-1490
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Estradiol (E2) decreases both water and saline intakes by female rats. The ERα and ER subtypes are expressed in areas of the brain that control fluid intake; however, the role that these receptors play in E2's antidipsogenic and antinatriorexigenic effects have not been examined. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that activation of ERα and ER decreases water and saline intakes by female rats. We found a divergence in E2's inhibitory effect on intake: activation of ERα decreased water intake, whereas activation of ER decreased saline intake. E2 decreases expression of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R), a receptor with known relevance to water and salt intakes, in multiple areas of the brain where ERα and ER are differentially expressed. Therefore, we tested for agonist-induced changes in AT1R mRNA expression by RT-PCR and protein expression by analyzing receptor binding to test the hypothesis that the divergent effects of these ER subtypes are mediated by region-specific changes in AT1R expression. Although we found no changes in AT1R mRNA or binding in areas of the brain known to control fluid intake associated with agonist treatment, the experimental results replicate and extend previous findings that body weight changes mediate alterations in AT1R expression in distinct brain regions. Together, the results reveal selective effects of ER subtypes on ingestive behaviors, advancing our understanding of E2's inhibitory role in the controls of fluid intake by female rats.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1607
[Cu] Class update date: 160702
[Lr] Last revision date:160702
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1152/ajpregu.00102.2016

  9 / 1363517 MEDLINE  
              first record previous record next record last record
select
to print
Photocopy
Full text

[PMID]: 27254086
[Au] Autor:Jha SC; Meltzer-Brody S; Steiner RJ; Cornea E; Woolson S; Ahn M; Verde AR; Hamer RM; Zhu H; Styner M; Gilmore JH; Knickmeyer RC
[Ad] Address:Curriculum in Neurobiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA....
[Ti] Title:Antenatal depression, treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and neonatal brain structure: A propensity-matched cohort study.
[So] Source:Psychiatry Res;253:43-53, 2016 Jul 30.
[Is] ISSN:1872-7123
[Cp] Country of publication:Ireland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The aim of this propensity-matched cohort study was to evaluate the impact of prenatal SSRI exposure and a history of maternal depression on neonatal brain volumes and white matter microstructure. SSRI-exposed neonates (n=27) were matched to children of mothers with no history of depression or SSRI use (n=54). Additionally, neonates of mothers with a history of depression, but no prenatal SSRI exposure (n=41), were matched to children of mothers with no history of depression or SSRI use (n=82). Structural magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion weighted imaging scans were acquired with a 3T Siemens Allegra scanner. Global tissue volumes were characterized using an automatic, atlas-moderated expectation maximization segmentation tool. Local differences in gray matter volumes were examined using deformation-based morphometry. Quantitative tractography was performed using an adaptation of the UNC-Utah NA-MIC DTI framework. SSRI-exposed neonates exhibited widespread changes in white matter microstructure compared to matched controls. Children exposed to a history of maternal depression but no SSRIs showed no significant differences in brain development compared to matched controls. No significant differences were found in global or regional tissue volumes. Additional research is needed to clarify whether SSRIs directly alter white matter development or whether this relationship is mediated by depressive symptoms during pregnancy.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1607
[Cu] Class update date: 160702
[Lr] Last revision date:160702
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  10 / 1363517 MEDLINE  
              first record previous record
select
to print
Photocopy
Full text

[PMID]: 26874387
[Au] Autor:Wan SH; McKie PM; Schirger JA; Slusser JP; Hodge DO; Redfield MM; Burnett JC; Chen HH
[Ad] Address:Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, Minnesota; Cardiorenal Research Laboratory, Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, Minnesota....
[Ti] Title:Chronic Peptide Therapy With B-Type Natriuretic Peptide in Patients With Pre-Clinical Diastolic Dysfunction (StageBHeart Failure).
[So] Source:JACC Heart Fail;4(7):539-47, 2016 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:2213-1787
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:OBJECTIVES: This study determined whether there is development of tachyphylaxis to enhancement of cardiorenal response to acute volume loading (AVL) with B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) after 12-week, twice-daily subcutaneous BNP administration in patients with preclinical diastolic dysfunction (PDD). BACKGROUND: PDD is characterized by normal systolic function and moderate or severe diastolic dysfunction but no symptoms of heart failure (HF). Impairment in cardiorenal endocrine response to stress by AVL exists in PDD and is corrected by acute administration of subcutaneous BNP. METHODS: A double-blinded, placebo-controlled proof-of-concept study was conducted to compare 12 weeks of twice daily subcutaneous BNP, 10 g/kg (n = 24), versus placebo (n = 12) in PDD. Subjects underwent 2 study visits, at baseline and after 12 weeks. At each study visit, echocardiography, renal, and neurohumoral assessments were performed before and after intravascular AVL. RESULTS: Among those with PDD, there was a statistically significant improvement in diastolic function after 12 weeks of BNP, as measured by a decrease in the Doppler E/e' ratio (where E is early mitral inflow velocity and e' is mitral annulus early diastolic motion) (p= 0.004) and improvement of diastolic dysfunction grade (p= 0.008). After 12 weeks, there was statistically significantly greater sodium excretion, urine flow, and urinary cyclic guanosine monophosphate excretion to AVL (all p< 0.001), as well as a trend toward greater glomerular filtration rate (p= 0.050) in the BNP group as compared to the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: In subjects with PDD, chronic BNP administration resulted in sustained improvement in diastolic function without development of tachyphylaxis to the enhancement of cardiorenal response to volume expansion with BNP. (Human Brain Natriuretic Peptide [BNP] [or Nesiritide] to Help Heart, Kidney and Humoral Function; NCT00405548).
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1607
[Cu] Class update date: 160702
[Lr] Last revision date:160702
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review


page 1 of 136352 go to page                         
   


Refine the search
  Database : MEDLINE Advanced form   

    Search in field  
1  
2
3
 
           



Search engine: iAH v2.6 powered by WWWISIS

BIREME/PAHO/WHO - Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences Information