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[PMID]: 25699229
[Au] Autor:Söderberg-Nauclér C; Johnsen JI
[Ad] Address:Cecilia Söderberg-Nauclér, Experimental Cardiovascular Research Unit, Department of Medicine, Solna, Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, 171 76 Stockholm, Sweden.
[Ti] Title:Cytomegalovirus in human brain tumors: Role in pathogenesis and potential treatment options.
[So] Source:World J Exp Med;5(1):1-10, 2015 Feb 20.
[Is] ISSN:2220-315X
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:During the last years increasing evidence implies that human cytomegalovirus (CMV) can be attributed to human malignancies arising from numerous tissues. In this perspective, we will review and discuss the potential mechanisms through which CMV infection may contribute to brain tumors by affecting tumor cell initiation, progression and metastasis formation. Recent evidence also suggests that anti-CMV treatment results in impaired tumor growth of CMV positive xenografts in animal models and potentially increased survival in CMV positive glioblastoma patients. Based on these observations and the high tumor promoting capacity of this virus, the classical and novel antiviral therapies against CMV should be revisited as they may represent a great promise for halting tumor progression and lower cancer deaths.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1502
[Da] Date of entry for processing:150220
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.5493/wjem.v5.i1.1

  2 / 1263365 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25592246
[Au] Autor:Muñoz-Gutiérrez JF; Schneider DA; Baszler TV; Greenlee JJ; Nicholson EM; Stanton JB
[Ad] Address:Department of Microbiology and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Washington State University, PO Box 64700, Pullman, WA 99164-7010, United States. Electronic address: jmunoz@vetmed.wsu.edu....
[Ti] Title:hTERT-immortalized ovine microglia propagate natural scrapie isolates.
[So] Source:Virus Res;198:35-43, 2015 Feb 16.
[Is] ISSN:1872-7492
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Ex vivo propagation of natural prion isolates (i.e., propagated solely in the natural host) is crucial for the characterization and study of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Several well-established, prion-permissive cell culture systems are available; however, only a few cell lines are permissive to natural prion isolates and these cells are not pathophysiologically relevant (e.g., renal epithelium and fibroblast-like cells). Therefore, a pathophysiologically relevant cell line derived from a natural TSE host could be used for propagation of natural prion isolates. In this study, ovine brain macrophages (microglia) were immortalized by transfection with the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene to identify cell lines (hTERT-microglia) permissive to natural scrapie prion isolates. Following transfection, hTERT-microglia were passaged up to 100 times and their lifespan was significantly longer compared to parental cells (Fisher's exact test, P<0.001). Multiple sublines were permissive to cell culture-adapted prions; two sublines were also permissive to natural scrapie isolates (i.e., derived from brain homogenates of sheep infected with scrapie). Prion infectivity and partial protease resistance of the prion protein were maintained in hTERT-microglia. Comparisons between scrapie-permissive and non-permissive hTERT-microglia sublines revealed that overall quantity of the normal cellular prion protein was not associated with prion permissiveness. The use of hTERT-microglia in future TSE studies may be more germane to the characterization of the cellular and subcellular pathophysiology of natural scrapie prion isolates and to investigate host-specific factors involved in prion replication.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1502
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

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[PMID]: 25695788
[Au] Autor:Yang HY; Wu XM; Liu Y; He D
[Ad] Address:1 Institute of Clinical Medical Sciences, Jiangxi Province People's Hospital, Nanchang, People's Republic of China. 2 Department of Pathology, Jiangxi Province People's Hospital, Nanchang, People's Republic of China.
[Ti] Title:Transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells promotes learning and memory functional recovery and reduces hippocampal damage in rats with alcohol-associated dementia.
[So] Source:Transplantation;99(3):492-9, 2015 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1534-6080
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Chronic ethanol exposure leads to permanent damage to the central nervous system and produces cognitive deficits such as learning and memory impairment. The present study was designed to explore the therapeutic effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) on a rat model of alcohol-associated dementia (AAD). METHODS: Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were prelabeled with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole and directly transplanted into the hippocampus of AAD rats, an important site of alcohol effects that lead to cognitive deficits. The therapeutic effect of BMMSCs was evaluated by observing Morris water maze behavior, hippocampus morphology, and neuronal apoptosis. Still, the activities of antioxidant enzymes including total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in rat hippocampus were measured, and the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in rat hippocampus was also detected by the method of immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Transplantation of BMMSCs directly into the hippocampus significantly improved the learning and memory function of AAD rats and prevented alcohol-induced hippocampal damages. Moreover, BMMSC transplantation inhibited neuron cell apoptosis and increased the activity of total superoxide dismutase in the hippocampus. Moreover, transplantation of BMMSCs improved the protein level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the hippocampus in parallel with behavioral and histologic recovery for AAD rats. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate that the functional benefit observed in the BMMSC-grafted AAD rats is caused by the reduction of oxidative damage and the production of trophic factors by BMMSCs. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem-cell transplantation may be a useful and feasible method for clinical treatment of alcohol-induced brain injuries.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1502
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1097/TP.0000000000000535

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[PMID]: 25335965
[Au] Autor:Nga VD; Lim J; Choy DK; Nyein MA; Lu J; Chou N; Yeo TT; Teoh SH
[Ad] Address:1 Neurosurgery Division, National University Hospital Singapore , Singapore, Singapore .
[Ti] Title:Effects of polycaprolactone-based scaffolds on the blood-brain barrier and cerebral inflammation.
[So] Source:Tissue Eng Part A;21(3-4):647-53, 2015 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1937-335X
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Severe pathoanatomical and mechanical injuries compromise patient recovery and survival following penetrating brain injury (PBI). The realization that the blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays a major role in dictating post-PBI events has led to rising interests in possible therapeutic interventions through the BBB. Recently, the choroid plexus has also been suggested as a potential therapeutic target. The use of biocompatible scaffolds for the delivery of therapeutic agents, but little is known about their interaction with cerebral tissue, which has important clinical implications. Therefore, the authors have sought to investigate the effect of polycaprolactone (PCL) and PCL/tricalcium phosphate (PCL/TCP) scaffolds on the maintenance of BBB phenotype posttraumatic brain injury. Cranial defects of 3 mm depth were created in Sprague Dawley rats, and PCL and PCL/TCP scaffolds were subsequently implanted in predetermined locations for a period of 1 week and 1 month. Higher endothelial barrier antigen (EBA) expressions from PCL-based scaffold groups (p>0.05) were found, suggesting slight advantages over the sham group (no scaffold implantation). PCL/TCP scaffold group also expressed EBA to a higher degree (p>0.05) than PCL scaffolds. Importantly, higher capillary count and area as early as 1 week postimplantation suggested lowered ischemia from the PCL/TCP scaffold group as compared with PCL and sham. Evaluation of interlukin-1ß expression suggested that the PCL and PCL/TCP scaffolds did not cause prolonged inflammation. BBB transport selectivity was evaluated by the expression of aquaporin-4 (AQP-4). Attenuated expression of AQP-4 in the PCL/TCP group (p<0.05) suggested that PCL/TCP scaffolds altered BBB selectivity to a lower degree as compared with sham and PCL groups, pointing to potential clinical implications in reducing cerebral edema. Taken together, the responses of PCL-based scaffolds with brain tissue suggested safety, and encourages further preclinical evaluation in PBI management with these scaffolds.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1502
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1089/ten.TEA.2013.0779

  5 / 1263365 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25257211
[Au] Autor:Simão D; Pinto C; Piersanti S; Weston A; Peddie CJ; Bastos AE; Licursi V; Schwarz SC; Collinson LM; Salinas S; Serra M; Teixeira AP; Saggio I; Lima PA; Kremer EJ; Schiavo G; Brito C; Alves PM
[Ad] Address:1 iBET-Instituto de Biologia Experimental e Tecnológica , Oeiras, Portugal .
[Ti] Title:Modeling human neural functionality in vitro: three-dimensional culture for dopaminergic differentiation.
[So] Source:Tissue Eng Part A;21(3-4):654-68, 2015 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1937-335X
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Advances in mechanistic knowledge of human neurological disorders have been hindered by the lack of adequate human in vitro models. Three-dimensional (3D) cellular models displaying higher biological relevance are gaining momentum; however, their lack of robustness and scarcity of analytical tools adapted to three dimensions hampers their widespread implementation. Herein we show that human midbrain-derived neural progenitor cells, cultured as 3D neurospheres in stirred culture systems, reproducibly differentiate into complex tissue-like structures containing functional dopaminergic neurons, as well as astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Moreover, an extensive toolbox of analytical methodologies has been adapted to 3D neural cell models, allowing molecular and phenotypic profiling and interrogation. The generated neurons underwent synaptogenesis and elicit spontaneous Ca(2+) transients. Synaptic vesicle trafficking and release of dopamine in response to depolarizing stimuli was also observed. Under whole-cell current-and-voltage clamp, recordings showed polarized neurons (Vm=-70 mV) and voltage-dependent potassium currents, which included A-type-like currents. Glutamate-induced currents sensitive to α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid and N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists revealed the existence of functional glutamate receptors. Molecular and phenotypic profiling showed recapitulation of midbrain patterning events, and remodeling toward increased similarity to human brain features, such as extracellular matrix composition and metabolic signature. We have developed a robust and reproducible human 3D neural cell model, which may be extended to patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells, broadening the applicability of this model.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1502
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1089/ten.TEA.2014.0079

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[PMID]: 25468365
[Au] Autor:Ansary A; Manjunatha C; Ibhanesebhor S
[Ad] Address:Speciality Trainee, Paediatrics, Royal Alexandra Hospital, UK dralthaf_ansari@yahoo.com.
[Ti] Title:Prenatal diagnosis of colpocephaly with absent corpus callosum.
[So] Source:Scott Med J;60(1):e19-23, 2015 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:0036-9330
[Cp] Country of publication:Scotland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Colpocephaly is a rare abnormality of the brain, described as persistence of primitive foetal configuration of lateral ventricles. It has been found in association with several abnormalities of the brain. Herein we report a case of colpocephaly with absent corpus callosum, confirmed antenatally with foetal MRI following diagnostic suspicion based on absent septum pellucidum at prenatal sonography.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1502
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1177/0036933014563460

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[PMID]: 25431454
[Au] Autor:Malek N; Greene J
[Ad] Address:Institute of Neurological Sciences, Southern General Hospital, Glasgow, UK nmalek@nhs.net.
[Ti] Title:Cognition enhancers for the treatment of dementia.
[So] Source:Scott Med J;60(1):44-9, 2015 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:0036-9330
[Cp] Country of publication:Scotland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Dementia is a broad term used to describe several chronic progressive neurological disorders that adversely affect higher mental functions including memory, language, behaviour, abstract thinking, comprehension, calculation, learning capacity and judgement. Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia but other neurological conditions such as Parkinson's disease, cerebrovascular disease and chronic infections such as syphilis can also lead to the clinical syndrome of dementia. Initial investigations should always focus on finding any treatable cause for dementia such as HIV, structural lesions such as subdural haematomas or specific nutritional deficiency states such as that due to vitamin B12 and treated appropriately. Where no treatable or reversible aetiology is found, a referral to a specialist should be considered who may initiate further investigations including magnetic resonance imaging or perfusion single-photon emission computerised tomography scans of the brain, and sometimes cerebrospinal fluid examination or an electroencephalogram.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1502
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1177/0036933014561948

  8 / 1263365 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25119830
[Au] Autor:Slim M; Calandre EP; Rico-Villademoros F
[Ad] Address:Instituto de Neurociencias "Federico Olóriz", Universidad de Granada, Avenida de Madrid, 11., 18012, Granada, Spain.
[Ti] Title:An insight into the gastrointestinal component of fibromyalgia: clinical manifestations and potential underlying mechanisms.
[So] Source:Rheumatol Int;35(3):433-44, 2015 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1437-160X
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Fibromyalgia syndrome is characterized by chronic generalized pain accompanied by a broad symptomatologic spectrum. Besides chronic fatigue, sleep disturbances, headaches and cognitive dysfunction that are extensively described in the literature, a considerable proportion of patients with fibromyalgia experience gastrointestinal symptoms that are commonly overlooked in the studies that are not specifically dedicated to evaluate these manifestations. Nevertheless, various attempts were undertaken to explore the gastrointestinal dimension of fibromyalgia. Several studies have demonstrated an elevated comorbidity of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) among patients with fibromyalgia. Other studies have investigated the frequency of presentation of gastrointestinal symptoms in fibromyalgia in a nonspecific approach describing several gastrointestinal complaints frequently reported by these patients such as abdominal pain, dyspepsia and bowel changes, among others. Several underlying mechanisms that require further investigation could serve as potential explanatory hypotheses for the appearance of such manifestations. These include sensitivity to dietary constituents such as gluten, lactose or FODMAPs or alterations in the brain-gut axis as a result of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth or subclinical enteric infections such as giardiasis. The gastrointestinal component of fibromyalgia constitutes a relevant element of the multidisciplinary pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying fibromyalgia that need to be unveiled, as this would contribute to the adequate designation of relevant treatment alternatives corresponding to these manifestations.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1502
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00296-014-3109-9

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[PMID]: 25695385
[Au] Autor:Brust-Carmona H; Valadez G; Galicia M; Flores-Ávalos B; Sánchez A; Espinosa R; Yáñez Ó
[Ad] Address:Dirección de Investigación. Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitación.
[Ti] Title:Desynchronization/synchronization of parasagittal EEG rhythms during habituation to photostimulation in adults.
[So] Source:Rev Invest Clin;66(5):422-30, 2014 Sep-Oct.
[Is] ISSN:0034-8376
[Cp] Country of publication:Mexico
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:INTRODUCTION: Learning by habituation implies a gradual diminution of the organism's responses to non-relevant stimuli. These responses, resulting from electrical oscillations of the brain, can be analyzed through quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG). OBJECTIVE: To characterize the absolute power (AP) in the range of delta (δ), theta (θ), alpha (α), beta (ß) in cortical parasagittal regions during habituation to photostimulation (RPh). MATERIAL AND METHODS: We studied 81 undergraduate students. The EEG was recorded in a Nicolet; awake subjects with closed eyes were photostimulated (5 Hz for 2 s, 20 times, RPh). The UAMI/Yáñez program identifies the RPh signal, chooses and collects 2-sec samples before (Pre) and during RPh, and instruments the Welch periodogram, which integrates the absolute power (AP) of δ, θ, α, and ß. We calculated the average AP (AAP) in Pre and RPh per frequency and lead. AAP differences were assessed with non-parametric tests. Linear regression was used to plot the AAPs of each Pre and each RPh sample, representing the resulting slope with its statistical significance. RESULTS: RPh increased the AAP of δ in frontal and frontocentral leads of both hemispheres, and its slopes were ascendant. AAP of θ increased in fronto-frontal and diminished in the other three leads, its slopes were ascendant in right central parietal and parieto-occipital leads. AAP of α increased in fronto-frontal leads, did not change in fronto-central, and diminished in the other leads; its slopes were descendent in Pre and ascendant in RPh in both hemispheres. AAP of ß increased in the four leads; in Pre, ß slopes were descendent in parieto-occipital leads of both hemispheres. During RPh, δ slopes were ascendant in right parieto-central and in both parieto-occipital leads. CONCLUSION: The progressive diminution of alpha's desynchronization, which ends in synchronization, is probably due to hyperpolarization of neuronal membranes and represents habituation. This is complemented with synchronization of the delta rhythm in anterior cortical areas and of theta and beta in areas of the right hemisphere.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1502
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  10 / 1263365 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 25697437
[Au] Autor:García Larraín I; Guelfand Chaimovich M; Muñoz Villanueva R
[Ti] Title:Estenosis crítica de conducto hepático común por anillo vascular: reporte de un caso. [Common bile duct stricture caused by vascular ring: A case report].
[So] Source:Rev Chil Pediatr;85(5):594-8, 2014 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:0717-6228
[Cp] Country of publication:Chile
[La] Language:spa
[Ab] Abstract:INTRODUCTION: The most common congenital malformations of the bile duct are biliary atresia and choledochal cyst. In addition, the most common liver anatomical variation is the right hepatic artery aberration. The goal of this study is to characterize a patient with this disease and propose the hepatoduodenal anastomosis as surgical treatment. CASE REPORT: One-month-old patient with suspected congenital biliary atresia due to progressive jaundice and acholia since birth. Liver tests consistent with a cholestatic pattern and brain MRI scan consistent with biliary atresia. Periods of decreased bilirubin and sporadic slight pigmentation of depositions were described. The surgical finding was a bile duct stricture due to a vascular ring caused by aberrant right hepatic artery. Resection of bile duct and hepatic-duodenal bypass were performed. The patient evolved satisfactorily from this condition. CONCLUSION: There are few reports of biliary obstruction due to vascular malformations. It is important to keep in mind that not all neonatal jaundice episodes are caused by biliary atresia or choledo-chal cyst. The clinical course, laboratory tests and imaging should be considered and in the case of suspicion, further exploration should take place.
[Pt] Publication type:ENGLISH ABSTRACT; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1502
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[St] Status:In-Data-Review


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