Database : MEDLINE
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[PMID]: 29510682
[Au] Autor:Ewerling F; Victora CG; Raj A; Coll CVN; Hellwig F; Barros AJD
[Ad] Address:International Center for Equity in Health, Federal University of Pelotas, Pelotas, Brazil. fewerling@equidade.org.
[Ti] Title:Demand for family planning satisfied with modern methods among sexually active women in low- and middle-income countries: who is lagging behind?
[So] Source:Reprod Health;15(1):42, 2018 Mar 06.
[Is] ISSN:1742-4755
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Family planning is key for reducing unintended pregnancies and their health consequences and is also associated with improvements in economic outcomes. Our objective was to identify groups of sexually active women with extremely low demand for family planning satisfied with modern methods (mDFPS) in low- and middle-income countries, at national and subnational levels to inform the improvement and expansion of programmatic efforts to narrow the gaps in mDFPS coverage. METHODS: Analyses were based on Demographic and Health Survey and Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey data. The most recent surveys carried out since 2000 in 77 countries were included in the analysis. We estimated mDFPS among women aged 15-49 years. Subgroups with low coverage (mDFPS below 20%) were identified according to marital status, wealth, age, education, literacy, area of residence (urban or rural), geographic region and religion. RESULTS: Overall, only 52.9% of the women with a demand for family planning were using a modern contraceptive method, but coverage varied greatly. West & Central Africa showed the lowest coverage (32.9% mean mDFPS), whereas South Asia and Latin America & the Caribbean had the highest coverage (approximately 70% mean mDFPS). Some countries showed high reliance on traditional contraceptive methods, markedly those from Central and Eastern Europe, and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CEE & CIS). Albania, Azerbaijan, Benin, Chad and Congo Democratic Republic presented low mDFPS coverage (< 20%). The other countries had mDFPS above 20% at country-level, yet in many of these countries mDFPS coverage was low among women in the poorest wealth quintiles, in the youngest age groups, with little education and living in rural areas. Coverage according to marital status varied greatly: in Asia & Pacific and Latin America & the Caribbean mDFPS was higher among married women; the opposite was found in West & Central Africa and CEE & CIS countries. CONCLUSIONS: Almost half of the women in need were not using an effective family planning method. Subgroups requiring special attention include women who are poor, uneducated/illiterate, young, and living in rural areas. Efforts to increase mDFPS must address not only the supply side but also tackle the need to change social norms that might inhibit uptake of contraception.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12978-018-0483-x

  2 / 36092 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29476908
[Au] Autor:Brusquetti F; Netto F; Baldo D; Haddad CFB
[Ad] Address:Instituto de Investigación Biológica del Paraguay, Del Escudo 1607, CP 1425 Asunción, Paraguay. Electronic address: franbrusquetti@gmail.com.
[Ti] Title:What happened in the South American Gran Chaco? Diversification of the endemic frog genus Lepidobatrachus Budgett, 1899 (Anura: Ceratophryidae).
[So] Source:Mol Phylogenet Evol;123:123-136, 2018 Feb 22.
[Is] ISSN:1095-9513
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The Chaco is one the most neglected and least studied regions of the world. This highly-seasonal semiarid biome is an extensive continuous plain without any geographic barrier, and in spite of its high species diversity, the events and processes responsible have never been assessed. Miocene marine introgressions and Pleistocene glaciations have been mentioned as putative drivers of diversification for some groups of vertebrates in adjacent biomes of southern South America. Here we used multilocus data (one mitochondrial and six nuclear loci) from the three species of the endemic frog genus Lepidobatrachus (Lepidobatrachus asper, Lepidobatrachus laevis, and Lepidobatrachus llanensis) to determine if any of the historical events suggested as drivers of vertebrate diversification in southern South America are related to the diversification of the genus and if the Chaco is indeed a biome without barriers. Using fossil calibration in a coalescent framework we estimated that the genus diversified in the second half of the Miocene, coinciding with marine introgressions. Genetic patterns and historical demography suggest an important role of old archs and cratons as refuges during floods. In one species of the genus, L. llanensis, genetic structure reveals some breaks along the landscape, the main one of which corresponds to an area of the central Chaco that may act as a climatic barrier. Additionally, we found differential effects of the main Chacoan rivers on species of Lepidobatrachus that could be related to the time of persistence of populations in the areas influenced by these rivers.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  3 / 36092 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29438715
[Au] Autor:Somaraki M; Eli K; Sorjonen K; Flodmark CE; Marcus C; Faith MS; Osowski CP; Ek A; Nowicka P
[Ad] Address:Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
[Ti] Title:Perceived child eating behaviours and maternal migrant background.
[So] Source:Appetite;125:302-313, 2018 Feb 10.
[Is] ISSN:1095-8304
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) is a well-established instrument in the study of obesity-related eating behaviours among children. However, research using the CEBQ in multicultural samples is limited. This study aims to identify and examine differences in child eating behaviours as reported by Swedish-born and non-Swedish-born mothers living in Sweden. Mothers (n = 1310, 74 countries of origin, mean age 36.5 years, 63.6% with higher education, 29.2% with overweight or obesity) of children aged 3-8 years (mean age 4.8 years, 18.1% with overweight or obesity) completed the CEBQ. Responses were analysed using CEBQ subscales Food Responsiveness, Emotional Overeating, Enjoyment of Food, and Desire to Drink, clustering into Food Approach, and subscales Satiety Responsiveness, Slowness in Eating, Emotional Undereating, and Food Fussiness, clustering into Food Avoidance. Data were compared across seven regional groups, divided by maternal place of birth: (1) Sweden (n = 941), (2) Nordic and Western Europe (n = 68), (3) Eastern and Southern Europe (n = 97), (4) the Middle East and North Africa (n = 110), (5) East, South and Southeast Asia (n = 52), (6) Sub-Saharan Africa (n = 16), and (7) Central and South America (n = 26). Crude, partly and fully adjusted linear regression models controlled for child's age, gender and weight status, and mother's education, weight status and concern about child weight. The moderation effect of maternal concern about child weight was examined through interaction analyses. Results showed that while Food Approach and Food Avoidance behaviours were associated with maternal migrant background, associations for Food Fussiness were limited. Notably, mothers born in the Middle East and North Africa reported higher frequencies of both Food Approach (except for Enjoyment of Food) and Food Avoidance. The study highlights the importance of examining how regionally-specific maternal migrant background affects mothers' perceptions of child eating behaviours.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  4 / 36092 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29432856
[Au] Autor:Azevedo BC; Morel LJF; Carmona F; Cunha TM; Contini SHT; Delprete PG; Ramalho FS; Crevelin E; Bertoni BW; França SC; Borges MC; Pereira AMS
[Ad] Address:Departamento de Biotecnologia em Plantas Medicinais, Universidade de Ribeirão Preto, Av. Costábile Romano 2201, 14096-900 Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.
[Ti] Title:Aqueous extracts from Uncaria tomentosa (Willd. ex Schult.) DC. reduce bronchial hyperresponsiveness and inflammation in a murine model of asthma.
[So] Source:J Ethnopharmacol;218:76-89, 2018 Feb 10.
[Is] ISSN:1872-7573
[Cp] Country of publication:Ireland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Uncaria tomentosa (Willd. Ex Schult) DC is used by indigenous tribes in the Amazonian region of Central and South America to treat inflammation, allergies and asthma. The therapeutic properties of U. tomentosa have been attributed to the presence of tetracyclic and pentacyclic oxindole alkaloids and to phenolic acids. AIMS OF THE STUDY: To characterize aqueous bark extracts (ABE) and aqueous leaf extracts (ALE) of U. tomentosa and to compare their anti-inflammatory effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Constituents of the extracts were identified by ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Anti-inflammatory activities were assessed in vitro by exposing lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophage cells (RAW264.7-Luc) to ABE, ALE and standard mitraphylline. In vivo assays were performed using a murine model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma. OVA-sensitized animals were treated with ABE or ALE while controls received dexamethasone or saline solution. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness, production of Th1 and Th2 cytokines, total and differential counts of inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and lung tissue were determined. RESULTS: Mitraphylline, isomitraphylline, chlorogenic acid and quinic acid were detected in both extracts, while isorhyncophylline and rutin were detected only in ALE. ABE, ALE and mitraphylline inhibited the transcription of nuclear factor kappa-B in cell cultures, ALE and mitraphylline reduced the production of interleukin (IL)-6, and mitraphylline reduced production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Treatment with ABE and ALE at 50 and 200 mg kg , respectively, reduced respiratory elastance and tissue damping and elastance. ABE and ALE reduced the number of eosinophils in BAL, while ALE at 200 mg kg reduced the levels of IL-4 and IL-5 in the lung homogenate. Peribronchial inflammation was significantly reduced by treatment with ABE and ALE at 50 and 100 mg kg respectively. CONCLUSION: The results clarify for the first time the anti-inflammatory activity of U. tomentosa in a murine model of asthma. Although ABE and ALE exhibited distinct chemical compositions, both extracts inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in vitro. In vivo assays revealed that ABE was more effective in treating asthmatic inflammation while ALE was more successful in controlling respiratory mechanics. Both extracts may have promising applications in the phytotherapy of allergic asthma.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  5 / 36092 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29180119
[Au] Autor:Xu W; Mukherjee S; Ning Y; Hsu FF; Zhang K
[Ad] Address:Department of Biological Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409, USA.
[Ti] Title:Cyclopropane fatty acid synthesis affects cell shape and acid resistance in Leishmania mexicana.
[So] Source:Int J Parasitol;48(3-4):245-256, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0135
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Cyclopropane fatty acid synthase (CFAS) catalyzes the transfer of a methylene group from S-adenosyl methionine to an unsaturated fatty acid, generating a cyclopropane fatty acid (CFA). The gene encoding CFAS is present in many bacteria and several Leishmania spp. including Leishmania mexicana, Leishmania infantum and Leishmania braziliensis. In this study, we characterised the CFAS-null and -overexpression mutants in L. mexicana, the causative agent for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Mexico and central America. Our data indicate that L. mexicana CFAS modifies the fatty acid chain of plasmenylethanolamine (PME), the dominant class of ethanolamine glycerophospholipids in Leishmania, generating CFA-PME. While the endogenous level of CFA-PME is extremely low in wild type L. mexicana, overexpression of CFAS results in a significant increase. CFAS-null mutants (cfas ) exhibit altered cell shape, increased sensitivity to acidic pH, and aberrant growth in serum-free media. In addition, the CFAS protein is preferentially expressed during the proliferative stage of L. mexicana and is required for the cell membrane targeting of lipophosphoglycan. Finally, the maturation and localization of CFAS protein are dependent upon the downstream sequence of the CFAS coding region. Without the downstream sequence, the mis-localised CFAS protein cannot fully rescue the defects of cfas . Our data suggest that CFA modification of phospholipids can significantly affect the parasite's response to certain adverse conditions. These findings are distinct from the roles of CFAS in L. infantum, highlighting the functional divergence in lipid modification among Leishmania spp.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1711
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  6 / 36092 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29523708
[Au] Autor:Astumian RD
[Ad] Address:Department of Physics, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469 astumian@maine.edu.
[Ti] Title:Stochastically pumped adaptation and directional motion of molecular machines.
[So] Source:Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A;, 2018 Mar 09.
[Is] ISSN:1091-6490
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Recent developments in synthetic molecular motors and pumps have sprung from a remarkable confluence of experiment and theory. Synthetic accomplishments have facilitated the ability to design and create molecules, many of them featuring mechanically bonded components, to carry out specific functions in their environment-walking along a polymeric track, unidirectional circling of one ring about another, synthesizing stereoisomers according to an external protocol, or pumping rings onto a long rod-like molecule to form and maintain high-energy, complex, nonequilibrium structures from simpler antecedents. Progress in the theory of nanoscale stochastic thermodynamics, specifically the generalization and extension of the principle of microscopic reversibility to the single-molecule regime, has enhanced the understanding of the design requirements for achieving strong unidirectional motion and high efficiency of these synthetic molecular machines for harnessing energy from external fluctuations to carry out mechanical and/or chemical functions in their environment. A key insight is that the interaction between the fluctuations and the transition state energies plays a central role in determining the steady-state concentrations. Kinetic asymmetry, a requirement for stochastic adaptation, occurs when there is an imbalance in the effect of the fluctuations on the forward and reverse rate constants. Because of strong viscosity, the motions of the machine can be viewed as mechanical equilibrium processes where mechanical resonances are simply impossible but where the probability distributions for the state occupancies and trajectories are very different from those that would be expected at thermodynamic equilibrium.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  7 / 36092 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29428603
[Au] Autor:Shrestha G; Reddy GVP; Jaronski ST
[Ad] Address:Department of Research Centers, Western Triangle Agricultural Research Center, Montana State University, P.O. Box 656, 9546 Old Shelby Rd., Conrad, MT 59425, USA.
[Ti] Title:Field efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis galleriae strain SDS-502 for the management of alfalfa weevil and its impact on Bathyplectes spp. parasitization rate.
[So] Source:J Invertebr Pathol;153:6-11, 2018 Feb 08.
[Is] ISSN:1096-0805
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica Gyllenhal, is an important pest in forage alfalfa worldwide, and especially so on the Northern Plains of North America. Neither the weevil-specific fungus, Erynia phytonomi, nor the weevil's parasitoids are able to routinely suppress outbreaks as they do in the eastern U.S. A new Bacillus thuringiensis var. galleriae, having a Cry8Da coleopteran-active toxin, has been recently commercialized. We examined the efficacy of this B. thuringiensis product against the H. postica in replicated field trials in north central Montana. Because it has been suggested that efficiency of the parasitoids, Bathyplectes curculionis and Oomyzus incertus, was inversely proportional to host numbers (i.e., parasitoid efficiency increased when host population is low), we also sought to determine if a partial reduction of larval H. postica populations with a B. thuringiensis would yield to greater parasitoid efficiency, manifested as higher percent parasitism among the surviving larvae. The B. thuringiensis gave 27-40% reduction in weevil numbers at the low label rate, 55-59% for the high label rate. Mean parasitism at the two research locations varied from 5-26% and 17-36% respectively, but application of the B. thuringiensis had no significant effect on parasitism levels, i.e. parasitism was not greater in treated than in carrier control plots.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:Publisher

  8 / 36092 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29440498
[Au] Autor:Alam A; Küng R; Kowal J; McLeod RA; Tremp N; Broude EV; Roninson IB; Stahlberg H; Locher KP
[Ad] Address:Institute of Molecular Biology and Biophysics, ETH Zürich, 8093 Zürich, Switzerland.
[Ti] Title:Structure of a zosuquidar and UIC2-bound human-mouse chimeric ABCB1.
[So] Source:Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A;115(9):E1973-E1982, 2018 Feb 27.
[Is] ISSN:1091-6490
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The multidrug transporter ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein) is an ATP-binding cassette transporter that has a key role in protecting tissues from toxic insult and contributes to multidrug extrusion from cancer cells. Here, we report the near-atomic resolution cryo-EM structure of nucleotide-free ABCB1 trapped by an engineered disulfide cross-link between the nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) and bound to the antigen-binding fragment of the human-specific inhibitory antibody UIC2 and to the third-generation ABCB1 inhibitor zosuquidar. Our structure reveals the transporter in an occluded conformation with a central, enclosed, inhibitor-binding pocket lined by residues from all transmembrane (TM) helices of ABCB1. The pocket spans almost the entire width of the lipid membrane and is occupied exclusively by two closely interacting zosuquidar molecules. The external, conformational epitope facilitating UIC2 binding is also visualized, providing a basis for its inhibition of substrate efflux. Additional cryo-EM structures suggest concerted movement of TM helices from both halves of the transporters associated with closing the NBD gap, as well as zosuquidar binding. Our results define distinct recognition interfaces of ABCB1 inhibitory agents, which may be exploited for therapeutic purposes.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1073/pnas.1717044115

  9 / 36092 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29440425
[Au] Autor:Kornberg MD; Smith MD; Shirazi HA; Calabresi PA; Snyder SH; Kim PM
[Ad] Address:Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287.
[Ti] Title:Bryostatin-1 alleviates experimental multiple sclerosis.
[So] Source:Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A;115(9):2186-2191, 2018 Feb 27.
[Is] ISSN:1091-6490
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disorder targeting the central nervous system (CNS). The relapsing-remitting phase of MS is largely driven by peripheral activation of autoreactive T-helper (Th) 1 and Th17 lymphocytes. In contrast, compartmentalized inflammation within the CNS, including diffuse activation of innate myeloid cells, characterizes the progressive phase of MS, the most debilitating phase that currently lacks satisfactory treatments. Recently, bryostatin-1 (bryo-1), a naturally occurring, CNS-permeable compound with a favorable safety profile in humans, has been shown to act on antigen-presenting cells to promote differentiation of lymphocytes into Th2 cells, an action that might benefit Th1-driven inflammatory conditions such as MS. In the present study, we show that bryo-1 provides marked benefit in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an experimental MS animal model. Preventive treatment with bryo-1 abolishes the onset of neurologic deficits in EAE. More strikingly, bryo-1 reverses neurologic deficits after EAE onset, even when treatment is initiated at a late stage of disease when peak adaptive immunity has subsided. Treatment with bryo-1 in vitro promotes an anti-inflammatory phenotype in antigen-presenting dendritic cells, macrophages, and to a lesser extent, lymphocytes. These findings suggest the potential for bryo-1 as a therapeutic agent in MS, particularly given its established clinical safety. Furthermore, the benefit of bryo-1, even in late treatment of EAE, combined with its targeting of innate myeloid cells suggests therapeutic potential in progressive forms of MS.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1073/pnas.1719902115

  10 / 36092 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29440380
[Au] Autor:Yates K; Bi K; Haining WN; Cantor H; Kim HJ
[Ad] Address:Department of Pediatric Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02115.
[Ti] Title:Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals distinct genetic modules associated with Helios expression in intratumoral regulatory T cells.
[So] Source:Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A;115(9):2162-2167, 2018 Feb 27.
[Is] ISSN:1091-6490
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are key modulators of immune tolerance, capable of suppressing inflammatory immune responses and promoting nonlymphoid tissue homeostasis. Helios, a transcription factor (TF) that is selectively expressed by Tregs, has been shown to be essential for the maintenance of Treg lineage stability in the face of inflammatory conditions that include autoimmune disease and cancer. Helios-deficient Tregs within tumors acquire effector T cell function and contribute to immune responses against cancer. However, the underlying genetic basis of this Treg reprogramming is not well understood. Here, we report that Helios-deficient Tregs within the chronic inflammatory tumor microenvironment (TME) derepress genetic programs associated with T helper (Th) cell differentiation by up-regulating Th cell-associated TFs and effector cytokines. These genetic changes of Helios-deficient Tregs are most apparent in a Treg subpopulation with high affinity for self-antigens, as detected by both increased GITR/PD-1 expression and increased responsiveness to self-antigens. Their combined effects may promote a phenotype conversion of Tregs into effector T cells within the TME, where TCR engagement and costimulatory receptor expression by Tregs are increased. These data provide a genetic basis for the unstable phenotype of Helios-deficient Tregs within the inflammatory environment of tumors and suggest that immune milieu-dependent alterations in gene expression are a central feature of Treg conversion.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1073/pnas.1720447115


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