Database : MEDLINE
Search on : cerebral and cortex [Words]
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[PMID]: 29524419
[Au] Autor:Eguchi N; Sora I; Muguruma K
[Ad] Address:Laboratory for Cell Asymmetry, RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, Kobe, 650-0047, Japan; Department of Psychiatry, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, 650-0017, Japan.
[Ti] Title:Self-organizing cortex generated from human iPSCs with combination of FGF2 and ambient oxygen.
[So] Source:Biochem Biophys Res Commun;, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1090-2104
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Human brain development has generally been studied through the analysis of postmortem tissues because of limited access to fetal brain tissues. This approach, however, only provides information from the perspective of long-term development. To investigate the pathophysiology of neurodevelopmental disorders, it is necessary to understand the detailed mechanisms of human brain development. Recent advances in pluripotent stem cell (PSC) technologies enable us to establish in vitro brain models from human induced PSCs (hiPSCs), which can be used to examine the pathophysiological mechanisms of neurodevelopmental disorders. We previously demonstrated that self-organized cerebral tissues can be generated from human PSCs in a three-dimensional (3D) culture system. Here, we describe the cerebral tissues differentiated from hiPSCs in a further-optimized 3D culture. We found that treatment with FGF2 is helpful to form iPSC aggregates with efficiency. Neuroepithelial structures spontaneously formed with apico-basal polarity in the aggregates expressing forebrain marker FOXG1. The neuroepithelium self-forms a multilayered structure including progenitor zones (ventricular and subventricular zones) and neuronal zone (cortical plate). Furthermore, with the same level of oxygen (O ) as in ambient air (20% O ), we found that self-formation of cortical structures lasted for 70 days in culture. Thus, our optimized 3D culture for the generation of cortical structure from hiPSCs is a simple yet effective method.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  2 / 213539 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29507201
[Au] Autor:Garcia KE; Robinson EC; Alexopoulos D; Dierker DL; Glasser MF; Coalson TS; Ortinau CM; Rueckert D; Taber LA; Van Essen DC; Rogers CE; Smyser CD; Bayly PV
[Ad] Address:Department of Biomedical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63130; karaellspermann@gmail.com.
[Ti] Title:Dynamic patterns of cortical expansion during folding of the preterm human brain.
[So] Source:Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A;, 2018 Mar 05.
[Is] ISSN:1091-6490
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:During the third trimester of human brain development, the cerebral cortex undergoes dramatic surface expansion and folding. Physical models suggest that relatively rapid growth of the cortical gray matter helps drive this folding, and structural data suggest that growth may vary in both space (by region on the cortical surface) and time. In this study, we propose a unique method to estimate local growth from sequential cortical reconstructions. Using anatomically constrained multimodal surface matching (aMSM), we obtain accurate, physically guided point correspondence between younger and older cortical reconstructions of the same individual. From each pair of surfaces, we calculate continuous, smooth maps of cortical expansion with unprecedented precision. By considering 30 preterm infants scanned two to four times during the period of rapid cortical expansion (28-38 wk postmenstrual age), we observe significant regional differences in growth across the cortical surface that are consistent with the emergence of new folds. Furthermore, these growth patterns shift over the course of development, with noninjured subjects following a highly consistent trajectory. This information provides a detailed picture of dynamic changes in cortical growth, connecting what is known about patterns of development at the microscopic (cellular) and macroscopic (folding) scales. Since our method provides specific growth maps for individual brains, we are also able to detect alterations due to injury. This fully automated surface analysis, based on tools freely available to the brain-mapping community, may also serve as a useful approach for future studies of abnormal growth due to genetic disorders, injury, or other environmental variables.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:Publisher

  3 / 213539 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29504647
[Au] Autor:Allen CP; Park K; Li A; Volkow ND; Koob GF; Pan Y; Hu XT; Du C
[Ad] Address:Department of Biomedical Engineering, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, USA.
[Ti] Title:Enhanced neuronal and blunted hemodynamic reactivity to cocaine in the prefrontal cortex following extended cocaine access: optical imaging study in anesthetized rats.
[So] Source:Addict Biol;, 2018 Mar 05.
[Is] ISSN:1369-1600
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Cocaine addiction is associated with dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), which facilitates relapse and compulsive drug taking. To assess if cocaine's effects on both neuronal and vascular activity contribute to PFC dysfunction, we used optical coherence tomography and multi-wavelength laser speckle to measure vascularization and hemodynamics and used GCaMP6f to monitor intracellular Ca levels ([Ca ] ) as a marker of neuronal activity. Rats were given short (1 hour; ShA) or long (6 hours; LgA) access cocaine self-administration. As expected, LgA but not ShA rats escalated cocaine intake. In naïve rats, acute cocaine decreased oxygenated hemoglobin, increased deoxygenated hemoglobin and reduced cerebral blood flow in PFC, likely due to cocaine-induced vasoconstriction. ShA rats showed enhanced hemodynamic response and slower recovery after cocaine, versus naïve. LgA rats showed a blunted hemodynamic response, but an enhanced PFC neuronal [Ca ] increase after cocaine challenge associated with drug intake. Both ShA and LgA groups had higher vessel density, indicative of angiogenesis, presumably to compensate for cocaine's vasoconstricting effects. Cocaine self-administration modified the PFC cerebrovascular responses enhancing it in ShA and attenuating it in LgA animals. In contrast, LgA but not ShA animals showed sensitized neuronal reactivity to acute cocaine in the PFC. The opposite changes in hemodynamics (decreased) and neuronal responses (enhanced) in LgA rats indicate that these constitute distinct effects and suggest that the neuronal and not the vascular effects are associated with escalation of cocaine intake in addiction whereas its vascular effect in PFC might contribute to cognitive deficits that increase vulnerability to relapse.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1111/adb.12615

  4 / 213539 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29501876
[Au] Autor:Lewis JD; Evans AC; Tohka J; Brain Development Cooperative Group; Pediatric Imaging, Neurocognition, and Genetics Study
[Ad] Address:Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, Canada. Electronic address: jlewis@bic.mni.mcgill.ca.
[Ti] Title:T1 white/gray contrast as a predictor of chronological age, and an index of cognitive performance.
[So] Source:Neuroimage;173:341-350, 2018 Mar 01.
[Is] ISSN:1095-9572
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Knowing the maturational schedule of typical brain development is critical to our ability to identify deviations from it; such deviations have been related to cognitive performance and even developmental disorders. Chronological age can be predicted from brain images with considerable accuracy, but with limited spatial specificity, particularly in the case of the cerebral cortex. Methods using multi-modal data have shown the greatest accuracy, but have made limited use of cortical measures. Methods using complex measures derived from voxels throughout the brain have also shown great accuracy, but are difficult to interpret in terms of cortical development. Measures based on cortical surfaces have yielded less accurate predictions, suggesting that perhaps cortical maturation is less strongly related to chronological age than is maturation of deep white matter or subcortical structures. We question this suggestion. We show that a simple metric based on the white/gray contrast at the inner border of the cortex is a good predictor of chronological age. We demonstrate this in two large datasets: the NIH Pediatric Data, with 832 scans of typically developing children, adolescents, and young adults; and the Pediatric Imaging, Neurocognition, and Genetics data, with 760 scans of individuals in a similar age-range. Further, our usage of an elastic net penalized linear regression model reveals the brain regions which contribute most to age-prediction. Moreover, we show that the residuals of age-prediction based on this white/gray contrast metric are not merely random errors, but are strongly related to IQ, suggesting that this metric is sensitive to aspects of brain development that reflect cognitive performance.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  5 / 213539 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29501554
[Au] Autor:Taylor AJ; Kim JH; Ress D
[Ad] Address:Department of Neuroscience, Core for Advanced MRI, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.
[Ti] Title:Characterization of the hemodynamic response function across the majority of human cerebral cortex.
[So] Source:Neuroimage;173:322-331, 2018 Mar 01.
[Is] ISSN:1095-9572
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:A brief (<4 s) period of neural activation evokes a stereotypical sequence of vascular and metabolic events to create the hemodynamic response function (HRF) measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Linear analysis of fMRI data requires that the HRF be treated as an impulse response, so the character and temporal stability of the HRF are critical issues. Here, a simple audiovisual stimulus combined with a fast-paced task was used to evoke a strong HRF across a majority, ∼77%, of cortex during a single scanning session. High spatiotemporal resolution (2-mm voxels, 1.25-s acquisition time) was used to focus HRF measurements specifically on the gray matter for whole brain. The majority of activated cortex responds with positive HRFs, while ∼27% responds with negative (inverted) HRFs. Spatial patterns of the HRF response amplitudes were found to be similar across subjects. Timing of the initial positive lobe of the HRF was relatively stable across the cortical surface with a mean of 6.1 ±â€¯0.6 s across subjects, yet small but significant timing variations were also evident in specific regions of cortex. The results provide guidance for linear analysis of fMRI data. More importantly, this method provides a means to quantify neurovascular function across most of the brain, with potential clinical utility for the diagnosis of brain pathologies such as traumatic brain injury.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  6 / 213539 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29476912
[Au] Autor:Corbitt PT; Ulloa A; Horwitz B
[Ad] Address:Brain Imaging & Modeling Section, National Institute on Deafness & Other Communication Disorders, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.
[Ti] Title:Simulating laminar neuroimaging data for a visual delayed match-to-sample task.
[So] Source:Neuroimage;173:199-222, 2018 Feb 22.
[Is] ISSN:1095-9572
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Invasive electrophysiological and neuroanatomical studies in nonhuman mammalian experimental preparations have helped elucidate the lamina (layer) dependence of neural computations and interregional connections. Noninvasive functional neuroimaging can, in principle, resolve cortical laminae (layers), and thus provide insight into human neural computations and interregional connections. However human neuroimaging data are noisy and difficult to interpret; biologically realistic simulations can aid experimental interpretation by relating the neuroimaging data to simulated neural activity. We illustrate the potential of laminar neuroimaging by upgrading an existing large-scale, multiregion neural model that simulates a visual delayed match-to-sample (DMS) task. The new laminar-based neural unit incorporates spiny stellate, pyramidal, and inhibitory neural populations which are divided among supragranular, granular, and infragranular laminae (layers). We simulated neural activity which is translated into local field potential-like data used to simulate conventional and laminar fMRI activity. We implemented the laminar connectivity schemes proposed by Felleman and Van Essen (Cerebral Cortex, 1991) for interregional connections. The hemodynamic model that we employ is a modified version of one due to Heinzle et al. (Neuroimage, 2016) that incorporates the effects of draining veins. We show that the laminar version of the model replicates the findings of the existing model. The laminar model shows the finer structure in fMRI activity and functional connectivity. Laminar differences in the magnitude of neural activities are a prominent finding; these are also visible in the simulated fMRI. We illustrate differences between task and control conditions in the fMRI signal, and demonstrate differences in interregional laminar functional connectivity that reflect the underlying connectivity scheme. These results indicate that multi-layer computational models can aid in interpreting layer-specific fMRI, and suggest that increased use of laminar fMRI could provide unique and fundamental insights to human neuroscience.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  7 / 213539 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29466709
[Au] Autor:Mandal A; Prabhavalkar KS; Bhatt LK
[Ad] Address:Department of Pharmacology, SVKM's Dr Bhanuben Nanavati College of Pharmacy, Vile Parle (W), Mumbai, India.
[Ti] Title:Gastrointestinal hormones in regulation of memory.
[So] Source:Peptides;102:16-25, 2018 Feb 18.
[Is] ISSN:1873-5169
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The connection between the gastrointestinal hormones and the brain has been established many years ago. This relation is termed the gut-brain axis (GBA). The GBA is a bidirectional communication which not only regulates gastrointestinal homeostasis but is also linked with higher emotional and cognitive functions. Hypothalamus plays a critical role in the regulation of energy metabolism, nutrient partitioning and control of feeding behaviors. Various gut hormones are released inside the gastrointestinal tract on food intake. These hormones act peripherally and influence the different responses of the tissues to the food intake, but do also have effects on the brain. The hypothalamus, in turn, integrates visceral function with limbic system structures such as hippocampus, amygdala, and cerebral cortex. The hippocampus has been known for its involvement in the cognitive function and the modulation of synaptic plasticity. This review aims to establish the role of various gut hormones in learning and memory, through the interaction of various receptors in the hippocampus. Understanding their role in memory can also aid in finding novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of the neurological disorders associated with memory dysfunctions.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  8 / 213539 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29428325
[Au] Autor:Forster SE; Dickey MW; Forman SD
[Ad] Address:VA Pittsburgh Healthcare System, United States; University of Pittsburgh, Department of Psychiatry, United States. Electronic address: sarah.forster2@va.gov.
[Ti] Title:Regional cerebral blood flow predictors of relapse and resilience in substance use recovery: A coordinate-based meta-analysis of human neuroimaging studies.
[So] Source:Drug Alcohol Depend;185:93-105, 2018 Feb 05.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0046
[Cp] Country of publication:Ireland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Predicting relapse vulnerability can inform level-of-care and personalized substance use treatment. Few reliable predictors of relapse risk have been identified from traditional clinical, psychosocial, and demographic variables. However, recent neuroimaging findings highlight the potential prognostic import of brain-based signals, indexing the degree to which neural systems have been perturbed by addiction. These proposed "neuromarkers" forecast the likelihood, severity, and timing of relapse but the reliability and generalizability of such effects remains to be established. METHODS: Activation likelihood estimation was used to conduct a preliminary quantitative, coordinate-based meta-analysis of the addiction neuroprediction literature; specifically, studies wherein baseline measures of regional cerebral blood flow were prospectively associated with substance use treatment outcomes. Consensus patterns of activation associated with relapse vulnerability (greater activation predicts poorer outcomes) versus resilience (greater activation predicts improved outcomes) were specifically investigated. RESULTS: Twenty-four eligible studies yielded 134 foci, representing 923 subjects. Consensus activation was identified in right putamen and claustrum (p < .05, cluster-corrected) in relation to positive and negative treatment outcomes - likely reflecting variability in measurement context (e.g., task, sample characteristics) across datasets. A single cluster in rostral-ventral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) was associated with relapse resilience, specifically (p < .05, cluster-corrected); no significant vulnerability-related clusters were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Right putamen activation has been associated with relapse vulnerability and resilience, while increased baseline rACC activation has been consistently associated with improved treatment outcomes. Methodological heterogeneity within the existing literature, however, limits firm conclusions and future work will be necessary to confirm and clarify these results.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  9 / 213539 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29420701
[Au] Autor:Herzmann CS; Snyder AZ; Kenley JK; Rogers CE; Shimony JS; Smyser CD
[Ad] Address:Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO 63110, USA.
[Ti] Title:Cerebellar Functional Connectivity in Term- and Very Preterm-Born Infants.
[So] Source:Cereb Cortex;, 2018 Feb 06.
[Is] ISSN:1460-2199
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Cortical resting state networks have been consistently identified in infants using resting state-functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Comparable studies in adults have demonstrated cerebellar components of well-established cerebral networks. However, there has been limited investigation of early cerebellar functional connectivity. We acquired non-sedated rs-fMRI data in the first week of life in 57 healthy, term-born infants and at term-equivalent postmenstrual age in 20 very preterm infants (mean birth gestational age 27 ± 2 weeks) without significant cerebral or cerebellar injury. Seed correlation analyses were performed using regions of interests spanning the cortical and subcortical gray matter and cerebellum. Parallel analyses were performed using rs-fMRI data acquired in 100 healthy adults. Our results demonstrate that cortico-cerebellar functional connectivity is well-established by term. Intra- and cortico-cerebellar functional connectivity were largely similar in infants and adults. However, infants showed more functional connectivity structure within the cerebellum, including stronger homotopic correlations and more robust anterior-posterior anticorrelations. Prematurity was associated with reduced correlation magnitudes, but no alterations in intra- and cortico-cerebellar functional connectivity topography. These results add to the growing evidence that the cerebellum plays an important role in shaping early brain development during infancy.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1093/cercor/bhy023

  10 / 213539 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29360998
[Au] Autor:Tagge CA; Fisher AM; Minaeva OV; Gaudreau-Balderrama A; Moncaster JA; Zhang XL; Wojnarowicz MW; Casey N; Lu H; Kokiko-Cochran ON; Saman S; Ericsson M; Onos KD; Veksler R; Senatorov VV; Kondo A; Zhou XZ; Miry O; Vose LR; Gopaul KR; Upreti C; Nowinski CJ; Cantu RC; Alvarez VE; Hildebrandt AM; Franz ES; Konrad J; Hamilton JA; Hua N; Tripodis Y; Anderson AT; Howell GR; Kaufer D; Hall GF; Lu KP; Ransohoff RM; Cleveland RO; Kowall NW; Stein TD; Lamb BT; Huber BR; Moss WC; Friedman A; Stanton PK; McKee AC; Goldstein LE
[Ad] Address:Molecular Aging and Development Laboratory, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118, USA.
[Ti] Title:Concussion, microvascular injury, and early tauopathy in young athletes after impact head injury and an impact concussion mouse model.
[So] Source:Brain;141(2):422-458, 2018 Feb 01.
[Is] ISSN:1460-2156
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The mechanisms underpinning concussion, traumatic brain injury, and chronic traumatic encephalopathy, and the relationships between these disorders, are poorly understood. We examined post-mortem brains from teenage athletes in the acute-subacute period after mild closed-head impact injury and found astrocytosis, myelinated axonopathy, microvascular injury, perivascular neuroinflammation, and phosphorylated tau protein pathology. To investigate causal mechanisms, we developed a mouse model of lateral closed-head impact injury that uses momentum transfer to induce traumatic head acceleration. Unanaesthetized mice subjected to unilateral impact exhibited abrupt onset, transient course, and rapid resolution of a concussion-like syndrome characterized by altered arousal, contralateral hemiparesis, truncal ataxia, locomotor and balance impairments, and neurobehavioural deficits. Experimental impact injury was associated with axonopathy, blood-brain barrier disruption, astrocytosis, microgliosis (with activation of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells, TREM2), monocyte infiltration, and phosphorylated tauopathy in cerebral cortex ipsilateral and subjacent to impact. Phosphorylated tauopathy was detected in ipsilateral axons by 24 h, bilateral axons and soma by 2 weeks, and distant cortex bilaterally at 5.5 months post-injury. Impact pathologies co-localized with serum albumin extravasation in the brain that was diagnostically detectable in living mice by dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. These pathologies were also accompanied by early, persistent, and bilateral impairment in axonal conduction velocity in the hippocampus and defective long-term potentiation of synaptic neurotransmission in the medial prefrontal cortex, brain regions distant from acute brain injury. Surprisingly, acute neurobehavioural deficits at the time of injury did not correlate with blood-brain barrier disruption, microgliosis, neuroinflammation, phosphorylated tauopathy, or electrophysiological dysfunction. Furthermore, concussion-like deficits were observed after impact injury, but not after blast exposure under experimental conditions matched for head kinematics. Computational modelling showed that impact injury generated focal point loading on the head and seven-fold greater peak shear stress in the brain compared to blast exposure. Moreover, intracerebral shear stress peaked before onset of gross head motion. By comparison, blast induced distributed force loading on the head and diffuse, lower magnitude shear stress in the brain. We conclude that force loading mechanics at the time of injury shape acute neurobehavioural responses, structural brain damage, and neuropathological sequelae triggered by neurotrauma. These results indicate that closed-head impact injuries, independent of concussive signs, can induce traumatic brain injury as well as early pathologies and functional sequelae associated with chronic traumatic encephalopathy. These results also shed light on the origins of concussion and relationship to traumatic brain injury and its aftermath.awx350media15713427811001.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1093/brain/awx350


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